Corporate Culture and Organizational Effectiveness:Is Asia Different From the Rest of the World?
DANIEL R. DENISON STEPHANIE HAALAND PAULO GOELZER
留学生毕业论文One of the most difficult challenges forthe field of international managementis the application of theories and modelsdeveloped in one part of the world to understandphenomena that occur in another partof the world. Much of the early concern aboutthis issue concentrated on the relevance ofAmerican theories abroad. But more recently,the same problemhas been faced by Japanesetheories of quality control and knowledgecreation; or by European theories of jointventures or organizational design. The goalof these efforts is to develop a useful generalframe of reference, but also allow for theneeded sensitivity to local variation.Some of the biggest challenges for developingtheories with cross-cultural relevancecome in the area of organizational studies.
Differences in behavior, work values, andculture have been studied by many researchersinmany different countries. Several frameworkshave proven useful for understandingcultural differences (e.g., Trompenaars andHofstede) and have helped to establish somerelatively universal dimensions (e.g., individualism,power distance) that can be useful inunderstanding differences across nationalcultures. But few researchers have attemptedto understand the impacts these behavioraldifferences have in different national contexts.
The logic of cross-cultural comparisonand validation has been discussed at lengthby several authors. In most areas of the literature,however, the biggest challenge is the
Organizational Dynamics, Vol. 33, No. 1, pp. 98–109, 2004 ISSN 0090-2616/$ – see frontmatter
R E S E A R C H I N A C T I O N
Acknowledgments: The authors would like to thank the International Institute for ManagementDevelopment for their support of this research. In addition, we are grateful for the involvement
of all the managers and executives who participated in this study.98 ORGANIZATIONAL DYNAMICSalmost total absence of comparative data.Our literature review found very few studiesthat offered a comparison of the effectivenessof organizations across several countries thatcould be linked to differences in organizationalculture, work values, and behavior.The evidence global leaders need in order
to understand the impact of the organizationalcultures they are creating is usuallyunavailable.
This paper takes a bold but riskyapproach to these challenges by examiningthe link between organizational culture andeffectiveness with two separate studies. Thefirst study examines this link with data from230 organizations in Europe, North Americaor Asia, and reveals a surprising level ofsimilarity in the results across these regions.The second study examines the same topicusing data from 218 organizations fromseven countries: Canada, Australia, Brazil,U.S.A., Japan, Jamaica, and South Africa.
The second study focuses on samples ofsupermarkets that were part of an independentcooperative operating in a similar fashionin each country. The results show a highlevel of similarity in five of the countries, buta divergent pattern of findings from Japanand Jamaica. These two studies constitute apreliminary and exploratory step rather thana comprehensive study, but they do illustrate(责任编辑：BUG)