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减少区域生物质供应链的碳足迹

时间:2016-05-18 19:12来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
abstract 摘要
 
本文提出了区域能源目标和供应链合成的新方法。需求驱动的方法适用于评估在特定区域可再生资源为客户传递能量的可行的方法。所研究的区域是通过使用发达区域能源聚类(REC)算法划分成若干簇。该REC目标瞄准最大限度地降低系统的碳足迹(CFP)。区域资源管理复合曲线(RRMCC)的过程集成方法的比喻表示能量失衡帮助在交易关闭资源管理。这些图形工具提供了如何在一个地区管理过剩的资源(生物质和土地利用)简单的信息。 。 2009年保留的爱思唯尔B.V.所有权利。A new method for regional energy targeting and supply chain synthesis is presented. A demand-driven approach is applied to assess the feasible ways for transferring energy from renewable sources to customers in a given region. The studied region is partitioned into a number of clusters by using the developed Regional Energy Clustering (REC) algorithm. The REC targets aim at minimising the system carbon footprint (CFP). The biomass energy supply and management are targeted using new graphical representations. Regional Energy Surplus–Deficit Curves (RESDC) visualises the formation and the sizes of introduced energy clusters. Regional Resource Management Composite Curve (RRMCC) an analogy of the Process Integration approach shows the energy imbalances helping in trading-off resources management. These graphical tools provide straightforward information of how to manage the surplus resources (biomass and land use) in a region. . 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 
 
1. Introduction 介绍
 
生物质能是关键的可再生能源(RES)之一。它是可以从中产生的热,电和液体生物燃料一个多功能源。加紧生物利用率增加了供应链系统的复杂性,由于分布式生产的生物质作为能源。生物质资源和其通常低能量密度的分布特性所需要的供应链中的大的运输能力。其结果是,区域能源供应链分析具有空间规划的特点。一些以前的研究预测,生物质能的使用量将在未来显著上升(WEA,2000; IEA,2005)。生物质供应电势是由它的特征的限制,例如低能量密度(每单位体积的能量),高比用地(每单位面积的能量)和分布式生产。生物质的能源基础设施通常是建立和比对化石燃料的操作更加昂贵。生物质资源分布在区域中的区域,并且通常只在偏远地区。基础设施建设在更长的距离传输生物质能往往会增加其成本。这种情况下将使生物质在严重的缺点在纯经济术语(Krotscheck等人,2000)。然而,由于生物质简称:热电联产,热电联产发电; REC,区域能源集群; RRMCC,区域资源管理综合曲线; RES,可再生能源; RESDC,区域能源剩余赤字曲线。Biomass is one of the key Renewable Energy Sources (RES). It is a versatile source from which heat, electricity and liquid biofuels can be generated. Stepping up biomass utilisation increases the complexity of the supply chain systems due to distributed production of biomass as an energy source. The distributed nature of the biomass resources and its usual low energy density require large transportation capacity within the supply chain. As a result, regional energy supply chain analysis has the characteristics of spatial planning. Several previous studies have predicted that the usage of biomass will be increased significantly in the future (WEA, 2000; IEA, 2005). The biomass supply potential is constrained by its characteristics such as low energy density (energy per unit volume), high specific land use (energy per unit area) and distributed production. The biomass energy infrastructure is generally more expensive to build and operate than that for fossil fuels. Biomass resources are distributed over the area in a region and often available only in remote locations. Building infrastructure to transfer biomass energy over longer distances would tend to increase its cost. Such a scenario would put biomass at serious disadvantage in purely economic terms (Krotscheck et al., 2000). However, since biomass Abbreviations: CHP, combined heat and power generation; REC, Regional Energy Clustering; RRMCC, Regional Resource Management Composite Curve; RES, Renewable Energy Sources; RESDC, Regional Energy Surplus–Deficit Curves. offers the potential to reduce the environmental impact of energy supply, thus saving costs for reacting to natural disasters in the future. Moreover, especially in Europe, the security of energy supply is currently also of significant importance. Any extra energy generation from domestic sources would help in reducing the dependence on foreign imports of crude oil and natural gas, thus increasing the economic stability and in some cases improving significantly the foreign trade balances. Several indicators for evaluating environmental impacts of biomass process have been introduced such as sustainable process index (SPI) (Krotscheck et al., 2000; Sandholzer and Narodoslawsky, 2006), carbon footprint (Johnson, 2009) and environmental LCA studies (De Benedetto and Klemeˇs, 2009). A CFP is defined by POST (2006) as the total amount of CO2 and other greenhouse gases emitted over the full life cycle of a process or product. The CFP has become an important environmental protection indicator as most industrialized countries have committed to reduce their emissions of CO2 by an average of 5.2% in the period 2008–2010 in respect to the level of 1990 (Sayigh, 1999). CFP for biomass supply chain is the total CO2 amount emitted throughout the supply chain life cycle (Perry et al., 2008). Energy from biomass cannot be considered truly carbon-neutral even though the direct carbon emissions from combustion had been offset by carbon fixation during feedstock photosynthesis (Anderson and Fergusson, 2006). The net CFP is mainly caused by the indirect carbon emission generated along the supply chain itself. Especially transportation activities contribute the major part of the CFP in the supply chain (Forsberg, 2000). Typical location of biomass sources (farms, forest, etc.), the relatively low energy density (energy per unit volume) and the distributed nature of the sources require extensive infrastruc0921-3449/$ – see front matter . 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.resconrec.2009.03.009  (责任编辑:anne)


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