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是谁引发和加剧了“亚洲危机”?

时间:2016-02-28 10:11:31 来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
是谁引发和加剧了“亚洲危机”?

对这个问题的答复很简单:主要是美国垄断资本,特别是华尔街金融垄断资本及其在政界的代表。
 
一、美国政府对亚洲大力促进“金融自由化”
这里有必要简略提一下这场“亚洲危机”发生时的世界经济环境,即当前世界经济的一些重要特点。首先是“经济全球化”(Globalization of Economy)。这就是《商业周刊》那位主编的美国“新经济论”里所讲的第一条。它与“世界经济一体化”(Integration of World Economy)既有联系,又有区别。迄今为止,两者的基本含义都是世界经济资本主义化(只有到将来在全世界实现了社会主义,它们的含义才会发生质的变化),但是后者的资本主义化程度更深,是前者发展的可能结果。与此相联系的还有一个“金融自由化”问题。
 
“经济全球化”是与资本主义制度的产生和发展相伴随而出现和发展的。关于它的曲折发展过程,我在其他有关拙文里已经说过,就不复述了。此处只是指出,当前的“市场经济全球化”,是符合美国垄断资本集团的愿望的,甚至在不同程度上是他们(当然还有其他一些西方国家的垄断资本)大力促成的。究其原因,正如嫡业周刊》那位主编在他的“新经济论”中所言,在“经济全球化”的条件之下,“对美国来说,这意味着国际贸易和投资在我们的经济生活中所起的作用大大超过了以前”。说得明自一点,“市场经济全球化”为美国垄断资本在世界范围内、特别是在广大的发展中国家进一步从事超额盘剥提供了广阔的场所和舞台。
 
但美国垄断资本集团对“市场经济全球化”程度并不满意。华尔街金融垄断资本还要求在世界上进一步实行“金融自由化”(Financial Liberalization),它与美国的虚拟资本和虚拟经济的利益紧密相连,也与“市场经济全球化”紧密相连.是“市场经济全球化”的进一步发展和延伸。
“金融自由化”也经历了一个历史发展过程。至少是从本世纪初期开始,在资本主义世界,资本在各国间本来是自由流动的。但从发生了30年代那场资本主义发展史上空前严重的经济危机以后,各资本主义国家除允许本国人持有少量外币外,相继(美国从60年代开始)限制资本的自由流动,包括限制购买外国股票、债券、向国外投资和外国在本国投资。70年代以后,在西方世界,这些限制逐步减弱或取消。但不少国家(包括日本)在金融领域仍然没了若干防线,如限制外国商业银行、保险公司、“共同基金”等金融机构在本国经营全部或部分业务。这类限制,对拥有巨额虚拟资本、执意向外扩张、谋取暴利的华尔街金融垄断资本当然是一种障碍。因此,当前推行“金融自由化”,主要是华尔街金融垄断资本的意图和政策主张。#p#分页标题#e#
美国垄断资本、包括金融垄断资本在政界的代表,从里根政府起,就重新推行“门户开放”政策,即进一步促进“经济全球化”的发展和大力推动“金融自由化”。1985年,里根本人曾公开宣布:“我们的任务,就是要打破对贸易、外国投资及资本自由流动所设置的壁垒”。布什政府继承了里根政府的政策。布什本人曾反复公开宣布,他的政策就是支持 “自由市场和资本自由流动”。这两届共和党政府的主要进攻目标都是包括日本在内的亚洲国家。
 
