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会计学论文:非审计服务对审计的影响(2)Impact of Non-Audit Services Provided by Incumbent Auditors on Auditor (2)

时间:2016-02-05 09:31来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
审计人员的激励、认知和行为

2002年萨班斯-奥克斯利法案(SOX)限制审计师为同一客户提供审计和非审计服务,因为由此产生的经济联系将损害审计独立性和破坏了审计质量(美国众议院,2002)。然而,一些研究认为某些特定的非审计服务其实可以给审计人员提供必要的知识来理解客户的业务和事务操作(Copeland, 2002; Goldwasser, 2002; Pletz, 2002; Shedlarz, 2002)。通过丰富知识,从而提高审计效率(Simunic, 1984; Whisenant et al., 2003; Kinney et al., 2004; Flaming, 2005; Antle et al., 2006; Gaynor et al., 2006)。因此, 对于审计独立性和审计质量是优先提倡经济激励措施的净影响还是非审计服务的丰富知识出现了长期的争论。
 
Chapter 3 Auditors’ Incentives, Perceptions, and Behaviours
 
The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX) restricts auditors on offering both audit and non-audit services to one client under the claim that the resulting economic bonding will jeopardise auditor independence and undermine the audit quality (U.S. House of Representatives, 2002). However, some academic researches state that specific non-audit services can offer auditors with necessary knowledge to understand the clients’ business and transaction operations (Copeland, 2002; Goldwasser, 2002; Pletz, 2002; Shedlarz, 2002) and thus improve audit effectiveness via knowledge spill-overs (Simunic, 1984; Whisenant et al., 2003; Kinney et al., 2004; Flaming, 2005; Antle et al., 2006; Gaynor et al., 2006). Therefore, a longstanding debate towards the net effects of economic incentives and knowledge spill-over of non-audit services on auditor independence and audit quality has been emerged. Furthermore, whether there is an association between audit and non-audit fees are strongly debated as the link between such two services can indicate the net effects of economic bonds and knowledge spill-over and test whether audit services are influenced by non-audit services provided by incumbent auditors. In addition, auditor independence can also be evaluated by behaviours of auditors’ - propensity to issue going-concern opinions, which is under the assumption that auditors with jeopardised auditor independence are not motivated to issue a going-concern opinion. These three issues will be discussed as follows.
 
3.1经济激励和知识溢出Economic incentives versus knowledge spill-over
Well before the scandal of Enron and Arthur Andersen, Bazerman et al. (1997) indicated that the auditing system had been corrupted by the economic incentives which induce auditors to please their clients and compromise their independence. This is not because auditors are more corruptible than other but human nature is easily induced by economic incentives (Bazerman and Moore, 2011). By acknowledged the fact, it is worthy further investigation about whether the benefits of knowledge spill-over can outweigh such impairment to audit quality. Therefore, effects of economic bond on auditor independence and effects of knowledge spill-over on audit quality will be discussed, followed by different views of prior literatures on the relationship between audit and non-audit fees. 
 
3.1.1经济债券对审计独立性的影响Effects of economic bond on auditor independence
Auditors have an economic motivation to provide non-audit services to their clients for the reason that non-audit services are generally considered more profitable. Although it is presumed by regulatory rules that non-audit services provided by incumbent auditors will jeopardise auditor independence and threaten audit quality, documented evidence about the possibility that auditor independence is jeopardised resulting from the economic bonding derived from the provisions of non-audit services is mixed (e.g., DeAngelo, 1981; Dopuch and King, 1991; Wines, 1994; Firth, 1997; Frankel et al., 2002; Gaynor, 2002; Ashbaugh et al., 2003; Kinney et al., 2004; Bedard et al., 2008; Kanagaretnam et al., 2011; Krishnan and Yu, 2011; Knechel and Sharma, 2012; Schmidt, 2012). For example, Dopuch and King (1991) argue that prohibition of auditors from providing both audit and non-audit services does not help to improve efficiencies but might trigger auditors to choose non-audit services over audit services from the experiment. However, Asare et al. (2005) propose a contradict opinion that client acceptance or staffing decisions of the auditor are not influenced by their potential decisions to maintain non-audit service engagements.
 
