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留学生论文需求:Evaluation on TBLT in teaching speaking

时间:2010-12-29 09:06:52 来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien

Evaluation on TBLT in teaching speaking skills

Introduction
Speaking fluently and competently in the target language is one of the major goals for foreign language learners. David Nunan (1999) discusses that the ability to function in another language is generally characterized in terms of being able to speakessay writing that language. When someone asks, “Do you know another language?” they generally mean “Can you speak the language?” Naturally, how to facilitate speaking is a key problem for language teachers.
After trying many methods of teaching and their various shortcomings, now TBLT is regarded as the best way of teaching English, [This is simply not true. TBLT is just one of the methods. In any case, you cannot make such a sweeping statement without being able to prop it up from literature.] including speaking English. It is said that TBLT overcomes the shortcomings in traditional teaching models, because it emphasizes on learning to communicate through interaction in the target language; it introduces authentic texts into the learning situations; it provides opportunities for learners to focus, not only on language, but also on the learning process itself; and it attempts to link classroom language learning with language activation outside the classroom.(Nunan1991:279) [Is this a direct quotation? If so, you need to punctuate it accordingly.]
The theoretical foundations of TBLT also give it great strength to benefit language teaching. TBLT is based on development of language theory and language learning theory. The theoretical basis for TBLT originates from a wide range of aspects:essay writing http://www.ukassignment.org/daixieEssay/, socio-linguistics, language acquisition and curriculum theory and so on. As Long and Crooks(1992)put it, a task-based approach sees the language process as one of learning through doing--it is primarily engaging in meaning that learners' system is encouraged to develop.
I do not feel comfortable with this introduction. It is a rather uncritical praise of TBLT, suggesting that TBLT is wonderful and is the solution to all problems. There does not seem to be any balanced argument flashing up the possible shortcomings of TBLT, especially in the teaching of listening. The outline of the structure/content of the essay is also missing.
psychology

The Relevant Notions on Task
What does a ‘task’ exactly mean? The concept of the task is fairly variable: no two people [Do you mean ‘researchers’?] appear to have quite the same definition. The following is a sampling of definition from the literature in a chronological order.
1) A task is a piece of work undertaken for oneself or for others, freely or for some reward. Thus, examples of tasks include painting a fence, dressing a child, filling out a form, buying a pair of shoes, making an airline reservation, borrowing a library book, taking a driving test, typing a letter, weighing a patient, sorting letters, taking a hotel reservation, writing a check, finding a street destination and helping someone across a road. In other words, by ‘task’ is meant the hundred and one things people do in everyday life, at work, at play, and in between. Tasks are the things people will tell you they do if you ask them and they are not applied linguists (Long 1985:89).#p#分页标题#e#
2) A task is a piece of work or an activity, usually with a specified objective, undertaken as part of an educational course, or at work (Crookes 1986:1).
3) A task is an activity which requires learners to arrive at an outcome from given information through some process of thought, and which allows teachers to control and regulate that process (Prabhu 1987:24).
4) A task is any structural language learning endeavor which has a particular objective, appropriate content, a specified working procedure, and a range of outcomes for those who undertake the task. ‘Task’ is therefore assumed to refer to a range of work plans which have the overall purpose of facilitating. [Reference?]
Are all of these direct quotations? If so, you need to punctuate them accordingly. However, I don’t think it is a good idea just to list these definitions of task. You need to paraphrase them as much as possible and you need, at least, to compare them - say what is similar or different in them, or which one contains a different perspective, etc.
Just take four of the many for example. This range of task definitions has been provided because the definitions are interestingly similar but also interestingly different. There is a sort of inclusive definition, such as that provided by Skehan, which tries to embrace most (not all) of the characteristics included in other definitions. [This is not sufficient. See my note above. Where is Skehan’s definition?]