以克林顿总统为首的民主党政府继承了前两届共和党政府的政策,而且变本加厉。

克林顿政府1993年1月上自执政之初,就提出了“对外政策三原则”,其中第一条就是美国的“经济安全”,其实际含义就是由美国经济、金融统治世界。因为在他们看来,只有如此,美国经济才是“安全”的,如果亚洲、欧洲的经济进一步发展,特别是亚洲发展中国家的经济增长对美国经济形成了挑战,美国的经济就不“安全’了。为此,克林顿政府建立了一个全国经济委员会,任命华尔街著名的戈德是一萨克斯投资银行负责人罗伯特·鲁宾为委员会主席,其对外职能就是代表华尔街在全世界推行“金融自由化”政策。1995年,鲁宾改任财政部长,由原哈佛大学经济学教授劳伦斯·萨默斯为副部长,对外继续履行“金融自由化”政策的职能。从克林顿政府就任之日起,他们就把推行“金融自由化”的主要矛头继续指向亚洲。除继续向日本施压、迫使日方进一步让步以外,他们随即把以亚洲为主的10个“新兴市场”(包括国家和地区)作为“打破壁垒”、
1996年,克林顿政府曾以同意韩国加人经济合作与发展组织为条件,诱使韩国进一步开放金融市场。以鲁宾、萨默斯为首的财政部在这笔交易中起了重要作用。该部在1996年6月20日致克林顿政府的一份备忘录中就韩国开放金融市场开列了具体项目,其中包括允许外国人购买韩国债券,并更加方便地购买韩国股票;允许韩国公司从国外借短期和长期贷款。韩国政府抱着忧虑的心情作出了重大让步,即除了保留对外国人购买韩国公司的限制以外,开放了短期资金市场,基本上满足了美方关于资金自由流动的要求。
 
1997年4月,鲁宾先生主持召开了一次7国集团财政部长会议。在此之前,美国常驻国际货币基金组织的代表即曾向美国政府财政部写过一份书面报告,建议修改国际货币基金组织的章程,规定该组织在世界资本自由化方面起领导作用。财政部负责人曾就此事与克林顿政府的其他内阁成员交换过意见。其结果是,由鲁宾先生出面在这次7国财长会议上正式提出了这项主张,并被会议接受。会议发表声明,提出“促进资本自由流动”,并按照鲁宾的主张,把修改国际货币基金组织章程、将领导资本自由化作为该组织的任务一事写进了会议声明之中。#p#分页标题#e#
 
按照《纽约时报》的说法,国际货币基金组织“在许多方面都是美国政策的工具”。在这次7国财长会议以前,它早就在敦促一些亚洲国家实行资金自由流动,并在印度尼西亚等国取得了成功。在此之后,尽管修改章程一事被搁置,但该组织在亚洲促进资金自由流动方面所下的功夫进一步加强了。

who is triggered and aggravated the "Asian crisis"?The answer to this is simple: mainly USA monopoly capital, especially on behalf of Wall Street financial monopoly capital and in politics.
 
One, America government to vigorously promote the "Asian financial liberalization"
 
Here it is necessary to briefly mention the "Asian crisis" occurred when the world economic environment, some important characteristics of current world economy. The first is "economic globalization" (Globalization of Economy). The first said this is "business weekly" the editor of the "new economy" America. It and "the integration of the world economy" (Integration of World Economy) have connection already, have distinction again. So far, the basic meaning is the world economy capitalism (only to the future in the world socialism, their meaning will change), but the latter capitalist deeper, the former development may result. There is a "financial liberalization" issues associated with this.
 
"Economic globalization" is produced and developed with the capitalist system along with the emergence and development of the. The tortuous development process about it, I have said in other relevant articles, will not repeat. Here is pointed out, the current "the globalization of market economy", is in line with the America Monopoly Capital Group wishes, even in different extent they (and some other western countries monopoly capital) to facilitate. Investigate its reason, as the weekly "editor in chief line industry said in his" new economy ", under the" economic globalization "conditions", the USA, which means that international trade and investment in our economic life function greatly exceeds the former". Say clearly from a point, "the globalization of market economy" as the USA monopoly capital in the world, especially in excess of further exploitation in the vast developing countries provides a broad space and the stage.
 
