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留学生教育论文:课堂学习理论 Theories of Learning for Classrooms

时间:2017-10-30 14:34来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
学习是一个过程,导致一个人相对持久的变化”。学习是一个动态的过程,学生的知识和技能是通过不同的在学习。从概念上讲,教学是促进学习的,因此应该以我们最好的知识来学习。学习和教学提出了协同关系;是教师要教的一种方法。
许多教育研究者提供学习范式来解释个人学习的方式。学生学习的方式可以用来促进有效的教学实践,并最终使教学与积极的学习和教育经验相一致。理解知识是如何被开发和理解的,可以让教师塑造其主题内容的方法传递,以符合理论框架,支持知识是如何处理的。参加学习的性质可以使教师提高自身实践又反过来对学习者的体验质量。这种学习理论是极端的行为主义和建构主义学习理论为代表的。
 
Learning is the "process that results in a relatively enduring change in a person or persons" (Alexander et al, 2009: 186). Learning is a dynamic process whereby the students' knowledge and skills are different before to after learning (Winn, 1990). Teaching is by definition the promotion of learning and ought therefore to be informed by the best of our knowledge about learning. Learning and teaching poses a synergistic relationship; that is teachers need to teach with an approach that reinforces how students naturally learn (Muijs - brooks book).
 
A number of educational researchers offer learning paradigms to explain how individuals learn. The way students learn can be used to foster effective teaching practices, and ultimately align teaching with positive learning and educational experiences. Understanding how knowledge is developed and comprehended can allow teachers to shape the methodological delivery of their subject content to match the theoretical frameworks, underpinning how knowledge is processed. Attending to the nature of student learning can allow teachers to improve their practice and in turn the quality of the learners' experience (Macleod & Golby, 2003). The extremes of this learning theory spectrum are represented by the Behaviourist and Constructivist theories of learning.
 
Behaviouristic Theory of Learning
 
Learning, according to behaviourists (Watson, Pavlov), is defined as acquisition of new behaviour. The focus of behaviourism is on the conditioning of observable human behaviour and is based on the principal conception that a reaction is made in response to a specific stimulus. This reaction leads to a consequence. If the consequence is pleasant and positive, the behaviour change becomes reinforced. With consistent reinforcement, the behaviour pattern becomes conditioned and is automatically activated upon stimuli presentation.
 
Physiologically, behaviourist theories propose that learning is achieved through reinforcement of a particular neural pathway, which links the stimuli and response in the brain. This activation and reinforcement results in a faster, smoother implementation of certain reactions and responses. The connections between the stimuli and specific responses are built correctly and then reinforced over time through practise and repetition, which ultimately strengthens the neural pathways, resulting in a more efficient response to the stimuli. (Pritchard).(责任编辑:BUG)


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