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英国留学生论文需求:The Study of Mass Media Audienc

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MS7003 – The Study of Mass Media Audiences 1
DEPARTMENT OF MEDIA AND COMMUNICATION INCORPORATING THE CENTRE FOR MASS COMMUNICATION RESEARCH The Study of Mass Media Audiences MS7003 Module Tutor: Natasha Whiteman MA Mass Communications 2009/2010
MS7003 – The Study of Mass Media Audiences 2
THE STUDY OF MASS MEDIA AUDIENCES
Course Tutor: Natasha Whiteman
(Email: new9@le.ac.uk)
英国留学生论文Course Description
Ideas about mass media audiences take a central place in debates about the role of the media in society. A popular view is of audience members as „couch potatoes‟ who passively consume whatever media fare is offered to them. Underpinning such a view are long standing assumptions that the mass of ordinary people are „cultural dopes‟ unable to resist the pervasive, and persuasive, power of media. More recently, others have argued for a more celebratory view of the media audience. In place of a naive and vulnerable audience (in the singular) we now encounter ideas about audiences (in the plural) who are able to resist media power in creative, pleasurable and meaningful ways. These conflicting accounts of the media audience(s) have attracted a great deal of attention not least because they take us to the heart of issues concerning the impact of media „effects‟. Yet despite decades of mass communication research there is little agreement on the nature and extent of mass media influence. This module puts the approaches to media audiences into their historical and theoretical context, and examines a number of case studies that exemplify the main audience research methods. This will give you a chance to explore the kinds of ideas and concepts that underpin the different questions that are asked about audiences, and the context in which such questions are produced.
Course Aims To provide an overview of the development of research about audiences from the beginning of the Twentieth century to the present;
To consider changing approaches to understanding media audiences alongside changing views of society;
To explore the debates surrounding mass media power and influence; and
To introduce research carried out by media academics and media organizations which attempt to measure and understand audiences.
Course Objectives/Learning Outcomes
By the end of the module, you should be able to demonstrate: Knowledge and understanding of theoretical approaches to the study of media audiences; and
Knowledge and understanding of the socio-historical context in which different questions about media audiences are produced.
An ability to summarise and evaluate both historical and contemporary currents in theories about media audiences.
MS7003 – The Study of Mass Media Audiences 3
Course Structure
Week 1
7 Oct
Introduction to Media Audiences
NW
Week 2#p#分页标题#e#
14 Oct
Early Audience Research: The Effects Tradition
KS
Week 3
21 Oct
Cultural Indicators and Cultivation Theory
KS
Week 4
28 Oct
From Screen Violence to Real Violence?
NW
Week 5
4 Nov
Cultural Studies Approaches: Encoding/Decoding and the Critique of Qualitative Methods
KS
Week 6
11 Nov
Feminist Audience Research: From Psychoanalysis to Ethnography
TS
Week 7
18 Nov
Race, Identity & Media Consumption
NW
Week 8
25 Nov
Measuring Audiences
NW
Week 9
2 Dec
Audiences, Fans and Fandom
NW
Week 10
9 Dec
New Media Audiences: Interactivity and Fragmentation
KS
MS7003 – The Study of Mass Media Audiences 4
Assessment
You are required to submit ONE essay for this module. Essay titles are given below and you must choose one of these. Your essay must be between 3000 and 4000 words in length. Please refer to your Course Handbook for deadline dates for submission and instructions on how your essay should be submitted. You must sign a submission form to confirm that the essay you are submitting is your own work and that you have acknowledged all your sources. (Please read carefully the section in your Course Handbook on ‘Plagiarism and Referencing’).
Essay Questions
1. What different kinds of “effects” can the media have, and what are the theoretical and methodological problems associated with viewing media in terms of effects? Discuss in relevance to research.
2. To what extent does cultivation analysis provide an alternative to ideas about simple short term effects in our understanding of audience behaviour?
3. Has the cultural studies approach to the audience lead to an uncritical celebration of audience „activity‟ among media theorists?
4. „Media violence is a significant cause of social violence.‟ Discuss this statement, drawing from relevant research to make a case for whether it is true or false.
5. Is it possible to measure media audiences effectively? Discuss using relevant research evidence.
6. With reference to relevant research, discuss the claim that ethnography offers insights into the complexity of audience behaviour which other methods cannot provide.
7. “Fans can be considered among the most active and creative groups within media audiences”. Agree or disagree, developing and explaining your argument with reference to research.