 

留学生毕业论文 on the general analysis of the definitions of a task, Skehan(1999) and Liao Xiao-qing (2001)characterize a task like the following statements:
-Meaning is primary;
-There is some communication problem to solve;
-There is some sort of relationship to comparable real-world activities;
-Task completion has some priority;
-The assessment of the task is in terms of outcome.
So far, it is of necessity to define the conception of a task on the basis of the above account. The following is a tentative definition of a task:
A task is a work-plan that requires learners to process language pragmatically in order to achieve an outcome that can be evaluated in terms of whether the correct or appropriate propositional content has been conveyed. To this end, it requires them to give primary attention to meaning and to make use of their own linguistic resources, although the design of the task may predispose them to choose particular forms. A task is intended to result in language use that bears a resemblance, direct or indirect, to the way language is used in the real world. Like other language skills, a task can engage productive or receptive, and oral or written skills, and also various cognitive processes (Ellis 2003:16). [Is this a direct quotation? If so, you need to punctuate it accordingly. Also, you have too many and too long quotations. You need to paraphrase them.]#p#分页标题#e#

Classroom tasks are generally justified in either ‘real-world’ or ‘pedagogic’ terms. Tasks with real-world rationale require learners to approximate, in class, the sorts of behaviors required of them in the world beyond the classroom. Tasks with a pedagogic rationale, on the other hand, require learners to do things that it is extremely unlikely they would be called upon to do outside the classroom.
This distinction can be illustrated in the following figure (David Nunan 1989:40): [Is this a direct quotation? If so, see my note above.]
Communicative classroom tasks

Task type Real-world pedagogic

 

Rationale Rehearsal Psycholingustic
 

 

Reference Needs analysis SLA theory/research
Where does this diagram come from? You need to indicate the source.

An example of a real-world task might be:
The learner will listen to a weather forecast and identify the predicted maximum temperature for the day.
Or
The learner will listen to a weather forecast and decide whether or not to take an umbrella and sweater to school.
A pedagogic task might be:
The learner will listen to an aural and answer questions afterwards on whether given statements are true of false.
Why did you italicise the tasks?

Positive role of TBLT in teaching speaking skills:
In recent years, much of the discussion relating to proficiency-oriented instruction and testing has focused on the development of oral skills (Liu,1999). The emphasis on speaking proficiency can be attributed to a variety of factors, many of which are traceable to the widespread popularity of audiolingual methodologies in the 1960s and the communicative competence movement that began in the 1970s(Hadley 2001). This interest in oral communication continues today, as contemporary communicative language teaching approaches are emphasizing the importance of having learners engage in “tasks” that encourage meaningful interaction (see, for example, Long 1985; Nunan 1989; Gass 1997; McDonough and Mackey 2000). Recent research in second-language acquisition has also considered oral interaction as an important factor in the shaping of the learner’s developing language. A number of studies have investigated the role of interaction in second language development, particularly in conversations between native and nonnative speakers and among nonnative speakers working in pairs or small groups(for a review of some of this research, see Gass 1997). Swain (1985, 1995, 2001) has also highlighted the role of output in language learning and describes a variety of communication activities that can help learners develop accuracy as well as fluency through consciously reflecting on their language production.
Second language learning is different from the mother tough [?????] in that it affected by many factors, for example, attitude and motivation. Affect, as defined by psychologists, refers to “emotions and an even wider range of phenomena that have anything to do with emotions, moods, dispositions, and preferences” (Arnold 34 Wrong format.). As Stevick said, success depends less on materials, techniques, and linguistic analysis, and more on what goes on inside and between the people in the classroom, in other words, the affective factors. Affect has thus come to be recognized as a powerful determiner of learning, with Stern asserting the affective component contributes at least as much and often more to language learning than the cognitive skills. #p#分页标题#e#
Affective factors play a significant role in foreign language learning. Positive affective factors can facilitate the language learning process and improve learners’ language performance, while negative affective factors will bring barriers to language learning and reduce learners’ learning capacity. Many studies have been done to investigate the relationship between affective variables and second or foreign language learning, and in the language-learning situation. [These two paragraphs on affect/affective factors do not seem to be relevant to your topic.]
 

