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留学生论文网:中国消费者对iPhone选择因素影响

时间:2011-05-03 10:05:46 来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien

An analysis of the factors influencing Chinese consumers’ selection of iPhone
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Abstract
Steve Paul Jobs says innovation is what consumers actually adopt. Since the iPhone hit the market, it received the sought after consumers. Thus, it created communication terminal sales myths time and time again. In America, as it is officially on sale for the first 200 days, Apple has sold out 400 million iPhones, with average daily volume of 2 million units. Only after 90 days, it has already occupied the U.S. smart-phone market shares approximately 20%. However, Apple company is very clear that product road is rugged in the global market. The year before last year, Apple introduced iPhone to India. What is 留学生论文网different from crowded scene in the United States is India’s first performance which is said that the reporters are more than buyers. According to expert analysis, the main reasons are lack of marketing and pricing well beyond the affordability of Indian consumers. Before iPhone being introduced to China, many people questioned whether Apple would experience the same problem on the world’s largest mobile phone market. Last year, Apple introduced iPhone to China with China Unicom in October. China Unicom is Chinese second largest mobile operator, announced on August 28 last year that Apple had signed a three-year non-exclusive agreement and planned to introduce 3G iPhone and 3GS handsets to the Chinese market. China Unicom Chairman told reporters in Hong Kong, said China Unicom would subsidize the iPhone. However, since iPhone has been on the market, it is neither as cold as the Indian market, nor smooth sailing as Apple and China Unicom expected. Chinese market is the largest market in the world, where exsits more competitions and challenges. Concerning the event of iPhone’s boosting into Chinese market, I product a survey on young people’s attitude. 42.1% of the people on the survey believe iPhone is too expensive to purchase. Most of these young people are the college students from non-rich families. Moreover, 20.4% of the people on the survey are iPhone users, white-collars with comfortable salaries.


Introduction
Innovation is not what innovators have invented, but what the consumer actually adopted. It is this new standard to measure the productivity of breaking the old concept: Innovation is not the number of patents granted, but rather to win new customers and retain the existing number of consumers. iPhone is a kind of 3G brand mobile phone which is launched by Apple in 2007. It hardly attracts American consumers when it is being on the market. “iPhone is a revolutionary and magical product, more than any other market-leading mobile phone a full five years,” Apple CEO Steve Jobs said “the finger is born the ultimate pointing device, while the iPhone to use their mouse has been created since the most innovative user interface.” As the symbol of fashion and taste, iPhone becomes the pursuit objective of many young people. In China, the largest market in the world, iPhone must face more competitions and challenges than any other country’s market.#p#分页标题#e#

To find the factors affecting the Chinese consumers’ adoption of iPhone, we do some surveys on the consumer groups of young people. Fashion and keen to pursuit of new products are characteristic of current young people in China. They are young and fashionable, liking comparisons. The iPhone has just entered the Chinese market soon as a kind of new fashionable product. Of course, it should be the object for them pursuit. Young people are a huge consumer group. They like individuality and fashion. They are born in years after China's reform and opening-up policy when the social diversity and openly and developing, enjoying the quality of education after the reform. They have a greater desire to the new things. Meanwhile, China Unicom launches purchasing ways such as pre-store the bill, 0 yuan purchase and promising the bill, hiring et. These policies are suitable for those young people because they are not very rich. Still, into the Chinese market, iPhone does not acquire smooth sailing. As the largest international market, there is more competition and challenges in the Chinese market. The world’s various brands of mobile phone equipment manufacturers in China account for a large share.

There are three main factors affecting the consumers’ adoption of iPhone in China. The first factor is the price. In America, iPhone’s price is so expensive that common people cannot afford it. While, when it is introduced to India, the price is too high and no one interests it. Although Chinese market is the world’s largest market, people who can afford iPhone are much more than those who cannot afford. iPhone has been on sale by the China Unicom since October of last year. It was announced that iPhone sales was up to 3 hundreds thousands in December last year, but sales after that became a secret. From May first of this year on, the China Unicom had planned to change the iPhone contract, cutting down the lowest monthly fee from RMB126 yuan to RMB96 yuan, felling pre-storing fee of iPhone purchasing by RMB1000 yuan, which means more than 20% price is cut. This makes Unicom Edition iPhone on the advantages of parallel immediately apparent. According to the statistic of China Unicom, iPhone sales in May increased by nearly 100%, and part of the sales channels or even “out of stock”.

The second factor is the competition among peers. iPhone will also face a number of competitors in the China challenge. Nokia accounts for over 67.3% of the smart-phone market share in China. The total market share of the top five vendors, which are Nokia, Motorola, Dopod, Samsung and Amoi, on the smart phone market in China, is up to 97%. These five brands in the Chinese mainland market have long been convinced that the brand consumers. It is not an easy task for iPhone to compete for customers from their hands. But the alliance with China Unicom, Apple seemed to be somewhat inferior in China. “In the U.S., Apple signed a contract in conjunction with AT&T,” Wharton operations and information management Professor Kartik Hosanagar said, “By contrast, Apple does not hold hands with Chinese largest carrier - China Mobile, more importantly is that Apple has access to much smaller market share of Chinese market by cooperation with China Unicom.”#p#分页标题#e#

The third factor is parallel imports flooding the Chinese market. The same as other countries in the world, iPhone has a lot of fans in China. According to unofficial statistics, there are already more than 1 million iPhone hand-phones circulating in Chinese market. Because China Unicom has not yet announced a special package with iPhone services or subsidies are also determined whether the phone can be sold separately, China Unicom, the “second” position on the impact of iPhone sales is unclear. Apple and China Unicom signed a non-exclusive agreement, in theory, other carriers or companies can be sold in China iPhone. In fact, the gray market is also the case in China, after the iPhone broken it can used on any mobile phone network in China.

Background
iPhone is a kind of 3G brand mobile phone which is launched by Apple in 2007. Its powerful functionality and stylish appearance attract not only the young people but also same businessmen who can get information through access to internet anytime and anywhere if they need. It hardly attracted American consumers when it is being on the market. January 15, 2008, MacWorld 2008 opening as usual attracted attention from around the world and its momentum beat the CES Conference in Las Vegas a few days before. The General Assembly has long been the industry as the world's largest, highest level and most influential consumer electronics productions including iPhone exhibition. The data published by Jobs at the MacWorld showed that year 2007 was the best year of harvest in the past history of Apple. That year, Apple not only achieved complete recovery, but also climbed to the top of the IT field. Research firm Nielsen Online tracking survey found that: users of Apple products, such a widespread state of mind that most of these users are thinking of some elites that own computers faster than other computers, more emphasis function, and focus on the design and work flow, and the sum they spent to buy Apple computers is also higher than many other computers on the market. As the largest market in the world, china has more than one billion hand-phone users which attract many brands of mobile-phone businesses. So does Apple Company. iPhone as one of products Apple want to introduce into the world’s largest market Chinese market become a fashion which is also attracting Chinese mobile-phone fans. Chinese consumer groups are also looking forward to that iPhone fashion could be into Chinese market early. Not long ago, Tencent reported that the China Unicom leaders went to the United States to talk about the issue introducing into iPhone4. The source said: “This negotiation is proceeding well, thanks to accumulate before the introduction of iPhone3G/3GS under a foundation. At the same time, the most crucial point is that Apple saw that the Unicom iPhone3G/3GS keep the domestic market showed a hot trend in favor.”

