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英国工业设计教育论文-Britain's industrial design education

时间:2012-03-21 10:23:36 来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien

Britain's industrial design education

Why teach design: brain, heart, hand

-(UK) C· Buddha RuiLin

The international meeting of the two major issues: the design of producers, also is the designer's education and education of the consumer, it is the design education at least 154 years have been 英国论文网explored. Because as early as in the fall of 1937, the British government was established the first design school. Since then, put forward so two problems, one is "how to most effectively education good industrial designer", and the second is "how to the most effective education good consumers and let them know how to understand and appreciate the designer's work." And for the two questions have been controversial. Sometimes, producers would consider: if we can create the first-class design, the public nature will appreciate, and consumers can think so: "if a product is no market, why are education people to produce?" Because the meeting allowed to speak very short time, I may not have a period of 154 years, also or 154 minutes to detail, I almost only 154 seconds of time can use, the team I will from the design education three most important aspects of the manpower, combined with British universities in 18 or above design professional students of education, education on the British around design several key debate reviewed.


Brain education: brain function is engaged in the research. Design theory and design to reflect on it.


Of the hands of the education: the role of the hand is master technology skills, contact materials, and personally experience manufacture process.


The heart of education: the function of the heart is to play to the designer's individual spirit of creation, and know he will face of the social and cultural development trend.


The middle of the s, the British great art and design J· thinker; Ruth gold (Ruskin) had said so: the above three aspects of the all-round development is to build a perfect designer is indispensable. So, he thinks that the education of young designers should be through on the brain, heart, and of the hands of the comprehensive education.


Ruth gold had also wrote: design must be made from the ingenious mechanical, or human hands to complete. So far we haven't design, and will not design like any possible human fingers so clever machinery.


The best design comes from the heart, and all the emotions on this fusion is better than the brain and emotional union; And both were better than hand and emotion and the union. So make a whole person.


Ruth gold in the 1860 s write down above this passage. At that time the technology used by designers can still at an early stage of development, and the world within the scope of the first time the industrial revolution the social impact greatly shocked him, and his writing that s, psychology, physiology, anthropology and cultural theory discipline research will be launched, so he tried to will be human all aspects of life separated, and in fact, they are connected with each other, are inseparable. Controlled by hand to the brain, heart and brain and subject.#p#分页标题#e#


Therefore, considering the Ruth gold in the paragraph above written by a variety of subjective and objective restrictions, we should recognize that his opponent on the brain, the understanding of today is still in the Victorian era, is worthy of consideration, because he is the design of the British education history summary provides the basis, and more can make us further explains the theme of the meeting.


When the national design school then the royal college of art in 1837, 154 years ago in London is established, it mainly devotes to the education of the brain. This one design education test continued for nearly 1900 years, and become the most of the 20 th century "design method" the basis of the movement.


The early education thoughts of the basic point is: the design is a language, if you spend a few years time learn seriously and remember this language grammar rules, one day you will be able to use it. Therefore, all the students begin learn basic geometry, and then copy the book or the dictionary the design of various buildings. If they're lucky, they can continue to copy into glass case of some of the objects with plaster copied famous sculptures model, ceramic tile, metal bowl and so on. These items in the whole process of teaching plays a vital role, so the teachers collect many such items, finally packed with room, and had to build a special houses to pile up them, which is now the city of Victoria Albert museum. The sketch or portray movement of the body and the copy of the corresponding to each other is static object, so was banned, because they believe that the founder of a design school, this kind of painting activity can make students to be artists, and Victorian each design education personnel all know (or at least think know) : the art and the industrial design is entirely different subjects.


National design school point is: the teacher should give young people develop into industry, especially the textile industry, ceramics and the transport industry designers or decoration division. This is because the economy once development and science-induced optimistic attitude. Design education people believe, as long as the design school students learned to grammar, namely, learn how to apply them mind, they can enter industry, improve the appearance of the everyday products quality. The education system is the lack of "novelty", "self expression" and "creativity" concept, and it is to the praise highly of "system", "grammar rules", "method" and "type (or sample)" of the word. When school later moved to London south kensington, also is the seat of the now) this system will gradually be called "south kensington system". The Victorian government officials H· Cole is a model of the jazz maker, is he urges the as Britain every design school reference model, he is also the British railway gauge the establishment of the standardization of Great Britain in 1851 and the first products exhibition planners, all these is no coincidence, because design education also can expect in some criteria) in the 1870 s, the education system across oceans, was the introduction of Canada and the United States in Massachusetts.#p#分页标题#e#


We put the above this exquisite rules, composition and the traditional organization called "standardization" traditional, to acquire information technology guarantee a certain condition, it is still represents a kind of practical education method. For example: the s "system design method" movement is the basic similar assumptions, it tried to get the design thinking process is divided into clear, common "several steps", and put them through to the whole process of teaching. Young designers started from the abstract, through the middle of several steps to learn, can arrive in concrete.


