时间:2015-12-23 19:12:03 来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
学校的国家课程反映了国家的哲学教育的目标。 通过在学校实施有效的课程,可以使学生的认知得到发展,发掘学生的情感和精神运动(物理)与其他潜力(JERIS)。 这个机构可以产生“人山模式”的后代。
在马来西亚,学校课程的基础是基于国家教育哲学(NPE)。根据一些政策文件和意识形态,制定了国家教育理念。它概括了所有我国相关教育思想和原则。 它还结合了目标,政策和教育实践,形成一个一致的,明确的和合乎逻辑的实体。 国家教育政策的制定理念在1979年后出台的,政府对教育政策的落实情况进行了回顾后,对教育政策的实施进行了分析,并对人的发展进行了研究。因此,国家的教育理念是根据国家的思想、文化、五个国家的原则,以及教育报告和条例的规定,在1988的基础上制定并正式宣布的。由高等教育部通过可利用哲学教育确定(2007)的,该国的教育体系实际上是将自己的立场转变为以明确表示为基础的基本原则和价值观,在马来西亚教育体系中从最低层次转变到大学的最高水平。
The Realization Of National Philosophy Education Essay
The national curriculum of the school reflects the objectives of national Philosophy of Education. By implementing the curriculum effectively in schools, it can develop the students cognitive, affective and psychomotor (physical) with other potentials (JERIS) in students. By this the institutions can produce 'insan model' as for the future generations.
Interview and deduct the idealistic of a headmaster's and a senior assistant's routine regarding 5 activities carried out in their school to visualize/insist the objective of NPE.
Explain teachers teaching activities that being focused/carried out in class rooms to actualize the National curriculum in the progress of moulding the student's behaviour and believes.
In Malaysia, the school curriculum is grounded based on National Philosophy of Education (NPE). National Philosophy of Education was formulated based on some of our policy documents and ideologies. It outlines all the terms, ideas and principles related to education in our country. It also combines the goals, policies and educational practices to form a consistent, clear and logical entity. The idea of formulating National Philosophy of Education was sparked off in 1979 after the Cabinet Committee Report on the Review of Education Policies Implementation, which concentrate on human development. Thus, National Philosophy of Education was formulated and proclaimed officially in 1988 based on national ideology, cultures of Malaysian society, Five National Principles, and Education Reports and Ordinance. As stated by the Ministry of Higher Education (2007) with the availability of Philosophy of Education, the country's education system actually shifts to position themselves ahead of the game with clearly expresses the basic principles and values a€?a€?that underlie and shape of the Malaysian education system from the lowest level to the highest levels of the university.#p#分页标题#e#
Philosophy of Education explains the purpose and goals of education for individuals and the nation. The two purposes consistent, which is to produce students who are knowledgeable, honourable and responsible person would also be a good citizen. Education is the foundation and key to building a good person, balanced and integrated directly is the main channel and the most important for achieving the desired goals and ambitions of the country. One contained in the Philosophy of Education is based on the philosophy of human belief in God and religion. The goal of education is to develop all aspects of the human person in harmony and balance, so integration reserved nature of the human person. Knowledgeable and educated should produce good morals and noble character thus becoming fundamental features of a family, a community and a good citizen and educated. Also, National Philosophy of Education focusing on inculcating unity among the multiracial society in this country. The essence of National Philosophy of Education is as follows:
"Education in Malaysia is an ongoing effort towards further developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and integrated in order to create a balanced and harmonious intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically. Effort is designed to produce Malaysian citizens who are knowledgeable, honourable, responsible, competent and capable of achieving well-being and contribute to the harmony and prosperity of the family, community and country. "
A basic concept embodied in the Philosophy of Education is about knowledge, the knowledge and the role of science in human development and community. The value of knowledge lies in the truth of the content of the work is not only to inform and explain to people about something, but more importantly the knowledge to influence, change and shape ourselves and human society. Functions that can transform human knowledge and community that make this a very high value. The Education is a lifelong process and activities and people are constantly in need of widening, deepening and validation to existing knowledge. Experience can not only enrich and strengthen the knowledge but also challenge and change the existing knowledge in humans. Philosophy of Education also sees the individual in some relationship or connection layer. The purpose of education is not only for the development and well-being of the individual but also for the development and well-being of each individual contact layer starts with the family, community and nation-wide.
From the citation above, it can be identified that there are several important elements in the formation of National Philosophy of Education to produce individuals who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally, and physically balanced and harmonic. Those elements are education is an on-going effort, development of individual potentials, producing balanced and harmonious individual, belief in and devotion to God, producing knowledgeable Malaysian citizens, being harmony and betterment of family, posses high moral standards and lastly personal well-being.
The first element of education Philosophy of Education is an ongoing effort. Education is a process of acquiring and transferring knowledge, skills and values. Acquisition and transfer process is beginning at an early age to death. Early education is vital to develop the personality of young people from age 1 to 6 years. Formed personality will go to development throughout the school year. After completing his studies, individuals continue to enhance the knowledge, skills and attributes. For example, after the Malaysian Certificate of Education (SPM), while waiting for the results, candidates can gain knowledge by attending photography classes or computer classes based on their interests. Continuing education will help the individual to adapt to various changes.
Philosophy of Education The second element is the development of individual potential. Every individual has been blessed by God with the talent, potential and hidden capabilities. Therefore, the talent, potential and ability to tapped, nurtured, developed and enhanced through social interaction with others and the environment. For example, a student who does not love to learn sit for the exam. The result come out and surprise him, he is among the highest. He did not recognize his genius before, education offers the opportunity to develop the talent, potential and abilities.