But American Monopoly Capital Group on "the globalization of market economy" was not satisfied. The Wall Street financial monopoly capital also requires further implement the "financial liberalization in the world" (Financial Liberalization), the virtual capital and virtual economy and America's interests are closely linked, but also closely linked with the "market economy" globalization ". It is the development and extension of market economy globalization".#p#分页标题#e#
 
"Financial liberalization" also experienced a historical development process. At least since the beginning of this century, the capitalist world, originally is the free flow of capital between countries. But after the occurrence of unprecedented development history of 30 years the capitalist economic crisis, the capitalist countries in addition to allow their people to hold a small amount of foreign currency, have (American from age 60 onwards) limit the free flow of capital, including restrictions on buying foreign stocks, bonds, foreign investment and foreign investment in the country. 70 years later, in the western world, these restrictions gradually weakened or canceled. But many countries (including Japan) in the financial sector is still not a number of lines, such as limits on foreign commercial banks, insurance companies, "mutual fund" and other financial institutions in the country to operate all or part of the business. Such restrictions, the huge virtual capital, bent outward expansion, profiteering Wall Street financial monopoly capital is of course an obstacle. Therefore, the current implementation of the "financial liberalization", mainly is the Wall Street financial monopoly capital's intentions and policies.
 
American monopoly capital, including representatives of financial monopoly capital in politics, from the Reagan administration, re implementation of the "open door" policy, namely, to further promote the "economic globalization" and vigorously promote the "financial liberalization". In 1985, Reagan himself has declared: "our task, is to break the set of trade, foreign investment and the barriers to the free flow of capital". Bush government inherited Reagan government's policy. Bush I have repeatedly declared, his policy is to support "free market and capital flow". The main target of the attack of the two Republican administrations are including Japan, Asian countries.
 
The democratic government led by President Clinton inherited the former two term republican government policy, but become aggravated.
 
The Clinton administration in 1993 January from the beginning of the ruling, put forward the "three principles of foreign policy", the first one is America "economic security", its actual meaning is by USA economic, financial rule the world. Because in their view, only in this way, American economy is "safe", if the further development of Asian, European economies, especially in Asia, the economic growth of developing countries poses a challenge for the American economy, American economy did not "safety '. Therefore, the Clinton administration established a National Economic Council, appointed Wall Street famous gold is an investment bank Sax Robert Rubin as chairman of the committee responsible person, the external function is to represent the Wall Street launched the "financial liberalization" policy in the world. In 1995, Lubin, the new finance minister, former Harvard University economics professor Lawrence Summers as vice minister, foreign to continue to perform the "financial liberalization" policy function. From the Clinton administration to date, they carry out "the main target of financial liberalization" continue to point to asia. In addition to continue to put pressure on Japan, forcing the Japanese further concessions, they immediately put 10 "the emerging markets in the Asia based" (including the national and regional) as "break down the barriers",#p#分页标题#e#
 
In 1995, the National Economic Council, once in the old executive office building next door to the White House held a ministerial meeting, discuss to sign a free trade agreement with Chile, is the focus of American should therefore forced to Chile to cancel tax on short-term capital flow of people. The meeting between Lubin, Summers, led by the Ministry of Finance official responsible approach to speak, resolute and decisive to say: "Chile to control short-term capital flows of people must cancel".
 
In 1996, Clinton had to agree to Korea and government of the organization for economic cooperation and development for the conditions, to further opening of financial market in South korea. To Lubin, Summers led by the Ministry of finance has played an important role in the deal. The part of a memo to Clinton government in June 20, 1996 in South Korea to open financial markets make specific projects, including allowing foreigners to buy Korean bonds, and more convenient to buy Korean shares; allow Korea Companies to borrow short-term and long-term loans from abroad. The South Korean government held an anxious mind made important concessions, namely except reserved for foreigners to buy Korea Companies limited, open the short-term money market, basically meet the request of the US side on the free flow of capital. Ditto.
 