Many "design research", it is more than the design methods adopted. When it comes to the appearance of the products, semiotics (the symbol language) as auxiliary tool, in involves visual when the choice, the application of computer "shape grammar" to help finish.


From the 1890 s, the British will someone starts against the education system above. They are a group of education workers and designers, trying to put the system to brain training transfer to an opponent's training up. They think: if "south kensington system aims to comprehensive education students, and in fact it can complete the task half words, so is understandable, because most of the teacher can only so; And it is deliberately so, that is doomed to failure. If we can not teach students the grammar of use, namely how to do it, we cannot teach grammar. To design, we must understand how it is generated. This, to a certain extent, is expounded in Ruth gold "complete human" concept must express things.


Therefore, in motion and British craft Morris (Morris) and Ruth gold under the influence of the theory and practice of design of appeared to attention, especially to the altar canister kind of containers, metal products, furniture and textile production technology practice attention. The various design schools are no longer as usual equipped with library bookshelf, drawing or collect the exhibits, acting with such as wheels, the lathe, the collection production process and looms thread-rolling technology.


On the other hand, once highly valued design and adornment rules are put aside, the design education organization principle is building theory and practice. In 1896, the famous British craft art designers w· G Ryan (Crane) served as the President of the royal college of art (the year by the national design school, the school was renamed now known). He thinks, since "the architecture is the mother of art," it will surely can stimulate the design inspiration. So the central London school of art, and the royal institute of design course are required to open all first-year students must learn architecture, architecture philosophy and construction drawing, but also learn about the basic course of calligraphy. And then they can from the following four professional choice, they are:


Mural (design school will "adornment" two characters from "mural" removed, it is before 25 years later things).#p#分页标题#e#

Carvings and modelling

building

Or design (process)


这一教育体系依然非常缺乏像“新颖性”和、自我表现力“这些观念,而对“实践”、“动手即设计”、“工艺质量”、“技巧水平”等则给予高度重视。英国第一位设计学教授,W·R·利撒贝(Lethaby)提议在每所设计院校的大门上都要以最精美的字体刻上如下一句话:“no art that is only one person deep can be very good art”(只有一个之深的艺术决非好艺术)。这是一种注重设计和动手制作的传统,要求设计工作必须以传统为基础。有几次,利撒贝曾补充道,学生将能站在前代人的肩膀上(工作),但他们决不允许跳离前人的肩膀。这是对批量生产工业一贯的低质量、以及它所赖以生存的思想基础的挑战,因为只此一件的产品明显地要投入更多的精力,它注重的是重量,而不是数量。因此,如果学生花上3到4年时间,认真地思考一下传统,掌握一门技艺这是学徒制应用于课堂的方式。他们有一天就可以改变视觉环境的质量,不是通过模拟产业环境,而是确确实实地通过手工艺工场实践。以上是英国从19世纪90年代至本世纪50年代以至于60年代设计教育的基础。上世纪末,本世纪初,德国的一些作者在他们有关设计的著作中介绍了英国的设计教育思想,从而成为格罗佩斯(Gropins)在包豪斯学院所进行的教学实验基础。例如:克瑞恩对建筑和壁画的重视以及利撒贝对基础设计课程的设置思想都被引人包豪斯学院基础课程的安排中。因此整个包豪斯的教学大纲融合了美术和工艺,我们称之为“批判”传统,因为它的思想核心意在对工业设计和工业组织进行评判。随着当今对环境的日益重视,以及对设计师社会责任感的要求提高,这种教育思想有回归的趋势。如今,设计课程中的手工艺制作练习一方面是为产业界制作模型,开展小规模的课题研究,或寻求新的材料合成方式;另一方面,则像画家或手工艺人一样,应用各种材料,制作只此一件的艺术或工艺精品,在因袭“边制作边设计”传统思想的学校里,以上两方面都是相当重要的。