In China where people advocate face, iPhone is considered as a symbol of fortune and fashionable. Study in Beijing China Telecom and the technology industry BDA China predicted that iPhone would account for from 10 to 15 percent of China's smart phone the market in the next few years. Nicholas visited China many times last year, just came twice in August. He noted that iPhone’s momentum was gradually established. He said: “As long as one into the Beijing Carrefour, you will see the iPhone ad. They did make great efforts to promote the next.” Nicholas was not sure how much sales will be brought by the iPhone advertising, but he said: “I think China can create a steady stream of income, but persons who cannot afford the iPhone are certainly far more than people can afford.” Wharton management professor Marshall Meyer specializes in researching on the Chinese market, and frequently visited China, he thought, iPhone would be forming appeal to Chinese richness. He said: “China’s wealthy class want to have the most popular types of products, while iPhone is fashionable mobile phone.” However, the Chinese people may not choose the most expensive ones when they pursue fashion products. A student of Wharton marketing professor John Wesley Hutchinson found this phenomenon when doing the Chinese market survey on Windows CE in the 90s of last century. Hutchinson recalls, Windows CE is Microsoft's handheld device designed specifically for a Windows system. At that time, with the most powerful Windows CE product, fashion is a little less. The study found that, with Windows CE device faces strong competition from low-priced products, although the function of these low-priced products is more fashionable but less than Windows CE. He said: “This project gives us the greatest inspiration in the Chinese market that function is important, but more important is fashion.”#p#分页标题#e#

The future is bright while the road is tortuous. Of course, the Chinese market is a big lure to every business, but it is not so easy to handle. The competition is everywhere in China, not just existing in between the various terminal manufacturers, but also in between different operators. Apple makes the largest Chinese operator - China Mobile as a powerful opponent since it signed with China Unicom. Although the Apple brand in order to maintain their own characteristics, establishing the first online program shop (APP Store), on-line over the past year it has accommodated more than 100,000 developers of the 60,000 variety of software, resulting in 1.5 billion downloads, 2.4 billion in revenue a year. However, China Mobile and released on August 17 last year online program shop “Mobile Market”, while China's Telecom claims that its online store-building process has been completed, and in September on the line. This shows that since the iPhone to change the rules of the game to transfer of saying from carriers to device manufacturers and software developers, while China Mobile stand out first to move to “take-all” to regain control of the operator.

Literature Review
As technology improvement, our lives have undergone tremendous changes in recent years. With endless presentation of new products, it is making our life newer and newer everyday. Every year a large number of new products are flowing into the market, while only a half of them would be success to win the adoption of the consumers. Whether a new product is successful concerns that whether it satisfy the needs of consumers. Of course, a good marketing strategy is also useful for new product diffusion. Nowadays, research on consumers’ behavior or consumer demand is more and more important in marketing study which is an important basis for business decisions. Knowing about the consumer demand and consumer behavior is the precondition of making effective marketing strategy. Our study the factors to consumers’ adoption of the new production on the case of iPhone which is being into the Chinese market not long. iPhone is a kind of 3G brand mobile phone which is launched by Apple in 2007. http://www.ukthesis.org/dissertation_writing/Marketing/It hardly attracted American consumers when it is being on the market. “iPhone is a revolutionary and magical product, more than any other market-leading mobile phone a full five years,” Apple CEO Steve Jobs said “the finger is born the ultimate pointing device, while the iPhone to use their mouse has been created since the most innovative user interface.”

Marketing based on consumer demands
American scholar Rick Kash (2003) forecasts the coming era of new demand in economic in the "new rules of supply and demand". Under the demand of economic environment, enterprises gains better segment of market, actively and effectively to guide the consumer, to meet the needs of consumers which can not satisfy into reality, and find the demand which cannot find by normal economic, that is to create new markets needs to meet the individual needs in the market segments, while promoting economic development is critical for business to gain victory in the competition. In demand economy, insight into consumer demand is the basis for market reconstruction. On the era of demand-based economy, enterprises should take into account what are the needs of the consumer and when they need these things. Need-based economy is a long-term economic phenomenon. In this economic, companies must consider how to deal with consumers, completely clear the consumer demand and demand elements of integration of different segments derived through a new type of consumer types. New economic era, people try their best to pursuit of cutting-edge innovation, like the new and hate the old: advocates promote individuality and not accepted mediocrity and generic, but also eager to get the same appreciation and recognition, so that it can reflect their own values, which is to become a trends or fashion leader. This is the common needs of this generation wishes, this demand has exceeded the traditional sense of the spiritual extension of basic human needs, which is also different from Maslow's pure self-realization, so may be called the new requirements, a new era has come the demand and supply-side economic times will be vested in silence. That is why the rate of new product diffusion is faster than products launched in the past.#p#分页标题#e#

It is a popular contention that products launched today diffuse faster than products launched in the past. Question is why such acceleration would have occurred. The first study (Bulte, 2000) thought the evidence of diffusion acceleration is rather scant and the methodology used in previous studies has several weaknesses, and that studies before ignored potential antecedent of acceleration which were only attention to improved communication technology and more favorable attitudes towards technological change(Mansfield, 1961). This study investigates changed in the diffusion speed over a period of 74 years (1923-1996) in the U.S. using data on 31 electrical household durables. Bulte is the first man who provided a definition and measure of diffusion speed in the history. He also presented an approach to model variations in diffusion speed among products and over time which helped to measure and analyze the data and result. And it concluded that new product diffusion speed for consumer durables had increased in the U.S.A., which could be explained by economic and demographic growth.

It cannot meet the new consumer demand under the new economic conditions if only research on the demand characteristics expressed or described by consumers using the traditional marketing model. Almost all enterprises have the same feeling that it is difficult to understand the needs said by consumers, and it is more difficult to dig the hidden demand which is not said. Therefore, the related jobs of the identification of customer needs are more and more important in business, because that is an important basis for business decision.
Marketing based on consumer behavior
Consumer behavior is an important marketing research content, which revealed not only to meet consumer needs and desires of the process, but expressed a lack of consumer demand, state causes. Consumer behavior also reflects the needs of consumers to meet their own involvement in the process, the emotions involved in such participation and information search efforts, no doubt implicit demand on the system of positive significance to consumers. Consumer behavior marketing scholars began to rise and lead to widespread attention in the 20th century, 50s, and consumer behavior as a discipline emerged in the 20th century, 60s (JohnC.owen and M.S.Minor, 2004). Walter & Paul (1970) considered that consumer behavior is that when people buy and use products or services, which involves decision-making and behavior. Demby (1974) emphasized on people's assessment, access, and usage of goods or services, economic decision-making process and action. Reynolds (1974) pointed out that consumer behavior is a process, which contains all the relevant decision-making on the purchase. Engel, Kollatand Blaekwell (1978) that department of consumer behavior to obtain or use personal directly involved in the economic behavior of financial goods and services, including all acts of decision-making process is consumer-T to meet or solve their own products, Services and ideas and other different types of needs, shown from the search, purchase and use to evaluate a series of acts. Engel et. al (1992) redefined that consumer behavior is the reference activities when customers gain, consume and process the products and services, and the decision before or after the activities. They proposed that decision-making process is the procession of recognition, information search, pre-program assessment before purchase, purchase, consumption, evaluation about the program after purchase and disposition. Assael Henry et. al (2007) studied consumer behavior as a strategic approach. They proposed same questions like what factors influence consumer decisions; how consumers acquire product information; how organizations develop consumer brand loyalty for their product; how consumer behavior affect marketing strategy; what rights consumers have.#p#分页标题#e#

The intersection of the relationship and the marketing is called relationship marketing. These years, more and more scholars are researching the relationship marketing in consumer markets. A paper (Sheth, 1995) studied on established consumer behavior literature to suggest that consumers engage in relational market behavior due to personal influences, social influences, and institutional influences. In the opinion of this paper’s, consumers reduce their available choice and engage in relational market behavior because they want to simplify their buying and consuming tasks, simplify information processing, reduce perceived risks, and maintain cognitive consistency and a state of psychological comfort. They also engaged in relational market behavior because of family and social norms, peer group pressures, and marketer policies. The willingness and ability of both consumers and marketers to engage in relational marketing would lead to greater marketing productivity, unless either consumers or marketers abuse the mutual interdependence and cooperation. Theory of consumer behavior is now the main form for the purchase of a decision-making process. Sulomon (1999) defined consumer behavior is a subject involved in the process, when individuals or groups select, purchase, use, or products, services, concepts, experience, desire and processing to meet their needs. Thus, the consumer behavior is an ongoing process, not just consumer purchase transaction in a schedule. He also indicates that early this subject called the purchase behavior, to reflect the consumers and producers interact in the buying stage.