3.1.2知识溢出对审计质量的影响Effects of knowledge spill-over on audit quality
Non-audit services might help auditors gain more knowledge of clients thus the probability of discovering fraud and errors might increase. It is suggested that maintaining a given degree of auditor independence, non-audit services are considered to increase audit quality (Lennox, 1999), which is the knowledge spill-over effects of non-audit services. Evidence from Knechel and Sharma (2012) also support this argument as the clients companies purchasing a relative high level of non-audit services prior to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX) are more likely to involve large increase in audit lags after the announcement of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX), which indicates the knowledge spill-over have positive impact on audit effectiveness.
 
Following the initial research about the definition of knowledge spill-over is from Simunic (1984) and Palmrose’s (1986) presumption that knowledge gained by providing non-audit services to clients might flow to the audit services thus produce audit efficiencies, tremendous researches have investigated the association between audit fees and non-audit fees for the purpose of examining the assertion that pricing effects of knowledge spill-over (economics of scope) can be explained by associations between audit and non-audit fees, which will be explained in details as follows.
 
3.1.3审计和非审计费用之间的联系Association between audit and non-audit fees
Previous researches have three different views towards the association between audit fees and non-audit fees. It seems that earlier studies probe a significantly positive relationship and no relationship between such two services fees and the current studies are more likely to support a negative association instead. These three viewpoints will be discussed respectively as follows.
 
A number of earlier studies support the notion that a significantly positive association between audit fees and non-audit fees (Simunic, 1984; Simon, 1985; Palmrose, 1986, Turpen, 1990, Barkess and Simnett, 1994; Firth, 2002) exists. However, by investigating data of audit hours offered by a large accounting profession, Davis et al. (1993) state that although the association between audit effort and non-audit fees is positive, such relationship is weak with no significant evidence of knowledge flows between non-audit and audit feed. Antle et al. (2006) further Davis et al.’s (1993) study by applying system of simultaneous equations rather than single-equation models, which might cause biased estimates and inferences, and find similar positive associations between audit and non-audit fees, which supports the knowledge spill-over or economics of scope of joint provisions of audit and non-audit services. More detailed research carried out by Joe and Vandervelde (2007), who related knowledge transfer to audit risk assessments in order to provide more direct evidence, suggest that audit risk assessment process can be benefited from non-audit services provided by incumbent auditors. This is demonstrated by the fact that auditors who performed joint provisions of audit and non-audit services are more likely to assess a higher audit risk than those who only offered audit services but were accessible to the relevant working papers of non-audit services.
 
On the other hand, some researches indicate that no association exists between audit fees and non-audit fees (Abdel-khalik, 1990; Raghunandan et al., 2003). Raghunandan et al. (2003) also adopt system of simultaneous equations, but reach the opposite conclusions as Antle et al. (2006) do, find that the joint determined effects between audit and non-audit fees but no economics of scope of performing both audit and non-audit services. In addition, Bedard et al. (2008) suggest that no sufficient evidence to support the presumption that the joint provision of audit and non-audit services tend to jeopardise auditor independence.
 
Apart from above debate, current researches argue that the association between audit and non-audit fees is significantly negative. For example, Krishnan and Yu (2011) document that knowledge spill-over is a two-way process as it can flow from audit part to non-audit part as well as non-audit part to audit part by adopting a two-stage squares model and applying in a large sample. They also suggest that certain characteristics of auditors and clients, such as auditors in Big 4 firms, long audit tenure, highly dependent clients, extent of tax services, and client importance, can trigger significant knowledge spill-over. Similar conclusion is drawn from Krishnan and Visvanathan (2011) that insights from offering tax services can contribute to audit quality in the condition that both audit and tax services are offered by same audit firm, which is consistent with knowledge spill-over theory. Recent literatures show that abnormal non-audit fees are positively connected with abnormal loan loss provisions of small banks (Kanagaretnam et al., 2010) and with more negative results of auditor class action litigation (Schmidt, 2012), which suggest that non-audit services are negatively considered by some stakeholders. In addition, by investigation the difference in audit report lags pre- and post- the enact of Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2000 (SOX), Knechel and Sharma (2012) discover that the audit firms involving a high level of non-audit services fees before the enact of Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2000 (SOX) have a relative increase in audit report lags in post-SOX period, providing a consistent presumption of knowledge spill-overs benefits that non-audit services provided by incumbent auditors are beneficial to clients without lower the level of audit effectiveness.(责任编辑:anne)


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