In 1997 April, Mr. Lubin held a group of 7 finance ministers. Prior to this, American resident representative of the International Monetary Fund is to the Ministry of finance American government wrote a written report, proposed to amend the articles of association of the International Monetary Fund, the organization in the world capital liberalization of leadership. Head of the Ministry of Finance had other cabinet members in this matter with the Clinton government exchanged views. As a result, by Mr. Lubin at the 7 national meeting of finance ministers formally put forward this argument, and acceptance of the meeting. The meeting issued a statement, put forward "to promote the free flow of capital", and in accordance with the view of Lubin, to modify the International Monetary Fund, will lead the articles of association of the liberalization of capital as the mission one thing to write into the meeting statement.
 
In accordance with the "New York Times" argument, the International Monetary Fund "is America policy tools are in many ways". The 7 ministers' meeting before, it had urged Asian countries to implement the free flow of capital, and in Indonesia and other countries has been successful. After this, although the revision of the articles of association of a thing shelved, but by the organization in Asia to promote the flow of funds to further strengthen the Kung fu. Ditto.
 
Why American government do?
 
President Clinton's former chairman of the Council of economic advisers call a spade a spade, then replace Ms. Laura Tyson Lubin holds the post of chairman of the National Economic Council said: This is because "our financial services industry requirements to enter these markets." Ditto.#p#分页标题#e#
 
In Reagan, Bush, especially the promotion of the Clinton administration, to the Wall Street financial monopoly capital dominated Western financial capital is gradually increased in the world of free flowing scale; reached a peak in the 90's.. In 1996, the international mobility of capital for $3; 1997 - 1998, this free flowing funds amounted to above $7.2. In 1986, the international day of international trade and foreign exchange trading volume accounted for part of the 5% to 10%. In 1998, including foreign exchange transaction, all the international mobility of more than 7.2 trillions dollars, associated with international trade only about 1%. That is to say, about 99% of them are engaged in a variety of financial speculation, gambling, no and human activities of material production relations. Only in 1998, its foreign exchange trading, day trading volume amounted to $1.5, 8 times in 1986, equivalent to 1998 4 months the total international trade and. 1970 to 1997, the amount of stock western financial capital to Wall Street's financial monopoly capital abroad has increased by 197 times. In 1997 a year, only a variety of financial derivatives in international trade total amount of $360, almost astronomical figures.
 
90 years, especially since 90 time metaphase, western financial monopoly capital of short-term capital to Wall Street - like flood into Southeast Asia and Northeast Asia, including Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia, South Korea and other countries. Wall Street's commercial banks, investment banks, mutual funds, pension funds, hedge funds and financial institutions out together, to attack these countries. They are here except for stock speculation, bonds, foreign exchange. Also in the massive financial derivatives speculation, gambling activities. Wall Street famous commercial banks, including JPMorgan Chase Manhattan bank, the Morgan bank, Bankers Trust Company, in addition to providing loans to these countries and the financial enterprises, mainly the sale of large-scale financial derivatives in these countries. Even if they provide loans, mostly with financial derivatives linked. That is to say, they put the virtual capital America of introduction to these countries, greatly increased the vulnerability of these countries of the national economy, undermining their antiviral ability.
 
The Wall Street financial monopoly capital so as to destroy the country's national economy, to promote "the Asian crisis" broke out manufacturing conditions.
 
In 1997 July, led the way on the first line, through repeated buying Thai strains and dollars, Thailand break financial defence, was run by George Soros arbitrage fund. But not only is he a. Several large banks in the Wall Street is also involved in the attack.
 
The Asian financial crisis broke out, that is.
 
As a result of the crisis is mainly under the hedge funds in the American make trouble caused, and these arbitrage funds and mysterious, so that this crisis is sudden, unpredictable. This is a remarkable feature of this crisis.#p#分页标题#e#
 
Two, American government efforts to manufacture the Asian economic crisis
 
USA government mainly from two aspects, the Asian financial crisis for the development of the economic crisis.
 