In a summary, the process of consumer behavior includes the factor of the formation of consumer implied demand. As Kim et. al (2002) said, demand can be regarded as the predecessor of attitudes and buying behavior used to establish consumer values, needs and behavior of the level of a link. Therefore, we can know the value of customers and customer needs are closely related. Marketing research on customer needs can be more to join the factors, and to consider how to enhance customer satisfaction: in the practice area, we are only based on the general direction of customer needs to design the product, it 'can be used to improve the product demand value.
The balance between products innovation and consumers demands
The enterprise want to gain more profits that it is important to find a balance point between the products innovation of company itself and the hidden or actual demands of consumers.
A study (Peter, 1995) aimed to seeking the ideal form between product design and consumer response. In the opinion of the author, the physical form or design of a product is an unquestioned determinant of its marketplace success. A good design can attract consumers to a product, communicates to them, and adds value to the product by increasing the quality of the usage experiences associated with it. Nevertheless, the topic of product design and enable researchers to better investigate design issues, the author introduced a conceptual model and several propositions that describe how the form of a product relates to consumers’ psychological and behavioral responses in the study. After presenting this model, the author describes numerous strategic implications and research directions. Even within a culture or social setting, people vary in their tastes or preferences. Some of the potential causes of these variations are design acumen, prior experience, and personality. In many instances, a product serves as one component of a consumer’s larger assortment of goods, and reactions to a specific product design can be modified by perceptions of fit with this assortment. Product reactions may also be shaped by the marketing program that surrounds the product. Which stage of the consumer’s new product adoption process follow the bass model? A study made some explorations on the problem. The Bass model, an elegant and powerful statistical model for new product sales forecasting, is founded on the behavioral premise of “innovation” and “imitation”. In their paper, they identify these effects by overlaying an additional parameter, which called skew parameter, in the Bass model, and then exploiting the observed asymmetries around the mode in the adoption data to empirically identify its value. When the estimated skew parameter, in the Bass model, and then exploiting the observed asymmetries around the mode in the adoption data to empirically identify its value. When the estimated skew parameter is equal to 1, our proposed model reduces to the traditional Bass Model, which says that the behavioral premise of innovation and imitation directly applies to the purchase stage in consumers’ new product adoption process. Values smaller and larger than 1, however, imply that the premise of innovation and imitation applies to the awareness and usage stages, respectively, rather than to the purchase stage. Finally, they concluded that the Bass Model applies first at the awareness stage for 37 product categories, and second at the purchase stage (as is assumed in traditional applications of the Bass Model) for 10 product categories, and third at the usage stage for 1 product category.#p#分页标题#e#

Perhaps, some people will think that technological innovation has little effect on consumers, because what consumers only see is the value of the product itself, not the underlying technical. However, they did not know technology innovation will reduce the cost of the product, thereby allowing for lower prices, which is the consumers want. A study on the adoption of new technology introduced the contribution of new technology to economic growth which could be realized when and if the new technology is widely diffusion and used. In their opinion, diffusion itself results from a series of individual decisions to begin using the new technology, decisions which are often the result of a comparison of the uncertain benefits of the new invention with the uncertain cost of adopting it. An understanding of the factors affecting this choice is essential both for economists studying the determinants of growth and for the creators and producers of such technologies. Unlike the innovation of a new technology, which often appears to occur as a single event or jump, the diffusion of that technology usually appears as a continuous and rather slow process. Yet it is diffusion rather than invention or innovation that ultimately determines the pace of economic growth and the rate of change of productivity. Perhaps the most important such factor is the need to develop complementary skills and capital goods, especially in the case of systemic or general purpose technologies such as electricity and information technology.

A study (Bass, 2004) on a growth model for the timing of initial purchase of new products has developed a theory of timing of initial purchase of new consumer products. The growth model is developed and tested empirically against data for eleven consumer durables. The basic assumption of his model is that the timing of a consumer’s initial purchase is related to the number of previous buyers. In his opinion, a behavioral rationale for the model is offered in terms of innovative and imitative behavior. The model yields good predictions of the sales peak and the timing of the peak when applied to historical data. Then, a long-range forecast is presented to developing for the sales of color television sets. The theory is intended to apply to the growth of initial purchase of a broad range of distinctive “new” generic chasses of products. So, a distinction between new classes of products was drawn as opposed to new brands or new models of older products. While further research concerning growth rate behavior is currently in process for a wider group of products, attention focuses exclusively upon infrequently purchased products. If concluded that the model provides good predictions of both of these variables for the products to which it has been applied.

Selling products to the consumer, it is important to seize the changing process of the psychological on the consumers. While, although diffusion models have been successfully used to predict the adoption patterns of new products and technologies, little research has examined the psychological processes underlying the individual consumer’s adoption decision. A study used the knowledge transfer paradigm to demonstrate that both existing knowledge and innovation continuity are major factors influencing the consumer’s adoption process. In their two experiments, it is demonstrate that the relationship between expertise and adoption is relatively complex. Specifically, their findings indicated that compared with novice, experts report higher comprehension, more net benefits, and therefore higher preferences for continuous innovations. However, for discontinuous innovations, experts’ entrenched knowledge is related to lower comprehension, fewer perceived net benefits, and lower preferences with that of novices. In their opinions, only when this entrenched knowledge is accompanied by relevant information from a supplementary knowledge base are experts able to understand and appreciate discontinuous innovations. They concluded that only when a new product was relatively continuous did the information processing benefits afforded by expertise in the primary base domain adoption by increasing both comprehension and perceived net benefits.#p#分页标题#e#
The marketing strategy for new product
When a new product is completed, the first thing we must consider is how to introduce it to the consumers. Advertising is one of the most directly powerful tools to recommend the new product to the consumers. Whether the advertising is guiding the consumers choosing the goods or not? A study (Hoch et. al, 2005) was researching the influence of advertising on how and what customers learn from products experience. In their research, a hypothesis-testing framework was adopted where consumers treat advertisements as tentative hypotheses that could be tested through product experience. Then, two experiments were conducted using product categories that provided either ambiguous or unambiguous evidence about product quality. Their first experiment showed that when consumers have access to unambiguous evidence, judgments of product quality are dependent only on the objective physical evidence and unaffected by advertising. But advertising had dramatic effects on perceptions of quality when consumers saw ambiguous evidence; judgments and product inspection behavior protocols showed that advertising induced consumers to engage in confirmatory hypothesis testing and search. Their second experiment showed that advertising influence quality judgments by affecting the encoding of the physical evidence; retrieval of ad-consistent evidence also appeared to occur, though to a lesser degree. Therefore, whether the ads influence consumer choice of goods is depending on how many knowledge the consumer know about the commodity.

Today, the products which are fastest replacement by new generation products are nothing but the electronic products. An article was written by Wee et. al (2003)whose objective was to explore the difference in the rate of adoption of portable audio products. In their study they chose two products, the portable MiniDisc player and the MP3 player, to represent the various innovations in the consumer electronics market. A two-stage pluralistic research was carried out; with the use of focus group discussions followed by a survey in order to gather the views and insights of consumers with regard to their adoption behavior. From the research findings, they ranked the seven factors influencing adoption ranked according to their degrees of importance. The consumer electronics industry has seen a wave of innovation sweeping the industry, with companies experimenting with a wide range of products from handheld gadgets to portable music devices. Given the advent of new technologies and shorter product development cycles, new products are constantly making their ways to the shelves. The main aim of their research was to shed some light on the adoption behavior of consumers in relation to new audio consumer electronics innovations.

Marketing strategy is relatively flexible, is also very important. It is making profits for the company directly. Marketers are also the persons who direct contact with the group of consumers. A good marketing strategy can save a business; of course, a bad marketing strategy also can ruin a business. Promotion of new products needs an attractive marketing strategy to introduce the advantage of products to the consumers.#p#分页标题#e#

Homogenous competition
“Homogeneous product competition” refers to the same series of different brands of products, designs, physical and chemical properties, value, packaging and service, marketing, imitate each other, as well as technical content, the gradual convergence of the phenomenon of value. Homogeneity in the product based on market competition, known as "homogeneous product competition."

Homogeneous competition is that all companies do not want to see, but also a lot of companies cannot avoid. Significant innovation is not every company can achieve, so many companies only look at the product and additional functions to be improved to enhance the company's products in the same product market competitiveness. There are also established to become alliance to join today's society competition. Sivadas et. al (2000) said that nearly 50% of the new products that are introduced each year fail though new products provide increased sales, profits, and competitive strength for most organizations. They summarized that the organizations launched new products in a double bind. One is they must innovate consistently to remain competitive, another is innovation is risky and expensive. So many organizations are forming business alliances to quicken the pace and reduce risks associated with innovation. But it is investigated by them that 70% of these alliances fail. And many of the successful alliances management clash with recommendations for effective innovation management. The authors develop testable hypotheses by integrating the new products and alliance literature. In this study, construct-cooperative in alliance which derived from related concepts of mutual adjustment, absorptive capacity, and relational capacity is posited as the key factor affecting new product development success, regardless of whether it is an intra or inter firm’s endeavor. Then, the authors tested the model with data from a sample survey in the semiconductor manufacturing context and replicate it in the health care sector. And they concluded that the antecedents of cooperative competency—formalized and clannish administration, mutual dependence, and institutional support—are revealed empirically and substantiated. At the finally, the authors summarized the importance and means of developing inter-firm cooperation.