Philosophy of Education is the third element of trust and obedience to God. We must recognize the existence of God and accept Him as the Creator of mankind and the universe. He must realize that God determines the laws and phenomena of nature. He also should be aware that each individual is fully responsible for his deeds and actions. For example, Muslims believe in the existence of 'heaven' and 'hell'. In order to get a good reward in the next life, one must practice all the teachings of the faith professed.
Fourth element is a Malaysian Philosophy of Education knowledgeable. It means that all Malaysians must have a love for knowledge. In order to achieve this, they must strive to foster knowledge and reading culture. They can go to Borders, MPH or POPULAR bookstore to read any reading material regardless of its content as long as they read. Eventually, they will be a broad and open-minded.
All in all, it is clear that if each and everyone in the education fraternity uphold Philosophy of Education in carrying out their duties and responsibilities, it is inevitable, the goal of our education will be a reality and not just a dream.
All the elements mentioned above play a very crucial role to teachers as well as schools. The elements contained in NPE assists teachers in providing clear vision in
their teaching process. It gives a clear picture on how teachers can plan and conduct lesson in their class. In addition,A curriculum is perceived as an imperative element in determining the smoothness of a school's administration and its student's development. It is because, curriculum served as guidelines and frameworks which navigate teachers to work out as being planned by the educational boards in the curriculum. According to Oxford English Dictionary, curriculum is defined as "courses that are taught in schools or institutions of higher learning". Meanwhile, Ronald Doll (1996) defines that "School's curriculum as the formal and informal content and process by which learners gain knowledge and understanding, develop skills and alter attitudes, appreciations and values under the auspicious of that school". Primary school curriculum in Malaysia has been experiencing several stages of changes over the past 50 years.
The primary education curriculum in Malaysia has been embarked with the implementation of Kurikulum Lama Sekolah Rendah (KLSR). This curriculum is being implemented after our country gained its independence. However, there was some feebleness in the implementation of this curriculum. Some of the problems arose was that; each subject being taught was seen as compartmentalize and the curriculum was relative compact for primary students. KLSR was then transformed into Kurikulum Baru Sekolah Rendah on 1983. The implementation of this curriculum was a great improvement because KBSR was seen to have met the requirements which insufficient in KLSR. In KBSR's context, students should acquire knowledge, master variety of skills
and appreciate values. Students can participate actively in class, lively and progressive. Weak students are required to undergo restoration class meanwhile enriching class is given to smart students.
Next, the Kurikulum Baru Sekolah Rendah was changed into Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah Rendah or Integrated Primary School Curriculum on 1993. The concept of integration became the main focus in this curriculum's context. Integration is the union of the intellectual, spiritual, emotional and physical potential and thus they cannot be developed separately. In fact, they can be developed through comprehensive, harmony and integration in order to produce a well-balanced individual. This curriculum integrated the elements of knowledge, skills and values. Hence, the
integration was applied in the teaching and learning process, so that skills and knowledge can be well integrated. Recently, our school curriculum once again been switched into Kurikulum Standard Sekolah Rendah or Standard Curriculum on 2011. This transformation is a reinforcement and improvement process on the Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah Rendah, which involves the changing of form, organization, content, pedagogy, time allocation, assessment methods, materials and management of the school curriculum.
Schools, teachers and students play a very essential role in the realization of National Philosophy of Education (NPE). In terms of school, it is an important institution in the realization of NPE because it acts as an agent of socialization. It is the first formal institution, in which students attend in order to acquire knowledge and other basic skills.#p#分页标题#e#
Besides that, it also provides the basic needs which could meet the students' requirements for their life. In addition, school paves opportunities for students to get to know themselves better and discover their talents and interests in a mannered way. In the realization of NPE in school, there are several aspects that can be emphasized. Such aspects are leadership, co-curricular and school cultures.
Leadership is concerned with an individual who has the ability to motivate his or her followers to work hard in order to produce something good. In schools, there are many activities that have been set up in order to develop leadership among the students. Such activities encompass formal training and informal training. Formal training is derived from training seminars, workshops and courses which organized by school. On the other hand, informal training is training which is gained from student's daily life experience.
Apart from that, co-curricular aspects also play an effective role in the realization of NPE. Co-curricular is a workforce-oriented activity which is conducted education inside and outside classroom. From these extra-curricular activities, it is expected to inculcate leadership qualities, teamwork and competency among the students. The implementation of these extra-curricular activities is relevant, so that all students have equitable balance between the mental and social development, physical and mental. School cultures, encompasses environment of a school. The conducive environment of a school could encourages students to interact and communicate in an effective way among themselves, with their teachers and as well as engaging in their school activities.
Other than that, teachers also contribute to the realization of NPE. In order to realize the objective of NPE, a teacher needs to equip him or herself with general knowledge, as well as teachers' professional knowledge. This can be achieved by achieved if teachers cultivate reading habits in themselves and have sense of awareness on current issues occurred through television, newspapers, radio and Internet. A teacher also needs to prepare himself on teacher's professional knowledge or better known as 'pengetahuan ikhtisas keguruan'. A teacher needs to learn constantly or continuously, plan, think and make assessment on his students. Moreover, a teacher should possess wide range of knowledge, skills and efficient teaching methods, good personality and dedicated in teaching.
Lastly, students play a vital contribution in the realization of NPE.
学校活动-School Activities
In the realization of National Philosophy of Education's aims and objectives, Malaysian schools have been implemented various activities in primary schools. In order to obtain clear vision on how activities carried in school have met the aims and objectives of NPE, I have conducted an interview on a Headmaster and a Senior Assistant regarding 5 activities that have been carried out in their school to visualize or insist the objective of NPE. The interview was conducted in Sekolah Rendah Kebangsaan Cyberjaya, Selangor. Based on the interview, I managed to deduce that this school has been carried out many activities which fulfil the objectives of NPE throughout the year. 5 of the activities are。#p#分页标题#e#

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