First, urged the Wall Street financial monopoly capital withdrawal of funds from asia.
 
Thailand after the outbreak of the financial crisis is spreading. When two channels emergency urged Wall Street financial monopoly capital withdrawal of funds from Southeast Asia, northeast asia. One is the official channels. The Clinton administration has in the White House basement's "the situation room," (The Situation Room) meet several times, about Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia financial, economic situation and American countermeasures, and through the Secretary Lubin privately to people responsible for Wall Street banks call, "urging them to arrange their loans," they mean to withdraw money from Southeast Asia, northeast asia. These banks as he meant to do. Another channel is the investment banking sector, leading to Barton Biggs's famous Wall Street Morgan Stanley Inc "strategist". In 1997 October, Biggs to the Southeast Asia to a trip, in field observation. In October 27th, with the Wall Street financial firms responsible for a conference call held, he suggested that these financial institutions in Hongkong, Singapore to hold them, Malaysia and other regions and countries financial assets are sold, and put them in Thailand, Indonesia and other "emerging market" investment by 1 / 3.
 
Thus, the Wall Street financial monopoly capital from large withdrawals from Asia.
 
According to the America government securities and Exchange Commission records, in 1997 December, Morgan led a Stanley Inc to sell it in Asia, a large number of financial derivatives. Like Morgan, a Wall Street Stanley Inc, commercial banks, investment banks, insurance companies, mutual funds, pension funds, hedge funds and so on, as well as in Western Europe, including tens of thousands of all kinds of financial institutions, in an unprecedented scale to pull their money out of asia. In an instant, short-term funds hundreds of billions of dollars that withdraw from asia.
 
Such a sudden withdrawal plan, large-scale, make people be caught off guard, resulting in a series of Southeast Asia, Northeast Asian countries fall into the trap, were arrested together, so that their financial crisis rapidly into economic crisis.
 
This is another significant feature of this crisis.
 
That is not true. The Wall Street financial monopoly capital originally in foreign countries to buy shares, bonds, foreign exchange and selling all kinds of financial derivatives, focus is in Asia, but in "under the globalization of market economy" conditions are provided, in the electronic interconnection network under the condition of the world together, these financial instruments and derivatives footprint actually has been extended to other areas in the world. Now Wall Street mass to pull their money out of Asia, its influence is not confined to Asia, but quickly spread to many parts of the world. Innocent people get into trouble on account of others' misfortune. Since this plague was rapid, repeated infection to other parts of the world, so that the entire world of capitalism, trembling with fear, Feng loud cry, state of extreme nervousness., this is one of the important reasons.#p#分页标题#e#
 
This is another significant feature of this crisis.
 
Second, put forward the harsh conditions in the name is engaged in relief to the International Monetary Fund, forcing these countries to yield, to Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia economic further into crisis.
 
Thailand is an economic crisis, is a typical America such looting policy taken by the government.
 
As early as in 1996 March, a Wall Street hedge fund to the Thai baht fired the first shot. It is expected that the Thai baht against the dollar will decline, so selling about $400000000 worth of the Thai baht. The first half of 1997, Soros mainly to the America some hedge funds to the Thai baht attack on Thailand's financial markets intensified, causing serious disorder. In 1997 May, the Central Bank of Thailand governor wrote a secret letter to Federal Reserve Chairman Greenspan, said on the baht attack "may not only for Thailand, but also have far-reaching consequences" for the Asian region's economy, "and endanger the stability of the international financial market", asked the fed to be managed USA hedge funds and other financial institutions activities. It should be said, the governor of the Central Bank of Thailand is far sighted. If the Fed adopted his suggestion, this originated in Thailand world financial economic crisis, it is possible to prevent. But Mr Greenspan to the letter a contemptuous disregard, just by one of his aides to governor of the Central Bank of Thailand wrote, said some large financial companies may upset some countries such as Thailand's financial markets, but this event is best left to the market. (in February 15th 199 "New York Times") is the highest, American financial authorities let the Wall Street financial monopoly capital to disturb the financial market of Thailand, ignoring the reasonable requirement of Thailand.
 