Organizational innovation adoption has received increasing attention in the marketing over the past two decades. Insight in adoption process, its inhibitors and stimulators helps suppliers of innovations to market their new products more effectively. The objective of their study is to discuss main findings on organizational adoption and integrate them within a framework. The framework which they proposed addresses the adoption decision at two levels, which are the organizational level and the level of the individual adopter within an organization. Thus, they aimed to contribute to an integration of two streams of research on innovation adoption or technology acceptance that had emerged in the marketing and management literature. Although a tradition of individual acceptance models exists in the information systems literature, research on individual innovation acceptance in organizational environments remains limited. In their opinions, future research should provide more insights in the role of personal characteristics, and organizational and social processes that occur after the organizational adoption decision. However, studies with quasi-experimental research design and longitudinal data collection may provide richer insights into these determinants. In the end, they discussed an interesting area for further research within the organizational innovation adoption domain related to the Internet.#p#分页标题#e#

Demand Competition is an essential element of the business battlefield, demand homogeneity era marked the market matures, demand expansion also marks the more customers can get the same benefits. However, how the needs of corporate homogenization of the times to stand out the market, access to endless spiritual power? W. Chan Kim and Renee Mauborgne (2005) pointed in the “Blue Ocean Strategy” that the company should not indulge in the demand for homogeneous competition. Blue Ocean Strategy is a prerequisite required: the demand for unlimited static conditions, dynamic conditions that demand an alternative. In other words, in the static environment, to find the so-called Blue Ocean, the demand must be infinite; otherwise, the limited demand would form a “Red Ocean”. In a dynamic environment, demand continues to be replaced, making innovation enterprises have created or to meet new demand to avoid the competition. The past century, the birth of new industries due to mining the hidden demand of consumer and diffusion path in the pioneer consumer groups, to discover the earliest opportunity and entrepreneurial segments of the consumer groups and market space.

As the Internet penetration and advancement of technology, the rapid spread of e-commerce, people's consumption concept has a major change, which affects their development of electronic commerce consumer choice. A study (Alba et. al, 1997) examined the implications of electronic shopping for consumers, retailers, and manufacturers. They assumed that near-term technological developments would offer consumers unparalleled opportunities to locate and compare product offerings. They examined these advantages as a function of typical consumer goals and the types of products and services being sought and offer conclusions regarding consumer incentives and disincentives to purchase through interactive home shopping vis-à-vis traditional retailer formats. They discussed implications for industry structure as they pertain to competition among retailers, competition among manufactures, and retailer-manufacture relationships. Electronic shopping has both advantages and disadvantages, so we should correctly deal with this phenomenon. Although it solves many of the adverse of long-distance shopping, the security of the Internet still is a factor affecting it. Technology is always developing in the right direction, so do new things. We are looking forward to see that it will getting better and better.

A cross-national investigation (Steenkamp et. al, 1999) was aimed to research the individual and national cultural antecedents of consumer innovativeness. They proposed a framework that distinguishes individual difference variables and national cultural variables. Two types of individual difference variables were considered which were personal values and consumer-context-specific. They developed hypotheses pertaining to the main effects of the variables and their interactions and tested them on data collected from 3283 consumers in 11 countries of the European Union. Their empirical results were broadly supportive of the hypotheses. The cross-national data used in their study provide a strong test of the generalizability of the findings. National cultural uncertainty avoidance measures the degree to which societies tend to feel threatened by uncertain, risky, ambiguous, or undefined situations and the extend to which they try to avoid such situations by adopting strict codes of behavior. The uncertain national culture would affect the new product diffusions in some extent. So they concluded that it is important to position the new product as a continuous innovation which does not require radical changes in exciting consumption patterns when introducing new products in high uncertainty avoidance cultures.#p#分页标题#e#

Multiple studies have found that the primary determinant of new product failure is an absence of innovativeness, and that is the extent to which a new product provides meaningfully unique benefits. Given the persistence of the finding and the growing use of cross-functional teams in new product development projects, a study (Sethi et. al, 2001) examined how innovativeness was affected by various characteristics of cross-functional teams and influences on the team. Based on the research of 141 cross-functional product development teams, they found that innovativeness is positively related to the strength of super-ordinate identify in the team, encouragement to task risk, customers’ influence, and active monitoring of the project by senior management. Beyond a moderate level, social cohesion among team members would have a negative effect on innovativeness. In their opinions, the effect of super-ordinate identity on innovativeness was strengthened by encouragement to take risk and weakened by social cohesion. While, functional diversity had no effect on new product innovativeness. Further research may be able to identify teams with a wider range of functional diversity to understand how the variable affects innovativeness.

The management of customer switching costs has been hampered by the lack of a comprehensive typology for conceptualizing, categorizing, and measuring consumers’ perceptions of these costs. A research developed a switching cost typology that identifies three types of switching costs. The first type is procedural switching costs, primarily involving the loss of time and effort. The second type is financial switching costs, involving the loss of financially quantifiable resources. And the third type is relational switching costs, involving psychological or emotional discomfort due to the loss of identity and the breaking of bonds. The study examined the antecedents and consequences of switching costs whose result suggested that consumers’ perceptions of product complexity and provider heterogeneity, their breadth of product use, and their alternative provider and switching experience drive the switching costs they perceive. They thought all the three switching costs types significantly influence consumers’ intentions to stay with their current service provider.

Along with social progress, the goods present diversity which is not only merely to satisfy the basic needs of life, more gradually into the spiritual realm. The option to the goods can show the pursuit and the taste of a person. Personalization is also an aspect of people’s pursuit nowadays. Therefore, the fields to innovative continue to expand. New products do not grow into maturity at a steady rate. Rather, their sales pattern is marked by a long introduction period when sales linger at low levels (Tellis et. al, 2003). Sales takeoff is vitally important for the management of new product. The earliest relevant literature on this topic occurs in the related field of diffusion modeling. Although this literature is extensive, with more than a hundred studies (Mahaian et. al,1990), only a few of these studies address the international diffusion of new products. To deal with the multicollinearity problem, Tellis et. al conducted a factor analysis to extract orthogonal, higher-order constructs.#p#分页标题#e#

The births of many new products are accompanied by opportunities and challenges. In the initial state of new product, it may do not sale as the old product, because it doesn’t known by so many people. However, it derived from the needs of some people, so how to get more people to adopt it which require the managers to further improve it. The potential of the World Wide Web on the Internet as a commercial medium and market has been widely documented in a variety of media. However, a critical examination of its commercial development has received little attention. Therefore, a study proposed a structure framework for examining the explosion in commercial activity on the Web (Hoffman et. al, 2000).

From the above, we can see that the emergence of new products cannot do without innovation; however, the diffusion of new products cannot do without the market. If the companies want more people to adopt new product, firstly, they would be sure the products meet the needs of consumers; then, they would consider whether the new products are more powerful and convenient than the old ones; and they also need to think about the costs which would be cheaper enough. Consumers always prefer inexpensive products with good performance.
Fashion and keen to pursuit of new products are characteristic of current young people. The survey I do is mainly on college students and corporate white-collar workers. They are young and fashionable, liking comparisons. The iPhone has just entered the Chinese market soon as a kind of new fashionable product. Of course, it should be the object for them pursuit. Young people are a huge consumer group. They like individuality and fashion. They are born in years after China's reform and opening-up policy when the social diversity and openly and developing, enjoying the quality of education after the reform. They have a greater desire to the new things. Meanwhile, China Unicom launching purchasing way such as pre-store the bill, 0 yuan purchase and promise the bill, hire et. are suitable for those young people who are not very rich. Still, iPhone into the Chinese market is not smoothly sailing. As the largest international markets, there is more competition and challenges in the Chinese market. The world's various brands of mobile phone equipment manufacturers in China account for a large share.


