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经济衰退对英国酒店业的影响

时间:2016-09-01 09:10来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
经济衰退对英国酒店业的影响
Economic Downturn Effects On The Uk Hotel Industry 
 
从2007年底开始,许多人预测英国的酒店业,以及世界范围内的酒店业,已经遭受了严重的经济衰退的影响。在过去的几个月,英国的经济发展过程经历了从繁荣到危机,到2009年初,市场中的态度和信念已经彻底改变了消费者和企业从以前的乐观。
信贷危机开始于2007年八月,欧洲中央银行和美国联邦储备委员会将450亿美元进入金融市场之,欧洲,美国和英国均享受房价上升和消费者信心的经济繁荣。国内生产总值(GDP)增长到2007年的3815亿6500万£,同年家庭人均可支配收入为14321£。在这些“繁荣”时期,贷款是高的,由于宽松的贷款限制银行借款人可以筹集大量的资金。财产担保的债务被出售给投资者。因此,房地产价格大幅膨胀,创造了一个“泡沫”,当借款人开始拖欠他们的贷款,投资的价值大幅下跌。由银行导致雷曼兄弟在美国和英国北部的崩溃导致巨大的损失意味着贷款变得更加困难,银行对他们借钱更严格。。由此产生的资金短缺,由于缺乏对贷款和贷款的担忧导致了经济的低迷,房价下跌和失业增加。进一步的后果包括公共支出的大幅增加,预计将花费数年的时间来偿还,预计失业人数上升到320万,工资冻结或削减和大量的失业。可用信用的崩溃开始于美国,但全球贸易的影响很快就感觉到世界各地的很快面临的问题。德国、法国和意大利是欧元区的三大经济体,到2008年末,在经济衰退中,其他国家也迅速效仿。西班牙和爱尔兰都目睹了一个房地产泡沫破灭和收缩。
 
The UK hotel industry, as well as the hotel industry world wide, has been hit hard by the recession which started at the end of 2007 and is predicted by many to last until at least 2010. In the course of a few months the UK's economy has gone from boom to crisis and by early 2009 the attitudes and beliefs of consumers and businesses in the marketplace had altered radically from previous optimism (Mintel Reforecasts 2009 [online]).
 
Prior to the 'credit crunch' which commenced in August 2007 when the European Central Bank and the US Federal Reserve put £45bn into the financial markets (Elliott 2008 [online]), Europe, the USA and the UK were enjoying an economic boom with rising house prices and high consumer confidence (Budworth 2008 [online]). Gross Domestic Product (GDP) rose to £381,565 Million in 2007, and household disposable income per capita to £14,321 in the same year (Key Note 2008, p. 18). During these 'boom' years, lending was high and borrowers able to raise large sums of money due to relaxed lending restrictions by banks. Individuals whose circumstances would have at one time barred them from borrowing were allowed to access many times their salary (Budworth 2008 [online]). Debts secured upon property were sold on to investors. Property prices thus became vastly inflated creating a 'bubble' which burst when borrowers started to default on their loans and the value of the investments therefore fell heavily. The huge losses by the banks leading to the collapse of Lehman Brothers in the US and the near collapse of Northern Rock in the UK meant that lending became much more difficult and banks stricter about who they lend money to. (Budworth 2008 [online]). The resulting shortage of funds due to fears about lending and lack of loans has led to a downturn in the economy, falling house prices and increasing unemployment with many firms going out of business altogether and many more making drastic savings (Budworth 2008 [online]). Further consequences include a vast increase in public spending which is predicted to take years to pay off, a predicted rise in unemployment (by the British Chamber of Commerce) to 3.2 million, wage freezes or cuts and massive job losses (The Economy News 2009 [online]). The collapse in available credit started in the USA but in these days of global trading the implications were soon felt around the world with the UK quickly facing problems. Germany, France and Italy - the three largest economies in the Eurozone - were officially in recession by late 2008, and others rapidly followed suit. Both Spain and Ireland have witnessed a housing bubble burst and contraction in wider economic activity (Foresight 2008, p. 7).(责任编辑:BUG)


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