Thailand in 1997 after the outbreak of the crisis, the government of Thailand to the International Monetary Fund for assistance. The International Monetary Fund will a Thailand written plan to the Ministry of finance America government. Finance minister Lubin and deputy finance minister Summers signed in the plan, several conditions, Thailand's list: Thailand is to cut government spending, raise interest rates, to clean up the banking system. It is a poison, it is not to save the economy of Thailand, but to the economy of Thailand. The International Monetary Fund to attach these conditions, USA administration refused to the International Monetary Fund Thailand program funding. Thailand and then to Japan for help. Japan after a consideration, or rejected Thailand's request, the important reason is because USA government adheres to the aid must be through the International Monetary Fund, and insist on must add that several harsh conditions. At this time of Thailand have to be in a hopeless situation., could not escape. In the Ministry of finance America government's insistence, the international monetary fund finally forced Thailand to accept the tightening conditions, including cuts in government spending and raise interest rates. The result is a disaster to the economy of Thailand. (the February 17, 1999 "New York Times")#p#分页标题#e#
 
The International Monetary Fund in accordance with the claim America Treasury insist, to Indonesia, South Korea and other countries of the rescue, all attached to the above conditions. In addition, also want them to further open the market.
 
In mid November 1997, the Korean crisis. It immediately to the International Monetary Fund for a loan aid. The fund to South Korea to accept the conditions in the government's insistence USA. The South Korean government by domestic union pressure, refused to accept these conditions. In late November, President Clinton held a senior government officials opened 5 hours at the White House, to discuss South Korea economic situation and USA countermeasures. After the meeting, Clinton to the then South Korean President Jin Yongsan telephoned, said South Korea in addition to the conditions prescribed by the International Monetary Fund loans, have no choice. ("New York Times" February 17, 1999 article: of World Markets, None an island) in December 9th, the South Korean government to directly request the American and provide assistance in Japan, that day was flatly rejected USA government. Finally, South Korea no 路法可 go, had to yield.
 
In addition to Malaysia, a series of Asian defence is such surface is the International Monetary Fund, was in fact America government one by one into.
 
In 1997 December, under the auspices of the world trade organization, in Geneva held a negotiation. American Vice Finance Minister Summers attended. Mainly in the American under pressure, many Asian countries, including Japan, at the negotiating table and made important concessions, agreed to further open its financial market since 1999. The Wall Street financial monopoly capital to victory in the negotiations.
 
In 1998 October, the Clinton administration and the federal Congress had American provide funds to the International Monetary Fund's rescue plan to reach an agreement. It provides, the IMF must perform several conditions. Mainly: 1 in deficit countries to finance spending aid, must be charged higher than the market rate of interest, the recipient must be in two to two and a half years servicing; 2 recipient must remove barriers to trade, further opening up of external market; 3 recipient country processing enterprise bankruptcy problem, must be fair to all lenders. In addition, South Korea also added a, namely the country to accept the rescue loans must not be used to subsidise domestic financial crisis hit company. This is the so-called "American government rescue".
 
That is not true.
 
In 1997 June, in Denver city American a group of 7 heads of government meeting. Japanese Prime Minister Hashimoto at the meeting suggested that Thailand's financial situation is discussed. Clinton on the ignored, Hashimoto advised not listed in schedule.#p#分页标题#e#
 
In 1997 September, the Japanese government proposed by the Japanese partner, other Asian countries out of the other half, is to raise $100000000000 in capital, the establishment of "Asian Monetary Fund" to aid in some Asian countries, by the impact of the financial crisis. In Japan, this does not need to spend USA a penny, but Treasury Secretary Henry Lubin in the face of this is One's wrath filled the sky. Lubin and Summers then held in Hongkong, the world bank and the International Monetary Fund's annual meeting stifle the proposal in japan.
 
