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留学生论文-Structure of a Critical Review

时间:2010-10-26 09:31:47 来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien

1. Introduction
• Provide a context for the article
• Introduce the article: give the title and name of the author (full name is possible here with subsequent references to the family name only)
• Identify the article’s purpose
• Indicate your overall impression of the article (positive negative, positive/negative or negative/positive
2. Main findings and conclusions
• Summarize and analyze (where relevant):
- method
- main findings
- arguments
- conclusions
3. Evaluate the article
• Evaluate the strengths/ usefulness of the article
• Evaluate the weaknesses/ limitations/ problems of the article especially for your purposes
Consider how well the author’s arguments are supported by the evidence presented and also consider the implications of the author’s ideas. Make positive and/or negative assessments of the author’s ideas, methods, arguments, expression, and organisation pointing out strengths/usefulness and/or weaknesses/limitations. For example are there issues which have not been addressed or information that has been omitted.
These assessments should be made in terms of the criteria you have established to evaluate the text and the context. Consider making a judgment about the usefulness of the text in relation to the larger context of where it might belong (for example other research in the same area).指导留学生论文
4. Conclusion
• Make final judgment on the value of the article
• Comment on the future of the issue / topic or implications of the view expressed

Questions To Ask After Reading
It is useful to think about the text and ask yourself these questions:
1. What new information/ ideas/ insights have I gained from this book or article?
What arguments were new to me?
2. How does it relate to other material or my prior knowledge of the topic?
3. What is my response to the material in this text? Do I accept the information as true?
Do I agree with the ideas expressed?
What ideas do I agree/disagree with?
4. How can I use this new material, especially in relation to my assignment?
5. What are the limitations of this text for my purposes?
What further reading do I still have to do?
6. Was there anything that I didnt fully understand eg a concept or term; a reference to a person, event, idea; cultural or local knowledge; specialized knowledge of the field that I should check?
General Critical Reading Questions
To think critically about what you have read, you can ask the following general questions:
1. What is the author’s argument / point of view / stance / thesis?
2. How does the author support this argument / point of view / stance / thesis?
3. Is the argument convincing?
4. Is the methodology appropriate?
5. Are there issues that have not been addressed, or important information that has not been mentioned?#p#分页标题#e#
6. How does the article / book compare with other research on the topic?
Does the author agree with other writers’ views? Disagree? Present a new view etc?
7. What is the importance or value of this research/ article?

Language to use
Introducing the text to be reviewed:
In his handbook Understanding Ways: Communicating between Cultures, Kerry OSullivan (1994) investigates ...
In his handbook Understanding Ways: Communicating between Cultures Kerry OSullivan (1994) argues that ...
Reporting
When you are summarizing or referring to an authors text you can use reporting verbs or phrases.
Note: they are not all neutral, in terms of the writers intentions, so make sure that the ones you choose are appropriate.
Neutral
Positive
Negative
Not completely
certain or definite
describe
discuss
examine
state
explain
comment
mention
consider
observe
argue
claim
agree
argue against
dismiss
disagree
refute
doubt
suggest
question
imply
propose
recommend
Source: Dr Martin Davies, n.d. ‘Critical Review Language (Verbs and phrases)’, University of Melbourne viewed 17 August,
Critical Review Language (Verbs and phrases)
If you are doing a critical review of an article or a literature review of a number of articles in your field, the following expressions will be useful to you. This paper is a "checklist" for you. There are many more examples than those given below, but they will give you the general idea. Make sure that you vary the examples in your own work - dont just use one or two!!
Some of these examples will be inappropriate for some disciplines (for example, social science and empirical science subjects would avoid expressions using the first person.) You may need to consult written work in your own discipline to be sure which examples are acceptable.
NOTE: where >>>>>> appear, the variations given in the example above can also be used. Square brackets [...] indicate that words can be either used or omitted. Obliques (/) indicate that either alternative is acceptable.
Learning Tip: There are thousands of other variations used in critical review language. Consult academic textbooks to see and learn more!
1. Stating Your Own Position on a Subject or Topic
"I want to claim that.../show that.../demonstrate that.../highlight that...
"The aim of this paper is [to claim that]>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
"The point of this article is [to claim that] >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
"I shall be claiming that.../showing that/demonstrating that /highlighting that..
"It shall be argued in this paper/review/thesis that...#p#分页标题#e#
"The view presented in this>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>is that...
"The argument [advanced/put forward] in this>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>is that...
"The point of view expressed/put forward in this>>>>>>>>>>>>> is that...
"The conclusion I will be presenting is that...
"The perspective presented here is that ...
" The point of view argued for here is that ...
2. Stating the View of Another Person on a Subject or Topic
"Smith claims that...
"Smith thinks that...
"Smiths argument is that...
"Smiths conclusion is that...
"Smiths claim is that...
"Smiths point is that...
"Smiths point of view is that...
"According to Smith...
"From Smiths point of view...
"The point of Smiths article/paper is that …
"The substance of Smiths article/paper is that...
"The upshot of Smiths argument/paper/article is that...
"Smiths work/data allows him to draw the conclusion that...
"Smiths work/data leads him to the conclusion that...
"Some theorists, such as Smith (1989) think that...
"It is thought by some theorists, for example, Jones (1980) and Smith (1989) that..."
3. Attributing a View to Another Person (When You are Not Quite Sure)
"Smiths claim seems to be that...
"Smith seems to be claiming that...
"Smiths argument seems to be that...
"Smiths conclusion seems to be that...
"The point of Smiths article seems to be that...
(Use any of the examples in (2) and add " seems to". Exceptions: This cannot be used for the examples: " From Smiths point of view…", "According to Smith..." and " It is thought by some theorists...".)
4. Drawing a Conclusion Using the Work of Others
"The conclusion of [all] this is that...
"The result of [all] this is that...
"An outcome of this is that...
"An upshot of this is that...
"A consequence of this is that...
"When Smiths work is looked at closely it is seen that...
"When Smiths argument is analysed it can be seen that...
"Looking at Smiths work/argument [in detail]
"Analysing Smiths data shows that...
"Developing Smiths work/argument to its logical conclusion shows that..."t can be seen/shown that...
"One possible consequence of Smiths work is [that]...
"From Smiths work it can be determined that...
"One outcome of Smiths work is [that]...
"The following point can be brought out of Smiths work...
"The following argument UK thesis base#p#分页标题#e#can be brought out of Smiths work...
"Using Smiths work it is possible to show that.../argue that...
"Using the work of Smith (1980) and Jones (1989) it can be shown that.../argued that...
 

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