8. In what ways are race and ethnicity significant in the production and/or consumption of media messages?
9. What is distinct about Feminist perspectives on audience research?
10. In what ways are new media audiences different from mass media audiences? Discuss with reference to research.
MS7003 – The Study of Mass Media Audiences 5
Teaching and learning
Each week a topic will be introduced in a lecture. You are expected to attend all lectures, take notes during these; and read and take notes from primary and secondary sources that are relevant or as recommended during lectures. Each topic has a reading list (see below) which is divided into core and supplementary reading. You should read at least one set „core‟ text for each week in advance of the lecture and select material from the list for further reading. Core readings are considered essential for an understanding of the topic in question. These texts should be your starting point in essay preparation; your tutors will expect essays to demonstrate your understanding of these materials. The supplementary readings listed offer opportunities for further study of each topic and can provide additional insights which will be helpful to you when preparing the essay.#p#分页标题#e#
Key Texts
It is advisable to purchase at least one of the following books:
Boyd-Barrett, O., & Newbold, C. (1995) Approaches to Media: A Reader, London: Arnold.
Dickinson, R., Harindranath, R., & Linné, O (eds) (1998) Approaches to Audiences: A Reader, London: Arnold.
Ruddock, A. (2001) Understanding Audiences: Theory and Method, London: Sage.
Brooker, W. & Jermyn, D. (eds.) (2003) The Audience Studies Reader, London: Routledge.
Week 1: Introduction to Media Audiences Natasha Whiteman
This lecture is an introduction to various themes and issues that have influenced audience studies over the years. It aims to establish the study of media audiences in the context of a history of communications and cultural research.
Core Reading
Abercrombie, N. and Longhurst, B. (1998) Audiences: A Sociological Theory of Performance and Imagination, London: Sage, (chapters 1 and 2), pp. 3-76.
Halloran, J.D. (1995) „The context of mass communication research‟ in Boyd-Barrett, O. and Newbold, C. (eds.) Approaches to Media: A Reader, London: Arnold, pp. 33-42.
Supplementary Reading
Blumler, J. (1995) „Mass communication research in Europe: some origins and prospects‟ in Boyd-Barrett, O. and Newbold, C. (eds.) Approaches to Media: A Reader, London: Arnold, pp. 43-53.
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Bruhn Jensen, K. and Rosengren, K.E. (1995) „Five traditions in search of the audience‟ in Boyd-Barrett, O. and Newbold, C. (eds.) Approaches to Media: A Reader, London: Arnold, pp. 174-183.
Chomsky, N. (1971) „On Interpreting the World‟, in Problems of Knowledge and Freedom: the Russell Lectures, New York: Vintage Books.
Deacon, D., Pickering, M., Golding, P., Murdock, G. (1999) „Asking Questions‟, Researching Communications: A Practical Guide to Methods in Media and Cultural Analysis, London: Arnold.
Feyerband, P. (1981) Problems of Empiricism, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gitlin, T. (1995) „Media sociology: the dominant paradigm‟ in Boyd-Barrett, O. and Newbold, C. (eds.) Approaches to Media: A Reader, London: Arnold, pp. 21-32.
Golding, P. and Murdock, G. „Theories of Communication and Theories of Society‟ in Communication Research, Vol.5, no.3, July 1978, pp. 339-356.
McQuail, D. (1997) „A Concept With a History‟ and „The Audience in Communication Theory and Research‟ in Audience Analysis, London: Sage, pp. 1-11 and pp. 12-24.
McQuail, D. (2005) „Audience theory and research traditions‟ Mass Communication Theory: an introduction, London: Sage, 5th edition, pp. 395-418.
Murdock, G. (2002) „Media, culture and modern times: social science investigations‟ in Jensen, K. B. (ed) A Handbook of Media and Communication Research, Qualitative and Quantitative Methodologies, London: Routledge, pp. 40-57.
Ruddock, A. (2001) „Questions of Theory and Method‟, in Understanding Audiences, London: Sage#p#分页标题#e#
Week 2: Early Audience Research – The Effects Tradition. Kostas Saltzis
This lecture examines the audience research that developed in the USA in the early to mid twentieth century. It focuses on the different research methods developed, and on the assumptions about how knowledge is produced, that underpinned that early work.
Core Reading
Boyd-Barrett, O. (1995) „Early theories in media research‟ in Boyd-Barrett, O. and Newcomb, C. (eds.) Approaches to Media: A Reader, London: Arnold, pp. 68-76.
Hardt, H. (1995) „On ignoring history: mass communication research and the critique of society‟ in Boyd-Barret, O. and Newbold, C. (eds.) Approaches to Media: A Reader, London: Arnold, pp. 8-20.
MS7003 – The Study of Mass Media Audiences 7
Lowery, S.A. and DeFleur, M. (1995) „The Payne Fund Studies: The Effects of Movies on Children‟ in Lowery, S. (ed.) Milestones in Mass Communication Research, New York: Longman, pp. 21-43.
Supplementary Reading
Blackman, L. and Walkerdine, V. (2001) Mass Hysteria: Critical Psychology and Media Studies, Basingstoke: Palgrave, pp. 26-38.
Blumer, H. (1933) Movies and Conduct, New York: Macmillan.
Blumer, H. (1946) „The mass, the public and public opinion‟, Lee, A. (ed.) New outlines of the principles of sociology, New York: Barnes and Noble.