In fact, the beautiful day, each have their own plans. Japan is an attempt to domestic foreign compensation loss. Because of its domestic economy, a long period of stagnation, crisis, it attempts to aid loans under the banner of other Asian countries to promote their own products, seize the opportunity to further occupation of the Asian market. American that Asia should be American rule, and resolutely prevent Japan further occupation of the financial, economic position in asia.
 
In addition, with the spread of the disease, in USA home and abroad, the advocates of regulation of financial derivatives transactions for NIKKO. In March 19, 1999, Greenspan made a public speech, flatly rejected this claim. Therefore, whether it is the Asian financial crisis and the economic crisis, is America government to rule in Asia, the Asian countries in economic, financial weakness and inflicted. The government of Malaysia, resolutely refused to rescue loans in the American under the control of the International Monetary Fund, is correct.
 
There is another side.
 
Further development of Asian financial and economic crisis, serious degree deepens, business and financial corporate bankruptcies, as American monopoly capital, financial capital is the first low-cost acquisition of Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia business and financial enterprises to provide a good opportunity rarely seen in history. Since 1998, they take Japan as the focus, in Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia is engaged in a large-scale acquisition. At present this kind of bargain purchase is a further development potential. This is the law of the jungle.
 
Visible, said USA monopoly capital group is fishing in troubled waters is deliberately Asia to promote re colonization, is practical.
 
However USA monopoly capital group holding a "free market" and "financial liberalization" banner, practiced in Asia "freedom," predatory "free Massacre", will inevitably lead to, and is triggered by the Asian countries and the broad masses of the people American monopoly capital group. Even the "New York Times" publicly acknowledge this point. (February 18, 1999 New York Times "") and not we said Prime Minister Mahathir of Malaysia against the USA remarks. Even in Japan, some politicians in the shout abuse "Anglo Saxon capitalism". During the "Asian crisis", because American government deputy finance minister Summers several times to travel to Asia, even a German analysts Summers Be do "general Douglas Macarthur today". A campaign against U.S. imperialism movement of seeds has been in Asia (and Russia) the land deeply buried under the.#p#分页标题#e#
 
 
There is need to refer to the following:
 
First, in the United States, after years of negotiations with the World Trade Organization Chinese held in the United States, has always insisted on its harsh conditions, including to China to further open markets America commodity, to implement the "financial liberalization", but also additional political conditions;
 
Second, in the "Asian crisis" began to form when, America top financial authorities publicly presided over the Wall Street financial monopoly capital, the newly established China's Hongkong special administrative region financial market repeatedly attack, causing serious problems for the economy of Hongkong;
 
Third, America government and financial monopoly capital to Asia in the campaign by to show mercy, Taiwan province of China, and the Taiwan authorities in the storm blows when the addition to take preventive measures, an attempt to fit America offensive (especially in Hongkong);
 
Fourth, since 1998, the offensive launched in USA, mainland China's economy has been adversely affected, America bourgeois public opinion tools to jump to a whoop and a holler, economy of our country is about to collapse, destroying China credibility in the world.
 
Since the war, in a fairly long period of time, American policy is blocked in the socialist China. Now, it is an attempt to break apart from the inside China socialist economy, and from the outside in the financial, economic impact of socialist Chinese.
 
 
Thus, USA in Asia by the financial, economic offensive has strong political nature.
 
(three) USA economy is a long-term "thriving oasis"?
 
Circles of bourgeois economics America claimed that, in the world economy in a crisis in the sound, American economy is immovable, is a "thriving oasis".
 
Is it right? Such situation? Answer: it seems, for the time being, but not for long. Greenspan also confirmed this point.
 
