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旅游业的显著转变

时间:2015-11-19 16:13来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
旅游业的显著转变
The Remarkable Transformation Of Tourism 
 
近年来,旅游业的重要性日益增加,许多学者和政策制定者都将旅游业作为经济增长的引擎。 许多国家,特别是小岛屿发展中国家(SIDS),旅游业已经成为经济活动的主要部门,或者至少是主要的外汇收入来源,在大多数国家,也是就业的一个重要部门。 反映出巴特勒所谓的“鲁宾逊漂流记因素”,热带岛屿已经被晋升为西方消费者的节日愿望的表达,充了浪漫和冒险的内涵,就像国王指出的那样,这是历史性的“人间天堂”。
 
卓越的旅游业转型为世界上最大的产业,约占全球GDP的十分之一,就业和资本形成——恰逢小岛经济的转型,从糖和椰肉干等传统出口转向大众旅游和相关建设。 结果改变了狭隘的景观,在加勒比地区,地中海和北太平洋和创建了所谓的“快乐周边”的北美国,欧洲和日本。 很多研究都把注意力集中在旅游部门对纠正国际收支平衡的积极影响。事实证明,外汇的创造,增加了税收收入,否则多元化出口和扩大就业机会会变得有限,这就很容易看出为什么对于许多小岛屿发展中国家(SIDS)来说,发展旅游业是一个有吸引力的选择。
 
不过,这种增长过于迅速,无计划地侵入和损害了岛生态系统。 小岛屿发展中国家(SIDS)(包括低洼的沿海国家)面临可持续发展的挑战,包括人口不多,缺乏资源,地处偏远,易受自然灾害、过度依赖国际贸易和全球发展脆弱性。 

In recent years, the increasing importance of tourism has led many scholars and policy-makers to explore tourism as an engine of growth. For many nations, in particular small island developing states (SIDS), tourism has become the main sector of economic activity, or at least the main source of foreign exchange earnings, and in most countries, it is also an important sector for employment (United Nations, 2001). Reflecting what Butler (1993: 71) refers to as the 'Robinson Crusoe factor', tropical islands have been promoted as the expression of the holiday aspirations of Western consumers, being full of romantic and adventurous connotations, and as King (1997: 145) notes, having a 'long historic pedigree of the "earthly paradise".
 
The remarkable transformation of tourism into the world's largest industry-accounting for roughly a tenth of global GDP, employment and capital formation (WTTC, 2001)-has coincided with the restructuring of small island economies away from traditional exports like sugar and copra toward mass tourism and related construction. The results have transformed insular landscapes across the Caribbean, Mediterranean and North Pacific and created the so-called "Pleasure Periphery" of North America, Europe and Japan respectively (Turner and Ash, 1976). Many studies have focused their attention on the tourism sector's positive impact on redressing the balance of payments (Balaguer & Cantavella, 2002; Hazari & Sgro, 1995, (pp. 253-256)). With a proven ability to generate foreign exchange, boost tax revenues, diversify exports and expand the otherwise limited employment opportunities, it is easy to see why tourism is an attractive development option for many Small Island Developing States (SIDS) (Briguglio et al. 1996; Guthanz & von Krosigk,1996; Milne, 1992; Wilkinson 1989).(责任编辑:cinq)


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