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美国留学生经济学作业需求-产品,信息价值与经济组织研究-Production, Information Costs, a(9)

时间:2011-07-07 11:05来源 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien

of individual members of the
team that calls for the organization noted
The specialist who receines the residual
rewards will be the monitor of the members
of the team (i.e., will manage the use
of cooperative inputs). The monitor earns
his residual through the reduction in
shirking that he brings about, not only by
the prices that he agrees to pay the owners
of the inputs, but also by observing and
directing the actions or uses of these inputs.
Managing or examining the ways to
which inputs are used in team production
is a method of metering the marginal productivity
of individual inputs to the team's
To discipline team members and reduce
shirking, the residual claimant must have
power to revise the contract terms and incentives
of indioidual members without
having to terminate or alter every other
input's contract. Hence, team members
who seek to increase their productivity
will assign to the monitor not only the
residual claimant right but also the right
to alter individual membership and performance
on the team. Each team member,
of course, can terminate his own
membership (i.e., quit the team), but
only the monitor may unilaterally terminate
the membership of any of the
other members without necessarily terminating
the team itself or his association
with the team; and he alone can expand or
reduce membership, alter the mix of
membership, or sell the right to be the
residual claimant-monitor of the team. It
is this entire bundle of rights: 1) to be a
residual claimant; 2) to observe input
behavior; 3) to be the central party common
to all contracts with inputs; 4) to
alter the membership of the team; and
5) to sell these rights, that defines the
oelnership (or the employer) of the classical
(capitalist, free-enterprise) firm. The
coalescing of these rights has arisen, our
analysis asserts, because it resolves the
shirking-information problem of team
production better than does the noncentralized
contractual arrangement.
The relationship of each team member
to the owner of the firm (i.e., the party
common to all input contracts and the
residual claimant) is simply a ('quid pro
quo" contract. Each makes a purchase
and sale. The employee ('orders" the owner
of the team to pay him money in the same
sense that the employer directs the team
member to perform certain acts. The
employee can terminate the contract as
readily as can the employer, and longterm
contracts, therefore, are not an essential
attribute of the firm. Nor are
((authoritarian," "dictational," or ('fiat"
attributes relevant to the conception of the(责任编辑:BUG)

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