Methodology
Apple iPhone mobile phones also enhanced the market similar products in the sales competition, opened the other production manufacturers in mobile phone designed on the ideas, and promoted the handset cooler manufacturers for production of mobile phones more stylish pursuit. This dissertation aimed to analyze the attraction of iPhone to Chinese customers and find out the factors which affect the Chinese consumers’ selection on iPhone. In order to reach the research aim, I do same surveys with the form of questionnaire and analyze the data which is coming from the questionnaire. Then, I would research the reason consumers choosing or not choosing iPhone. There are many brands of smart-phone in Chinese market. Each brand of smart-phone has its own features and fans. Therefore, there is a certain difficulty for iPhone to occupy the most part of Chinese handset market. Moreover, several other smart-phone brands have been into Chinese market much earlier than iPhone, especially, the Nokia brand is being favored by Chinese consumers and account for the general market share. iPhone is introduced to enter Chinese market last year. Though it caused a great sensation when it was on sailing in America market and became the object of young people and businessmen sought after, the Chinese market is more complex and more competitive which is different from America market.#p#分页标题#e#

Through the way of questionnaire we can learn about the real need of consumers and what they consider when they choose handset from those brands of products in store. Questionnaire, in essence, is an empirical approach. This is its methodological approach is different from some other one important sign. As an empirical method, among both the volume and the number of survey methods similar to the logic of science program, but also have similar content with their structure. In social studies, it is a macro point of view, to quantitative methods, based on objective verification to understand and explain social phenomena research methods. In this way with the traditional, individual interviews and field observations as the main features, and more from a microscopic point of view, qualitative methods, relying on subjective insight and analysis to understand the methods of investigation and research of social phenomena, there is a clear difference. This evidence determines that questionnaire nature, random sampling, and statistical analysis are inseparable. Or that the questionnaire actually means sampling, questionnaires and statistical analysis between the three there is some inevitable and intrinsically linked. Sampling to solve the problem is the survey questionnaire is to variable measurement and data collection tools, and statistical analysis is to deal with this though from the samples have to reflect the overall order volume between the large amount of data collected in the form the only way. As a comprehensive social survey method, questionnaire must include all three points. It can also say that they embody the modern social survey of the basic characteristics.
The object of the questionnaire
First, the objects of questionnaires for this research are scientists, college students, corporate, white-collar workers and freelancers. Because I consider the iPhone as a leading fashion phone, the first of the young family should be sought after. In addition, as IT industry, researchers branded products for certain foreign curiosity, except for certain factors that fashion, but also contains its own occupational diseases, accompanied by excellent products on the hobby. According to China Unicom given consumption set, you can know Unicom’s market position is high-end market, as soon as possible to seize the 3G market, with Apple’s iPhone to enhance their brand image. The target customers of iPhone are mainly in business, corporate white-collar workers and young groups. For business people, iPhone and convenient way calls can touch widescreen and search and mapping functions are the place to attract them, also, iPhone cheap price is also a status symbol, can reflect the social status of business people; white-collar workers for the company, the general “petty bourgeoisie” complex, so they want to live a Western life, and iPhone Western background, and in Western countries is Western-style fanatical pursuit of the best embodiment, the white-collar workers have more great attraction, to meet their pursuit of life and psychological needs; for the young group of young, vibrant, new things have the ability to quickly adapt iPhone’s unique design concept. The unique concept means communication, for them is a new experience, the pursuit of new things to meet their requirements. iPhone and the novelty of the high prices can make the younger age groups become the envy of their peers.#p#分页标题#e#

Prohibitively expensive, but also inherently inadequate (lack of WiFi), is generally Unicom users have complained version iPhone the place. Both official bare metal prices and bundled version of package price, compared to other mobile phone charges are very high. For this reason, many people are willing to choose the parallel imports into the Chinese market. China Unicom also as committed to open network for parallel mobile door. In Chinese market, more people are using of the brand which they use usually who are keeping eyes on the brand they believe. IPhone into the Chinese market is not long, though much propaganda, but more people just hold the attitudes of wait and see. Therefore, we carried out a number of people targeted questionnaire to learn about what the most consumers think about and find out the reason of low market share.
The design of questionnaire
The so-called questionnaire design, according to the purpose of the survey, takes shape the required investigation of the problems concrete, lets the investigation persons smooth the information to obtain the necessary information, and facilitates statistical analysis. As the questionnaires are usually indirectly by respondents to the survey by questionnaire to provide information, so as intermediaries between investigators and the respondents of the questionnaire material, its design is scientific and reasonable, will directly affect the recovery rate of the questionnaire, and affect the authenticity of the information and practical. Therefore, market survey, and questionnaire design should give sufficient attention.

The design of this questionnaire was first considering the basic background of persons who are being to do the questionnaire, including age, occupation and wage. Then the questions followed are the market share of other brands of mobile phone which is investigating by the number of the use of mobile phone brands they currently get. And then, we investigate the factors they will consider first when they are buying a mobile phone or are planning to buy a mobile phone, which facilitate for us to know how to improve to attract more consumers. Then, we investigated whether people understand the iPhone and whether it will consider buying the iPhone. This plays a very important role in the iPhone access to the audience and plays a promotional role. Because different people have different social backgrounds, different lifestyles, different values and different social experience, they often have different responses for the same things. The people investigating the matter for the volume between the knowledge and understanding, especially as the people of the survey respondents themselves and the degree of reaction, can be said to determine the success of the questionnaire survey the key factor. Any social survey respondents cannot do without the cooperation and support. For the survey, this cooperation and support are even more indispensable. Therefore, if the respondents are too anxious, worried, careless, or neglected, it means the survey is a failure.#p#分页标题#e#

Questionnaire survey design is the dominant part process of the whole volume. The level and quality of questionnaire design directly affect the final results of investigations and studies to determine the level of its quality. If the guidance from the theoretical framework, the design work between the volumes is often open-ended, there is no central place to ask questions. As a result, both may be missing some necessary information, it may collect too much information and research purposes unrelated. Once the necessary information is missing, then the analysis would be difficult to correct, the conclusion would be difficult to get round but when the information and research purposes not related to too much, you will waste a lot of manpower, material and time, and to data collection and analysis to bring a lot of unnecessary trouble, and sometimes caught in the information ocean researchers will become addicted. In the questionnaire design process, researchers from the study are both the purpose and needs, as much as possible, as surface as possible between the issues rose in detail, including some very complex, be allowed to remember, difficult to answer problem. Meanwhile, he also from the perspective of the respondents to consider whether they completed the questionnaire easy is it easy, whether it helps them to understand and accept more. In short, you need think about not only for your own sake, but also for the sake of respondents. This is a researcher in the questionnaire design will face another contradictory and conflicting situation. Only properly handle the relationship between these two aspects, a questionnaire survey to achieve the desired results.
The analysis of questionnaire
As the principal researchers in the survey, which has the role of the characteristics, to a large extent determine and influence the success of the survey merits. The performance characteristics of this role is one of the researchers in the survey are both from the solid, objectivity requirements, and maintain the “value neutral”, to minimize human interference, reducing the subjective course of the study composition and impact in order to achieve true colors accurately reflect the purpose of social phenomena, he also was the survey is to be determined from the social background of the people of this reality, give full play to its dynamic role as the principal researcher, through in-depth experience , subjective insight, and "put into understanding" and so on, to live close to survey cultural background, to know and understand their psychological state, ways of thinking, habits and sense of community in order to better use them to measure between the volumes behavior and attitudes, to collect relevant data and information. Faced with such a confrontation between both, and complementary role of the requirements, researchers should strive for balance, put right relationship is never easy. Different persons like different brands of handsets and their attitudes to iPhone are different. We cannot let all the people like iPhone, but the aim of this survey is to let more and more people learn about and like iPhone as possible.#p#分页标题#e#

Certainly, the survey does not necessarily reflect the overall situation, so the issue of survey design and the choice must be relevant and representative. Survey respondents by asking questions to investigate, so the question must be asked about the investigation of the topics are closely related issues. This requires that the questionnaire design, focused and to avoid non-essential issues, and the theme broken down into more detailed breakdown, that it made a specific inquiry forms were available for respondents to answer. As to whether respondents had absolute freedom to participate in surveys, to investigate an additional burden for them, they can either adopt a cooperative attitude survey; also can take against the behavior, refusal to answer. Therefore, the request for cooperation on a questionnaire designed in a very important issue. Note the word should be in the questionnaire, the purpose of the survey respondents explicitly told to let others know the meaning of the survey and their own answer on the importance of the findings. Designing the questionnaire, to pay attention to the order of the questionnaire, the questionnaire clear, logical, answer questions in order to enhance the effect. Easy to answer the questions and answers (such as behavior problems) on the front; more difficult question to answer (such as attitude problems) in the middle; sensitive issues (such as motivation, involves privacy issues) on the back; on the personal situation factual issues at the end. Closed questions on the front; open-ended questions on the back. This is because the question has been closed all the designer options are listed in the answer, be easier to answer, and open-ended questions require respondents to spend some time to consider, on the front so easy to produce difficult emotional respondents.


