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美国留学生经济学作业需求-产品,信息价值与经济组织研究-Production, Information Costs, a(21)

时间:2011-07-07 11:05来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien

work characteristics and tendencies to
shirk.
F. Employee Unions
Employee unions, whatever else they
do, perform as monitors for employees.
Employers monitor employees and similarly
employees monitor an employer's performance.
Are correct wages paid on time
and in good currency? Usually, this is
extremely easy to check. Hut some forms
of employer performance are less easy to
meter and are more subject to employer
shirking. Fringe benefits often are in nonpecuniary,
contingent form; medical. hospital,
and accident insurance, and retirement
pensions are contingent payments
or performances partly in kind by employers
to employees. Each employee
cannot judge the character of such payments
as easily as money wages. Insurance
is a contingent payment-what the
employee will get upon the contingent
event may come as a disappointment. If
he could easily determine what other
employees had gotten upon such contingent
events he could judge more accurately
the performance by the employer.
He could "trust" the employer not to
shirk in such fringe contingent payments,
but he would prefer an effective and economic
monitor of those payments. We see
a specialist monitor- t h e union employees'
agent-hired by them and monitoring
those aspects of employer payment most
difficult for the employees to monitor. Employees
should be willing to employ a
specialist monitor to administer such
hard-to-detect employer performance,
even though their monitor has incentives
to use pension and retirement funds not
entirely for the benefit of employees.
V. Team Spirit and Loyalty
Every team member would prefer a
team in which no one, not even himself,
shirked. Then the true marginal costs and
values could be equated to achieve more
preferred positions. If one could enhance
a common interest in nonshirking in the
guise of a team loyalty or team spirit, the
team would be more efficient. In those
sports where team activity is most clearly
exemplified, the sense of loyalty and team
spirit is most strongly urged. Obviously
the team is better, with team spirit and
loyalty, because of the reduced shirking---
not because of some other feature inherent
in loyalty or spirit as such.15
Is Sports Leag~ies: Professional sports contests among
teams is typically conducted hy a league of teams iVe
assume that sports consumers are interested not only in
absolute sporting skill but also in skills relative to other
teams. Being slightly better than o[y)osing teams enables
one to claim a major portion of the receipts; the
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AIXHIAK AKI I I IEMSETZ: ECONOMIC ORGAKIZATIOK 791
Corporations and business firms try to(责任编辑:BUG)


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