留学生毕业论文Speaking is an important aspect in second language learning since language is mainly used for communication while many Chinese students are less capable in this aspect. Firstly, we should understand that second language is acquired rather than learned. [Another sweeping statement for which you do not provide any evidence. In any case, this statement may prove not to be true. You need to exercise judgement before you write anything like this.] As Krashen said, “language acquisition does not require extensive use of conscious grammatical rules, and drills.” Acquisition requires meaningful interaction in the target language – natural communication- in which speakers is concerned not with the form of their utterance but with the messages they are conveying and understanding (Krashen, 1987). [Where exactly does this quotation end? Have you placed the quotation marks properly? Where is the page number?]
Learning is explicit while acquisition is tacit. According to Krashen, acquisition is the most reliable way of enhancing language competence, while learning just benefits monitoring abilities. The role of the monitor should be minor, being used only to correct deviations from ‘normal’ speech and to give speech a more ‘polished’ appearance.
Speaking is not knowledge, but skill. Acquisition is more important no matter to children or adults, because when we speak naturally we do not consider much about language knowledge but subconsciously or unconsciously perform a skill. The acquired way available to the first language is also of great importance to the second language. According to Krashen, learning involves more metacognitive elements than acquisition. Students in learning process usually realize their role as learners and they usually have knowledge of specific and general strategies for learning new information and knowledge of plans, goals. The most important distinction is that they know what they are doing and they are aware of the knowledge they are learning while in acquisition process, students are below the awareness of what they are doing, usually in a subconscious way. You demonstrate an over-reliance on Krashen. What do other researchers have to say about this? In any case, what is the relevance of all this to your topic?#p#分页标题#e#

Learning a foreign language is defined as “learning effective and acceptable language behavior in situations in an unfamiliar culture” (Halliday 1964 Page number?). Being “effective” refers to the fact that language learners should be equipped with the capability to communicate through the target language rule without obstacles. Being “acceptable”, on the other hand, refers to the fact that language uses should be appropriate according to the norms of the target culture. These two aspects are important for foreign language learners, which are the most necessary language capabilities for displaying their foreign language proficiency. The development of communicative competence, therefore, is the nuclear part of English learning. [How does this follow from what you have said so far? What is the connection?]
Corder (1986) advocates the communicative teaching methodology because he deems that language learning is a cognitive process and the cognition can only be achieved in the proper lingual context. When learners don’t draw their attention on the language itself but on other aspects of the communication, the ideal learning process is fulfilled. Thus, Corder opposes to teach the language knowledge only but favors the task-based teaching methodology in order to make the learner acquire the target language subconsciously and spontaneously. This is the prevailing communicative teaching methodology which is representative and widely accepted by teachers and researchers nowadays. [Are you talking about the communicative teaching method or task-based language teaching? Or both? It is really not clear what connection your paragraphs have with the topic or, indeed, with each other.]
The above perceptions are based on the favorable environment task-based language teaching provided. Mantle —— Bromley(1995:383)observes that “without a positive learning atmosphere,students may well gain little or nothing from new curricular infusions”.
Through a list of classroom environment questionnaire, Fraser(1986) claims that: considerable evidence to support the general proposition that the nature of classroom environments does have an important influence on students’ achievement of cognitive and attitudinal goals…(and that there is) consistent support for the predictive validity of student perceptions in accounting for appreciable amounts of variance in learning outcomes often beyond that attributable to student characteristics such as pretest performance, general ability or both. Furthermore this pattern has been replicated. (1986:118) [Another very long quotation.]
Pine & Boy (1977) suggests that learning is facilitated in atmosphere:
…http://www.ukthesis.org/dissertation_writingwhich encourages people to be active;
… that facilitates the individual’s discovery of the personal meaning of ideas;#p#分页标题#e#
… that emphasizes the uniquely personal and subjective nature of learning;
… in which difference is good and desirable;
… that consistently recognizes the right to make mistakes;
… that tolerates ambiguity;
… in which evaluation is a co-operative process with emphasis on self-evaluation;
… which encourages openness of self rather than concealment of self;
… in which people are encouraged to trust in themselves as well as in external sources;
… in which people feel they are respected;
… in which people feel they are accepted;
… which permits confrontation;
… in which the teacher creates conditions by which he loses the teaching function;
… in which instruction is carefully personalized in an attempt to meet the individual needs, interests, and abilities of students.

 

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