Data Collection and Analysis
In China where people advocates that face is more important, iPhone is considered a symbol of physical and trendy and fashionable. Who are the real consumers or potential consumers of iPhone? At the beginning, iPhone target the high-end class in Chinese market. From the first graph, we can see that people are willing to accept the age of the survey, mainly in some 18 years to 40 years young and middle-aged family. Young people like fashion, for the iPhone such a stylish and convenient phone will certainly not help to find out. The middle-aged man is something more than success, they have savings, and they pursue iPhone as it mostly to highlight their status. The second figure is about the wage distribution among those who were investigated in our survey. The persons whose wages are below 1000 are basically students. Though they have not make money by their own, they spending on the numeral product are a huge number. Wages between 1000-5000 are belonged to the white-collars who are young and like pursuit fashion. Others are belonged to some scientists and university staffs. They take great interest in new numerical products and new technologies. Unlike other young people like iPhone is because of liking pursuit of fashion, they are favor of iPhone as the need of job. The data shows that the persons who are interested in iPhone are not only the high-end class. But because of the high cost they can afford a iPhone handset which give the chance for the parallel into the market.#p#分页标题#e#

The retail version of the iPhone in the price is divided into three grades, which iPhone 3G 8GB version of the pre-sale price of 4999 yuan, iPhone 3GS 16GB price of 5880 yuan and the iPhone 3GS 32GB version in the selling price is 6999 yuan. See this price positioning I think some consumers will issue such a puzzle, the contract version of the iPhone price high above, but we bought a mobile phone while at least get a two-year contract, but also be huge for us to spend a compensation for the phone to purchase it. So now what about the retail version of the iPhone? 4999 yuan price seems to discount a lot, but less support for the package. Through the above price comparison is not difficult to find two types of iPhone in China Unicom has more than 1,000 yuan price gap between the two types of iPhone so naturally it will apply to different consumer groups. Adequate budget and for those who wish to enjoy a unique package of services iPhone users, one-time two-year contract to pay the price really is a good choice, but if the budget is not sufficient for a friend seemed to be able to choose the form of single purchased. Then in turn parallel the iPhone is what situation? In the country can fully enjoy Unicom's WCDMA service? The answer is yes. So why it is so generous to absorb Unicom these "enemies" mean? I think the reason is mainly the following points. The first is the existence of the domestic market parallel imports about 200 million of iPhone, the absorption time for China Unicom's WCDMA their strategy is very important. If we are rejected at this time they will have nearly 200 million users live in front of you sent to the competitors?

The followed reason is concerns by words of consumers. Unicom began to test the commercial WCDMA arrogance has been conservative since the controversy, the higher rates make Unicom's reputation in the industry is not good. As Unicom's iPhone killer after the introduction of, and we expected because there is a big gap and became the focus of attack, so such a sensitive time in China Unicom chose a more conservative approach is to stabilize our emotions has absorbed a new user why not? Through the above analysis we can easily find in the near future the mobile phone market in China will have three different versions of the iPhone there, and they were playing a different role. The final which will lead to more popular in our iPhone is still unknown, but the next line of water between the iPhone will be more intense competition is really no doubt.

 

As the largest market in the world, there are bound to have more competition and challenges. As Apple is not popular like in the United States in China, Apple would face increasingly fierce competition. iPhone in China face a series of challenges from our competitors. From Beijing, China Mobile and Lenovo, Dell, Texas and HTC which is from Taiwan’s, are launching of a series of Google Android-based smart-phone operating system. Rumored BlackBerry (BlackBerry) Canadian manufacturer Research In Motion Inc. manufacturers, is working with China Telecom to discuss matters relating to the provision of equipment. Beijing, CCID Consulting, Inc. (CCID Consulting) pointed out that all these phones will work with the current brand of Chinese mobile phone market leader Nokia, Finland, compete for the market. According to CCID Consulting Company Research, 2008, 97% of Chinese smart-phone market share by five sub-food brand: Nokia, Motorola, Dopod, Amoi and Samsung.#p#分页标题#e#

In this survey, we also investigated the market share of some large brands in the persons investigating by us. From the figure, we can see that Nokia account for a large part of the market share which is almost a half. The market share of Motorola and Samsung each have 15% of the market share. In fact, China having large population, many foreign companies want to attach great importance to Chinese huge market potential, the competition is quite fierce. The big brands in the Chinese market is also spent a lot of thought to. Apple would like to manipulate the Chinese market, it is very difficult. It is wrong to pin down the carriers. In China, foreign companies will contain state-owned enterprises never. Not before, not now, the future will not too. Although several operators are competing, no matter how competitive they are, after all, they are the state’s property. Thus, Apple does not grasp the rules of the game in China. With only a few innovative ideas wanted to grab market share in China, which is impossible.

For the flow of the market with many parallel, we investigated the views of all. However, 42.1% of the participants will support the parallel, because it is cheaper than the genuine iPhone. Parallel suffered frequent attacks of the iPhone, after years of price cuts, which led consumers who are supporting genuine iPhone complained that the iPhone is not trustworthy. iPhone price dive straight after the Spring Festival, which makes Apple Fans were very uncomfortable. Software from the 1.1.3 version of the perfect break after the iPhone, iPhone quotes a price of almost every day, from the listing of nearly RMB6000 to RMB5000 broken, then all the way from the drastic devaluation of RMB4200 to more than RMB3000. March 3. “iPhone this noble Crystal Apple, now the price break the boundaries, to rapidly evolved into the most potential 'bad City Arcade'" Many dealers tell you: before the iPhone is about the basic 10 units shipped, and now to the basic conflict 30 to 50 units, or even hundreds of one-time delivery platform, open the supply and price follow the market. Now Apple spokesman declined to comment on the proliferation of unlocked version of iPhone problems, only that it is hard to accurately estimate the number of unlocked version of iPhone. In fact, in addition to unlock version of iPhone, the market also appeared to apply digital products in China, luxury marketing ploy for Apple promoted innovative decency is not so, because it is R & D and innovation, cost of energy is easily cracked, but also the rapid devaluation of their products met customer criticism.

Apple’s iPhone push a lot of new man-machine interface application, in addition to capacitive touch screen for all to talk about things, in fact, proximity sensor is one of the important applications, which have also been other manufacturers to follow. On the Intersil’s booth, its show of close sensor was greatly popular. Apple’s iPhone is to use this proximity sensor, when consumers call the phone close to face, in order to prevent misuse touch screen mobile phone light, proximity sensors allow it to the state of locking screen. Such proximity sensors are constant of an ambient light sensor and an infrared LED component. Meanwhile, the ambient light sensor can also sense the ambient light to adjust the phone screen backlight to reduce power consumption of mobile phones. "Currently our ISL29011 has been close to sensors in the four global TOP5 by some Chinese brands are actively following up the available products. 1 sensor + 1 LED component, just one dollar cost, whereas can provide very good selling point, so popular among mobile phone makers welcome. It is reported that ZTE, Lenovo, Huawei and other Chinese brands are beginning to use the phone.#p#分页标题#e#

In my survey, in fact, there are still many fans of Apple, the iPhone is Apple's main orientation is high, there are many difficulties paying fans. iPhone led the wave of multi-touch screen, but the current touch technology and a major flaw, that is, it cannot sense the intensity of the size of your touch. Maybe it does not matter for the general procedure, but for far too deadly in terms of music programs, and the iPhone keyboard or percussion performance size-fits-all is exactly the same volume, so that you cannot show emotion out. While the current music program can you touch the keyboard by the longitudinal position of the volume level to make different voices, but the compromise is too bad. GreatApps registered a new patent (review), use of iPhone’s accelerometer to real-time analysis of the intensity of the size of the touch. Harder because you touch the iPhone, finger down the faster the movement, so that iPhone down in a short space of acceleration generated by the acceleration of the number of music software can control the size of the volume issued. In addition, iPhone while not sign a contract with China Mobile, but the cracked version of the iPhone could be there at any one network operator. This also indicates that China’s sales strategy of iPhone is not suitable. I give some suggestions at the back of this article.