In the s, many people think: the "critical" traditional because inherited traditional process, emphasizes production practice, not to provide students with enough opportunity to express their own idea, and it can never touch the industrial design of the real problems facing substantial, quality and quantity problem, so then someone to the British government submitted a series of reports, proposals design education should not only involve brain, hands, and more about each education, it against craft art philosophy, because the latter too much emphasis on skills and training, and suppose we can take heart and hand apart. Therefore, it advocates that the education of the thinking and attention. Training is not enough, the architect also accept education. So far, painting, sculpture, art courses and the design of open courses, such as: graphic design, industrial design, and visual communication design was first also scheduled in the teaching outline, form the core of the course part. The education thought is the center point: art especially traditional an easel painting practice, can make the designer to draw nutrition, and encourage the designers draw and thinking or of with their work of evaluation. In addition, designers also study several important stage of the art history, it is design education a new development direction, it encourages "novelty", "self show" and "creativity". Artist and musician B· Enoch (Eno) think that the system is "to the unknown setting", the art school study we unknown world. No art technology can only create machine. If, say, the Victorian era, the students once "protected" from the temptation of fine arts; At the beginning of 20 centuries, the students are busy making only this one, for the family to enjoy art treasures; From the 60 s, they are encouraged, to explore new fields. So art and design education become personal explore new field of the process, start it can be in a certain range or within the boundaries, and later, even such a line also questioned the fine arts gradually away from the easels and modelling Taiwan; Craft class moved into the art museum; Design more and more attention to the image, pay attention to the appearance of the things expression way and products in specific culture and background of market performance. As for the "organization", "system" and "skill" and "skill", "quality" concept is outdated, no market.#p#分页标题#e#


At the same time, the design course more and more professional, and to the emerging designers draw close consultation industry. Because of course coverage is narrow, the teaching method is more flexible, from the classroom teaching to collective tutoring. This teaching system in the s in the royal college of art developed, and quickly swept over the whole British design education. We call it the "performance" tradition. Its central idea is: to improve the students' their own unique insights, and be good at realize personal opinion of courage. As designers role is more and more obvious, the social market value and the style of the common pursue psychology and modelling, this kind of traditional impact also is increasing, only recently reached the peak. Pay attention to the education it head-on, the other is for the attention of the individual creativity, 2 it is to today's culture and see the development of the art world attention.


I'm more agree with architect Gaudi (Gaudi) view, namely novel means to explore the cause of (things), so I want to reference design education of three traditional-standardization, criticism and expression, summarized the British design education are facing some of the key problem, by ", at the same time, I will also reference J· Ruth gold about "complete human" famous assertion:


First is the brain. Design education reason in research, as well as to the design practice of guiding significance on the widely has what function? In computer information times, law of course has certain directive significance, and serious criticism understanding is even more so. We must break the so-called "theory" and "practice", and the difference between a theory development under the guidance of practice and a practice under the guide of the theory. Now, the two aspects of the research are not enough. We must through the teaching research (systematic research, the purpose is to get one to communicate knowledge) "and research achievements in the design of the application of the development to enrich.


Second is a hand. The design practice how to can most effectively through to the design of concrete course? As a kind of handicraft activities, request every student participation from the beginning to the end? Or industrial environment in the simulation of micro technology under development is more and more likely to do, also or similar to the requirements of carving rich visual imagination art activities to comprehensive education, so that the students can work in practice and advanced technology to further improve the skills? The three methods, especially the third kind. In my opinion, has certain significance. In recent years, with industry in project related or use of the industrial technology of the cooperative project, and to the requirements of the visual imagination sometimes second. This is beneficial to the students, but we also have to remember, the student is design for the future, but not now or in the past, so challenge consciousness is very important, and the future of stylist can't just care about today's industry.#p#分页标题#e#


The third is the heart. Forget about the age of the Victoria industry emotional appeal, think about the design is not only for the thing, it is in a certain social cultural background. This means that the contemporary and future of the students should not be the master of style concept, in vast cultural background, the feeling of the era of jump artery bo. As students, they must contact and artist, is like a college English language student may have to deal with the philosophy department. The heart of another meaning, is to make students realize as a designer of social responsibility and technical environment responsibility. At present, born after 1970 student needs this knowledge, and born after 45 years of teachers and can't fully satisfy these needs. More than 100 years ago as Ruth gold it: as education workers, we must always care about how to make a complete one, train a rich imagination, sensibility, thinking ability, working ability and group work design talents, not alone on the brain, heart, hand which lay particular stress on, but for students in three aspects all-round development.


Finally, I want to repeat that Ruth gold of words, his positive initiative in the public education system design by constantly improve the development, continues today, with more than the world any other design education system to a long history.


"Design should be made by the most ingenious mechanical, or human hands to finish. So far we haven't design, and will not design can like any possible human hands that clever machinery.


http://www.ukthesis.org/dissertation_writing/Education/2012/0321/1092.html The best design comes from the heart, and integration of emotion that is better than the brain and emotion with the union, and both were better than with emotion and the combination of the hand.


So make a whole person. "


Since Ruth gold after, society, and technology, culture had all kinds of profound changes, so I think we need this kind of comprehensive development of stylist, more need to be able to make out the designer's education system.
 

(责任编辑:英国论文网)


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