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美国留学生经济学作业需求-产品,信息价值与经济组织研究-Production, Information Costs, a(4)

时间:2011-07-07 11:05来源 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien

If the economic organizationmeters poorly, with rewards and productivityonly loosely correlated, then productivityill be smaller; but if the economicorganization meters well productivitywill be greater. What makes meteringdifficult and hence induces means ofeconomizing on metering costs?
11. Team Production
Two men jointly lift heavy cargo intotrucks. Solely by observing the totalweight loaded per day, it is impossible to
determine each person's marginal productivity.\I'ith team production it isdifficult, solely by observing total output,to either define or determine each individual'scontribution to this output of thecooperating inputs. The output is yieldedby a team, by definition, and it is not a
sum of separable outputs of each of itsmembers. Team production of Z involves
at least two inputs, X, and XI, withd2Z1dX,dX,#0.3 The production functionis not separable into two functions
each involving only inputs X, or only inputsXI. consequently there is no sum
of Z of two separable functions to treatas the Z of the team production function.
(:In example of a separable case is Z= aX: +b,Y; which is separable into Z,= aX; andZj= blY,L, and Z= Z,+Z,. 'This is not teamproduction.) 'There exist production techniquesin which the Z obtained is greaterthan if X, and XI had produced separable
Z. 'l'eam production will be used if it
yields an output enough larger than thesum of separable production of Z to coverthe costs of organizing and discipliningteam members-the topics of this paper.4
The function is separable into additive functions ifthe cross partial derivative is zero, i.e., if a2Z/aAY,a?i,=0.
' LVith suficient generality of notation and conceptionthis team production function could be formulatedas a case of the generalized production function interpretationgiven by our colleague, E. A. Thompson.Usual explanations of the gains fromcooperative behavior rely on exchangeand production in accord with the comparativeadvantage specialization principlewith separable additive production.However, as suggested above there is asource of gain from cooperative activityinvolving working as a team, wherein individualcooperating inputs do not yieldidentifiable, separate products which canbe sz~mmed to measure the total output.For this cooperative productive activity,here called "team" production, measuringmargiltal productivity and making paymentsin accord therewith is more expensiveby an order of magnitude than forseparable production functions.
Team production, to repeat, is productionin which 1) several types of resourcesare used and 2) the product is not a sum
of separable outputs of each cooperatingresource. .An additional factor creates ateam organization problem-3) not all resourcesused in team production belong toone person.
JI'e do not inquire into why all thejointly used resources are not owned byone person, but instead into the types oforganization, contracts, and informationaland payment procedures used amongowners of teamed inputs. With respect to(责任编辑:BUG)

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