Findings
Though iPhone into Chinese market there are many barriers, the success in the America market and any other country is seen by us. The emergence of Apple’s iPhone, make the mobile phone market has been entrenched in the manufacturer giants is varying degrees of frustration. Although on the Apple iPhone, the emergence of several major mobile phone manufacturers giant show dismissive look, but, according to the relevant information, iPhone, and comfortable U.S. market has been showing good growth. According to a market research by firm ChangeWave survey, when Apple's iPhone had been on the market only three months, its competitors had clearly been influenced by it. iPhone market share growth, market share to number one in the U.S. market, 30 percent of Motorola's market share has declined. In addition, according to the company's U.S. mobile phone market satisfaction survey data, the user satisfaction on the iPhone, 82%, compared with this, RIM’s user satisfaction is 51%, Motorola 31% customer satisfaction, Sony Ericsson's customer satisfaction was 31%. In the next 6 months Plan to visit those who purchase, 16% said they would buy iPhone, 15% said to buy Motorola’s mobile phone, 13% said they buy Nokia, LG, and Palm’s purchase accounting for 4% and 2% respectively. While in Chinese market, Apple’s sales have been exceeded. China’s Android phone volume 882,384, while the amount of 725,358 iPhone mobile phones. It is said that Lenovo Music Phone first month of sales is expected to reach 80,000 to 100,000 units, but also further approximation iPhone sales. In the Chinese market, Apple’s iPhone in other markets have not encountered problems. Parallel iPhone, Music Phone, Android phones pose a threat to the iPhone, and swallowed some of the market. Music Phone With a relatively low price, the advantages of local brands, Android has the support of many mobile phone makers, and Apple fight. The foreseeable future, the Internet phone in the Chinese market will become more competitive, will be the function, price, brand's overall competitive.#p#分页标题#e#

Since iPhone into the Chinese market, there have been some technical problems, such as black, crash, “the antenna gate”, which cause consumers complaining. The rate of launching new iPhone is so fast that consumers are dizzying.

iPhone now at the state of “lock SIM card approach” to sales, it is to say that consumers buy the iPhone only in a telecommunications network operator to use. iPhone SIM card lock the purpose of the company’s products on their own strengths, and demands ranging from telecom operators to offer revenue-sharing ratio. In accordance with the provisions of Ministry of Information Industry, customized mobile phones cannot lock the network, not restrict users to choose other carrier services, shall not impede interoperability. This also means that any one with the Chinese telecom operators to cooperate, we cannot restrict users to buy the phone service with other telecommunications companies. The current iPhone in the U.S. and several European telecom operators, lock SIM cards are bundled, these operators cannot replace each other between the uses of SIM card. According to incomplete statistics, the existing iPhone around the world about 25% of which is "cracked" version, from the non-formal channels into the domestic market, most fall into this category. The cracked version you can use almost any mobile operator's network, this constant pressure by means of technology and market this "crack" behavior. Therefore, companies are willing to in accordance with the provisions of Ministry of Information Industry, the Chinese market with no restrictions on network operators’ iPhone, it is hard to judge.

But the discerning eye of a careful calculation, although the bare metal prices high, if the choice of packages bound version of China Unicom, the actual price is still cheaper than the parallel imports. By fee return, the three 3G iPhone prices will respectively RMB3095, RMB4095 and RMB5095 cheaper than the parallel imports nearly 900 dollars. If the course fee high, 16GB of iPhone even tantamount to zero per purchase. “Our pricing is not cheap, but definitely with parallel cost-effective than the user. But, according to recently released official data, 90% of Chinese current market parallel iPhones 3G are refurbished machines.” In additional, China Unicom is also very clear panels in the high-end users the value minds. In the promotion process, they deliberately stressed the genuine software and to solve the differences between the uses of software, which is the speed and user experience to be much worse. This is also a strong impact on the parallel position in the minds of consumers.

There was high hopes Lenovo music Phone on May 17 in Qingdao, China Unicom some offices are listed, as the direct words against Apple’s iPhone, domestic smart phone, Lenovo Music Phone is not only price is only about half of Apple’s iPhone, and its great to play the software store card, to the end of this year, 1,000 kinds of mobile phone users can choose the software. Concerned that Lenovo is expected to change the listing of music Phone 3G iPhone thriving mobile phone market situation. As Lenovo Group chairman Liu said, the advantage of only one association, that is in China. Domestic mobile phone software suppliers and mobile content providers are continually shop for Lenovo software, software and content, while the Lenovo sales channels across the country and the sales network of China Unicom will put up top-down music Phone room for growth. Lenovo claims that Music Phone three years does not make money even want to challenge iPhone. More as this industry is a gimmick aimed at the global impact with iPhone enhance its reputation.#p#分页标题#e#

Conclusion
As we all know, iPhone sales have been lost parallel imports and the crack version of iPhone in china. why are iPhone sales not optimistic in the Chinese market while iPhone is popular in the market of United States? From our findings in the survey, we summed up several factors which were the impacts of iPhone sales in Chinese market and some factors why consumers choose iPhone.
Unfavorable factors affecting iPhone into Chinese market
The factors why people do not choose iPhone are as follow:
Firstly, as the largest market in the world, there are more competitive challenges in Chinese market. The largest carrier - China Mobile has launched iPhone strategy, a direct challenge to China Unicom's iPhone. China Mobile has millions of users, who used to move most of the network will not iPhone, China Unicom. Meanwhile, several other smart-phones also have brand-new products, especially the Nokia is popular among most Chinese consumers. Apple playing features, Google co-operation to fight, Lenovo played low. In three homes, iPhone maverick business strategy has been pursued. As a hardware manufacturer, Apple's main goal is to ensure that their high profit margins. It's a strategy to ensure Apple's market share almost unshakeable; Google Android OS system through the impressive performance, by different manufacturers, is provided by several carriers. Android phones present a situation of flowers blooming. The progress in sales can be seen as Android phone in the Chinese market successfully.

Secondly, iPhone proliferation of parallel machines will also be an important factor, which will make some of the urgent needs of the 3G Apple products business without loyal customers continue to use the existing network, influencing Unicom development plans. Although the cooperation of China Unicom and iPhone get significant benefits, due to the complexity of Chinese telecommunications market, and diversity, its ultimate impact is limited. With more stringent conditions for cooperation APPLE, China Unicom’s input and output cost are not very clear. The prospect needs to see whether the combination of both the local market conditions in China introduce the right strategy and business cooperation. Both official bare metal prices and bundled version of package price, compared to other mobile phone charges, are very high. For this reason, many people are willing to choose the parallel imports into the Chinese market. China Unicom also is committed to open network for parallel mobile door.

Thirdly, iPhone AppStore most software is setting in English which has been missing in localized areas, therefore, iPhone AppStore advantage may not be able to play. Microsoft, Google, Nokia applications quickly joined the ranks of retailers, Vodafone, Orange and T-Mobile and other mobile operators have built their own application store. China Mobile phone application Mobile Market Mall has also been officially introduced on the market. Therefore, online software store is not the exclusive characteristic of iPhone. In China, the Chinese Mobile and the Chinese Telecom have their own online software stores. #p#分页标题#e#
Favorable factors encouraging iPhone into Chinese market
Now, let’s sum up the favorable factors which attract partly Chinese consumers to choose iPhone. As we all know, iPhone’s technical parameters, compared with existing high-end smart phones, do not have much advantage at all. Even, there are many configurations also with less. So the success of the configuration has no direct relationship with the phone itself. The reason why Apple’s iPhone made such a huge effect, we believe that there are several main factors:

First, App Store's core strength is reflected in three aspects. First, for developers to provide 70% of the share system, with substantial revenue to provide quality to inspire and develop the application; second, iPhone has brought the mobile Internet entertainment experience, upgrade the terminal has a rule of force; third, fit the application of user consumption habits pricing strategy, bringing valuable user stickiness, the majority of users the user to quickly transition from mild severe users. App Store has an active developer community, with China's relative weakness in personal development, to SP, ISV business development capabilities, represented by not effectively explore. These differences determined simply copy the App Store in China, hardly succeed. In understanding the spending habits of the users based on the integration of business and personal development resources, launched in the chain work together to build open and healthy the business ecosystem. What operators need to consider is the core of the problem.

Second, Apple’s brand influence; iPhone, Apple will achieve, if not from such a big success? Or, the market appeared and the iPhone, the same product can cause such a huge effect? Perhaps, we will regret for, as friends said, iPhone’s biggest difference from other products is iPhone belongs to Apple. In electronic products, the Apple brand's influence, especially for young people fashion is insurmountable. The main strength from Apple’s innovative design of products is also an important factor in enduring their products.

Third, loyal customers sought after; In the media on June 29 at the Apple store waiting for iPhone for sale before the interview, we found that a large portion of people are loyal users of Apple iPod. Apple has a large number of loyal customers. In the eyes of those users, only Apple’s products is the industry’s only other branded products should be thrown into a trash barrel. It is these loyal users of Apple products, touted as the iPhone, has fueled role of a sensation.

