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微软公司软件捆绑影响分析

时间:2015-06-22 15:27来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien

当提到微软,我们会自然而然地转向电脑,似乎微软和电脑已然成为一个密不可分的整体,虽然他们都彼此需要,但是软件的发展却是必然。电脑利用数字2为底的数字系统,也被称为“二进制数系统”,二进制数系统用今天的技术实现更容易。八进制数数系统也可以使用,但是其技术创新成本的非常昂贵。通过利用二进制数字而不是小数位数,因此只有两个值,0和1,本文就围绕电子计算机技术进行详细分析。
 

The Effect of Microsoft's Monopolistic Approach to Software Bundling on Innovation and Competition.
 

Chapter 1 – Introduction
 

When mentioning Microsoft, one's thoughts naturally turn to computers, as the two are inexorably tied together. And while they both need each other, software was the latter development in this marriage of needs. Based upon digits, computers utilize this foundation as the basis for their computations (Berdayes, 2000, p. 76). A digit is a “… numeral … that represents an integer …” and includes … any one of the decimal characters ‘0' through ‘9' …” as well as “… either of the binary characters ‘0' or ‘1' …” (Atis, 2005). Computers utilize digits under the ‘base-2 number system', which is also termed as the ‘binary number system' (Berdayes, 2000, p. 3). The base-2 system is utilized in computers as it implements easier with present day technology. A base-10 system could be used, however its cost in terms of technology innovation would make computers prohibitively expensive (Berdayes, 2000, pp. 53-56). Via the utilization of binary digits as opposed to decimal digits, bits thus have only two values, ‘0 and 1' (Barfield and Caudell, 2001, p. 344, 368). The preceding is important in understanding the relationship of numbers to computers as well as Microsoft's later entrance into this world. The following provides a visual understanding of how this works:
 

The earliest computer has been traced back to the ‘abax', which is the Greek word that describes ‘calculating board' as well as ‘calculating table' which as invented in China and called the abacus, it was also used in ancient Greece, the Roman Empire, Russia, Japan, and is still in use by the blind (qi-journal.com, 2005). Operating much as the bits and bytes in the modern computer, the abacus has a vertical row of beads that represent multiples of 10, 1, 10, 100, 1,00 and so forth (qi-journal.com, 2005). The basic principle of the abacus operates in much the same manner as the modern computer, through numerical representation. The first generations of modern computers were huge in comparison with today's small, powerful and fast machines, and needed air-conditioned rooms to dissipate the heat. Programming on the first commercial computer in 1951, the UNIVAC, was a group of related mechanisms driven my mathematical equations that had to be written in order for the UNIVAC to work on problems (hagar.up.ac.za, 2006). It would take another 6 years for the first personal computer to be developed, the IBM 610 Auto-Point, which was termed as a ‘personal computer' because it only took one individual to operate it, however, the cost in 1957 termed at $55,000 translates in to well over $100,000 in today's value (maximon.com, 2006).(责任编辑:BUG)



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