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旅游管理论文—非理想主义的可持续旅游

时间:2014-07-13 19:27来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
1 Conceptual Definition of Sustainable tourism 可持续旅游的概念定义
可持续发展的理念只有15年而已。可持续旅游的概念最初是在1987年世界环境与发展委员会发表的一份报告中提到的(WTO,2004)。它将可持续发展定义为“发展,既满足现代人的需求又不损害子孙后代的能力满足自己的需要。”
世界旅游组织将旅游业的可持续发展定义为“旅游导致管理的所有资源,经济、社会和审美需求可以在保持文化的完整性,基本生态过程、生物多样性和生命支持系统。”(世贸组织,2000年)
一般来说,可持续旅游应该:
 
1)在旅游开发中最优利用环境资源的构成要素,保持基本的生态过程和帮助保护自然遗产和生物多样性。
 
2)尊重东道主社区的社会文化真实性,保护他们的建造和生活文化遗产和传统价值,并有助于跨文化理解和宽容。

3)确保可行,长期的经济业务,提供社会经济利益合理分配的所有利益相关者,包括创收稳定就业和机会和社会服务主机社区,并采取扶贫政策。
 
The idea of sustainable development is only about 15 years old. The concept of sustainable tourism was first mentioned in 1987 in a report published by the World Commission on Environment and Development(WTO, 2004). It defined sustainable development as "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”
 
The World Tourism Organization defines sustainable tourism as “tourism which leads to management of all resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic needs can be filled while maintaining cultural integrity, essentials ecological processes, biological diversity and life support systems.”(WTO, 2000,)
 
Generally, sustainable tourism should:
 
1) Make optimal use of environmental resources that constitute a key element in tourism development, maintaining essential ecological processes and helping to conserve natural heritage and biodiversity.
 
2) Respect the socio-cultural authenticity of host communities, conserve their built and living cultural heritage and traditional values, and contribute to inter-cultural understanding and tolerance.
 
3) Ensure viable, long-term economic operations, providing socio-economic benefits to all stakeholders that are fairly distributed, including stable employment and income-earning opportunities and social services to host communities, and contributing to poverty alleviation.
 
2 Sustainable Tourism:it is not idealistic 可持续旅游:这不是理想主义的
 
Looking back to development of sustainable tourism, there are a lot of good example to suggest that the idea of sustainability is not idealistic in many countries of the world, although perhaps a few failure case can not well control the balance with economic, ecological, cultural and community sustainability and so on. But it is admitted that the positive impacts are more than negative brought by the tourism industry.
 
In many countries of the world, including the least developed countries, tourism has become a major source of foreign exchange earnings. It is also an important means of expanding economic base through its linkage with the agricultural, industrial and service sectors. Consequently. Tourism has assumed considerable socio-economic importance in many parts of the world and its role has become particularly significant in every countries especail the developing one.
 
For example, In a number of countries in the Asian and Pacific region, tourism become one of the frontline sectors in the fight against poverty. The tourism industry create a number of development synergies to help overcome poverty through job creation in various regions of countries, including remote rural areas(ESCAP, 2005). This is particularly important since the great majority of people in extreme poverty live in rural areas. Tourism offers labour-intensive and small-scale business opportunities and employs a high proportion of women and unskilled youth. The potential of tourism to create jobs is of paramount importance, since unemployment is the principal social and economic challenge facing many developing countries.
 
Of course, if tourism is managed badly, it can have a detrimental effect-it can damage fragile environments and destroy local cultures. The challenge is to manage the future growth of the industry so as to minimise its negative impacts on the environment and host communities whilst maximising the benefits it brings in terms of jobs, wealth and support for local culture and industry, and protection of the built and natural environment.
 
3 Effective example for sustainabletourism有效的可持续旅游的例子
 
The concept of sustainability is broadly based on a definition that includes its economic, financial, social, cultural, ecological and environmental aspects. Consequently, sustainable tourism development should be environmentally sound and socio-culturally acceptable and its long-term economic viability should be ensured.
 
Over the last 10 years, every country in the world have explored the tourism industry in themselves land. At the same time, the notion of sustainability receives growing attention as more people become aware that we can no longer continue the current consumption rate of our natural resources. This notion of sustainability also reached the tourism industry as this sector, as being the world’s largest industry, how to balance the relaionship between the tourisam and the environmental, socioeconomical, cultural and institutional resources.There are a number of success examples that prove the sustainable tourism is feasible, it is not idealistic.(责任编辑:BUG)


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