In the last, cool interface and innovative designs; In addition to the influence of the brand and loyal user of the pursuit of outside, iPhone, there is a very important success factor, that is, cool interface and new look. In this regard, even the giant mobile phone maker Nokia had to be commended for it. Of course, this is also the access to the root causes of many consumers favor.

In summary, iPhone in China has not only opportunities but also challenges. Apple’s innovation in the mobile phone has been recognized by the people, which is a great history of innovation in IT. It is a marketing strategy which has achieved initial success, winning a lot of mobile enthusiasts pro-gaze. However, Apple started his mobile phone manufacturing industry; technology is not as good as those old brands, which need further study and improvement. Marketing strategy in the Chinese market should be improved in order to adapt to the international market.#p#分页标题#e#

Recommendations
Within the Chinese market, except for newcomers to the “Black King” Blackberry, the Google’s Android and Lenovo’s Music Phone can be regarded as the strongest challenger to Apple. Without WIFI, iPhone is not popular as other brands of smart-phone. Limited flow and fun of online software is always contradictory. Although the building is very rich background, high costs or make people look and stop. Although the iPhone in foreign country is out of sale, sales in Chinese market remain unchallenged. According to the factors affecting the Chinese consumers’ choosing of iPhone above, we give some advices on iPhone marketing. The process of consumer buying is divided into pre-buy, buy in, use and after use four links. Each link is in the process to meet consumer value; in each stage there are some impact factors. In general, including products, image, personnel, services, environment, according to those factors, the development Unicom iPhone marketing strategy are as follow which may have some effective.

The first one is product strategy.
Redesign of iPhone in the shape, packaging, to suit the aesthetic ideas of the Chinese people, and constantly improve product performance and is sold in China Unicom's iPhone with the United States the same performance. Continue to develop new software, such as mobile phone games, cell phone sites, etc., to meet the needs of different consumer groups. In from the introduction of new Apple product, you can communicate with Apple’s development situation of Chinese consumers for new products to meet different consumer groups of different consumer demand. Many people believe that Apple's product designs are very impressed, and Unicom version of Apple's iPhone as such, arc-shaped handle with piano paint the corners of the back cover design, more like a work of art, true work, Both phones 133g and 135g of weight is also very convenient; while Unicom iPhone 3G and iPhone 3GS Both products use 3.5-inch Multi-Touch touch screen, resolution up to 480 × 320 pixels, with multi-touch functionality. In addition, Unicom iPhone 3GS phone body and screen are used thinning oil fingerprint resistant coating technology, mobile phone permanently to maintain clean, user from, and grease, profiling say goodbye.

The second one is image strategy.
Unicom image repositioning to improve the 3G network, makes the 3G network enjoys popular support, and constantly create a new way of life, so that consumers can get a new life before the Enlightenment. To change the image of China Unicom's sales, including sales venues, publicity and so forth. Design of three ads, a print ad is mainly invested in the business media, the main group for business people. Another two sets of television ads running in major television stations, television or entertainment programs focused on when the player is mainly for white-collar workers and young groups. Change the iPhone sell the image of places, such as changes in distribution channels, setting up shop, iPhone counter sales of products to fit the image, with its own unique image, such as designed iPhone style, etc., to create peace of mind for consumers comfortable purchasing environment, reflecting the pursuit live.#p#分页标题#e#

The third one is personnel policy.
In the iPhone in the sales process, essential personnel factors, both in pre-purchase information, purchase of help options to help debug or use the service after the purchase cannot be separated personnel. External recruitment of specialized staff trained in communication skills with people, when talking with customers to consider for customers everywhere meeting the different requirements of customers. For staff at different stages have different requirements. Purchase for the former, participation in promotions of publicity staff to fully promote products and other on the device, let feature outstanding, stressed the product can satisfy the consumers demands; in consumer purchase, Shopping guide an understanding of iPhone in the performance, patient assist in the selection, patiently answering consumer questions; in consumer use phase, iPhone sales staff regularly visits the establishment of consumer records, consumer problems in a timely and effective help.

The last one is Service strategy.
iPhone sales process is a service of process, the service will have a direct relationship to the consumer to buy iPhone consumer experience, good or bad.

To establish uniform standards in the service price, unified image, unified commitment, unified service standard sales service standards, so that any consumer can enjoy at any time Unicom warmest "5S service" that "smile, quick, standard, good faith, satisfied. "

After-sales service is an important part in the after-sales service, we should establish a national network of after-sales service network of all the maintenance personnel must be certified maintenance to ensure that iPhone customers across the country can enjoy the convenience professional service.

To carry out “Service Experience Day” once a month, free of charge at all sales outlets to carry out the iPhone mobile cleaning, testing and software upgrade services to enable consumers to have been iPhone to bring the enjoyment of their value.

As the Apple brand in China is less than the United States, in terms of the competition will be particularly severe for Apple. For example, Apple's iPod, said in the Chinese market as the U.S. market on the Chinese mainstream users often choose the more low-end MP3 player. Apple in July 2008 established the first retail stores in China, but did not get the same enthusiasm as in the United States sought after. Some people think that iPhone price is too high, not ordinary people can afford played. iPhone price is not sought after in the Chinese market, the main reason. However, iPhone has its own characteristics, too low a price cannot display their tastes, and therefore affordable. To maintain the attractiveness of iPhone, Apple and China Unicom should adhere to the price of iPhone in RMB1400 (about 205 U.S. dollars) or more. The high price match just graduated from college students about a month’s wages. iPhone is not a popular product, if the market for the people, but surprising. This product is very likely the high-end market positioning, and focus on attracting darker image conscious users. Even so, if somewhat inadvertently, there may be a price war broke out. The competitors cannot wait to drag iPhone into the water.#p#分页标题#e#

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Acknowledgement
First and foremost, I would love to show my great gratitude to my tutor who is a strict and well-read professor. I get a lot of progress and improving by his helping in life and guiding me in learning. It is hard to describe my gratitude by words. He is both my tutor in study and helpful friend in life. Instructor meticulous work, dedicated professionalism sets a good example to me. From dissertations to research work carried out at each step, all have devoted their attention and teach, they raised a lot of very useful and valuable suggestions, so I was able to smoothly complete the task of studying and writing papers.
I thank my dear classmates and friends, because of your accompanying, let my life has been bereft of entertainment, so my research has been the object of discussion, let me talk to you when I am being in troubles or bad mood. Thanks to your care and help me in every possible way, I could successfully complete the paper. Finally would like to thank my family, quietly in the background gives me great concern and support. My success is also your one. Thank you all for giving me support and love, I will be more efforts and hard working in the future.


Appendices
A questionnaire about iPhone on Chinese market

Q1. What is your age about? ( )
A. 18~29 B. 30~40 C. 41~50 D. above 50
Q2. What is your job? ( )
A. The top managers B. Administrative Assistant C. Service Personnel
D. Professionals & Technical E. Housewives F. Workers
G. Students H. Other occupation
Q3. Which class is your monthly income level below?
A. under 1000 yuan B. 1000~5000 yuan
C. 5000~10000 yuan D. above 10000 yuan
Q4. Which brand of handset are you using now? ( )
A. Nokia B. Motorola C. Blackberry D. Dopod E. Samsung F. Amoi
G. Apple H. Song Ericsson I. LG J. HTC K. Other brands
Q5. What channels you get information from when you want to buy or collect handset? ( )
A. Family or friends B. Handbook or handbill C. Television advertising
D. Radiogram E. Newspaper F. Internet G. Counter salesperson
Q6. Do your think a smart-phone a useful tool in your work or life? ( )
A. quite useful B. just so so C. no use
Q7. Which brand of smart-phone do you like best? ( )
A. Nokia B. Motorola C. Blackberry D. Dopod E. Samsung F. Amoi#p#分页标题#e#
G. Apple H. Song Ericsson
Q8. Which factors below you would think about first when you choose smart-phone? ( )
A. Pixels B. The rate of access to the Net C. The price D. Brand
E. Extended memory F. Operating system G. After service H. Appearance
Q9. Do you know which year the iPhone enter the Chinese market? ( )
A. 2007 B. 2008 C. 2009 D. 2010
http://www.ukthesis.org/dissertation_writing/Marketing/Q10. Will you choose iPhone if you are out of your hand-phone? ( )
A. Yes, I like iPhone very much. B. I will think about it. C. No, I won’t.
Q11. If you want to buy iPhone, you will choose genuine or parallel? ( )
A. The genuine ones B. The parallel ones C. Neither
 

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