Greenspan in January 20th this year to testify in USA Federal Parliament House Ways and Means Committee in the word, said USA economic growth in 1998, and again America economy faced "dangerous", there are "weak links".
 
As mentioned before, even the "business weekly" editor in his "new economy" also breath about 5 "does not mean", including "does not mean that we will never decline, also does not mean that the economic cycle has ceased to exist".
 
How long the surface prosperity will not America sustained economic. The main reason is:
 #p#分页标题#e#
First, the "Asian crisis" has a dual nature of America economy, which has the advantageous one side, also has negative side, but the downside is likely to further increase.
 
Its positive side, the front has been basically said. However, these advantages also contains the factors America economic disadvantage.
 
The downside is, for 1.1999 years since January, USA export trade deteriorate further, foreign trade deficit continues to rise. Since 80 time second half period, America material production growth and during the last economic crisis material production decline was inhibited, to a considerable extent, depend on the commodity export growth. In recent years, material production American in a certain extent also rely on export growth to maintain. Now, the economic growth has ceased to exist, at least in the short term is difficult to restore. 2 USA some Multi-National Corporation operating in Asia and other parts of the world, in different extent hurt. 3 because of the Asian countries in the economic crisis, a large number of enterprise bankruptcy, American banks despite the withdrawal of short-term capital, but long-term loan them to make difficult to recover, some of which have become bad debts. Some USA bank has been turned off in operation mechanism of some Asian countries. Some of the big banks, including Citibank, Wall Street, and San Francisco based Bank of America, are in the "Asian crisis" has been varying degrees of damage.
 
Because of "contagion effects of Asian crisis" occurred, including the current Asia itself (mainly Indonesia, Japan) and Eastern Europe (including Russia, Ukraine and some other CIS members), Middle East (including the Gulf oil producers), South Africa (including South Africa's biggest country Africa package), Latin America (including the total economy for the region 40% of Brazil), Oceania (mainly New Zealand), accounted for 40% of the total world economy still in different extent, in economic crisis. Due to the crisis is very heavy, the economy in the short term is difficult to recover within some countries. "The Asian crisis" impact on the economies of Western europe. Both the 15 countries of the European Union or the euro 11 in 1999, the economic growth will slow down. Some of the major countries of Western Europe, such as England, Italy, Germany and other countries, emerging economies are signs of crisis; Germany in 1998 fourth quarter economic has been negative growth. American whether total in foreign trade and international financial transactions, accounting for a large proportion in Western europe. Once the western economic trouble, the impact of the American will be no trivial matter.
 
"The adverse effects of the Asian crisis" USA, "business weekly" editor in chief is also recognized in his "new economy".
 
This is one of the major risk USA economy.#p#分页标题#e#
 
Thus, America monopoly capital group of deliberate "Asian crisis", in fact is dancing on the tip.
 
Second. I am in the books "three said" American said, USA bourgeois establishment in China is actually the debt economic policy, and the more the state monopoly capitalism into the decline stage, the more it is to rely on debt economy.
 
The first is the federal government debt. Here, saying only that it is narrow liability, caused the government to stimulate the economy, to eat next year's food policy, the Ministry of Finance issued by the government constantly bonds and debt, not generalized its debt, also don't say USA state and the local governments at all levels (in America, the state is not the local government debt).
 
It America flourishing stage of state monopoly capitalism, the liabilities of a smaller increase, from 1945 (fiscal year, the same below) $260100000000 to $365800000000 in 1969. In the decline stage of state monopoly capitalism, this debt increased from $380900000000 in 1970 to $4.6153 trillion in 1994. In recent years, the federal government debt American negative still straight up. In 1997, it increased to $5.4131; in 1998, it was further increased to $5.5261; as of March 23, 1999 (the year to 1999 9 at the end of the month ended), it has increased to $5.645. Total government debt growth, interest rates it as debt expenditure will be gone. Now, it is this year spending has grown from $74800000000 in 1980 to about $3300000000.
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