Blumler, J. G., Katz, E. (eds.) (1974) The Uses of Mass Communications: Current Perspectives on Gratifications Research, Beverley Hills: Sage.
Cantril, H., Allport, G. (1935) The Psychology of Radio, New York: Harper.
DeFleur, M. L. & Ball-Rockeach, S. (1989) „Mass society and the Magic Bullet Theory‟ in DeFluer, M. L. (ed.) Theories of Mass Communication, New York: Longman, pp. 145-167.
Elliott, P. (1974) „Uses and Gratifications Research: A critique and a sociological perspective‟ in Blumler, J. and Katz, E. (eds.) The Uses of Mass Communication: Current Perspectives on Gratifications Research, Beverley Hills: Sage, pp. 249-268.
Hovland, C. I., Lumsdaine, A. A., Sheffiled, F. D. (1949) Experiments in mass communication, Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.
Katz, E. et al. (1980) „Utilization of mass communication by the individual‟ in Boyd-Barrett, O. and Newbold, C. (eds.) Approaches to Media: A Reader, London: Arnold, pp. 164-173.
Katz, E., Lazarsfeld, P. F. (1955) Personal Influence, Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
Klapper, J. (1960) The effects of mass communication, New York: Free Press.
Lazarsfeld, P.F., Berelson, B., Gaudet, H. (1944) The people’s choice, New York: Columbia University Press,
Lazarsfeld, P.F., Stanton, F. (eds.) (1944) Communication research, New York: Harper and Bros.
Lowery, S.A. and DeFleur, M. (1995) „Audiences for daytime radio serials: uses and gratifications‟ in Lowery, S. (ed.) Milestones in Mass Communication Research: Media Effects, 3rd Edition, London: Longman, pp. 93-113.
Lowery, S.A. and DeFleur, M.L.(1995) „Research as a basis for understanding mass communication‟ in Lowery, S. (ed.) Milestones in Mass Communication Research: Media Effects, 3rd Edition, London: Longman, pp. 1-19.#p#分页标题#e#
MS7003 – The Study of Mass Media Audiences 8
McQuail, D. (2005) „Concepts and models for mass communication‟ in Mass Communication Theory: an introduction, London: Sage, 5th edition, pp. 49-76.
McQuail, D. (1984/1998) „With the Benefit of Hindsight: Reflections on the Uses and Gratifications Research‟ in Dickinson, R. et al. (eds.) Approaches to Audience: A Reader, London: Arnold, pp. 151-165.
Schramm, W., Lyle J., Parker, E. (1961) Television in the lives of our children, Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Shils, E. (1995) „Mass Society and its culture‟ in Boyd-Barrett, O. and Newcomb, C. (eds.) Approaches to Media: A Reader, London: Arnold, pp. 81-86.
Waples, D., Berelson, B., Bradshaw, F. R. (1940) What reading does to people, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Wilensky, H.L. (1995) „Mass society and mass culture: interdependence or independence? In Boyd-Barrett, O. and Newcomb, C. (eds.) Approaches to Media: A Reader, London: Arnold, pp. 87-92.
Week 3: Cultural Indicators and Cultivation Theory Kostas Saltzis
This session introduces the theory and methodology of cultural indicators research. The work of George Gerbner and his associates on the influence of television on audience attitudes, beliefs and behaviour offers a comprehensive counter to the discourse of effects research.
Core Reading
Gerbner, G. Towards „cultural indicators‟: the analysis of mass mediated message systems. In Boyd-Barrett, O. and Newcomb, C. (eds) Approaches to media, London: Arnold pp. 144-152.
Wober, J.M. (1998) „Cultural Indicators: European reflections on a research paradigm‟ in Dickinson, R. et al. (eds) Approaches to audiences London: Arnold pp 61-73.
Ruddock, A. (2001) Cultivation analysis. In Ruddock, A. Understanding audiences. Theory and method London: Sage Publications, pp 97 - 115
Supplementary Reading
Gerbner, G. and Gross, L. (1976) Living with television: the Violence Profile Journal of Communication, Vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 173-199.
Gerbner, G. et al. (1980) The „mainstreaming‟ of America: Violence Profile No. 11 Journal of Communication, Vol. 30, no.3, pp. 10-29.
Newcomb, H. (1980) Assessing the Violencehttp://www.ukthesis.org/Profile of Gerbner and Gross: a humanistic critique and suggestion. Communication Research, 5(3), 1978, pp. 264-
MS7003 – The Study of Mass Media Audiences 9
282. Reprinted in Wilhoit, C. and de Bock, H. (eds) Mass communication review yearbook, Vol. 1.
Hirsch, P. (1980) The „scary world‟ of the non-viewer and other anomalies: A research analysis of Gerbner et al‟s findings of cultivation analysis. Communication Research, Vol.7 (4), pp. 403-456.
Morgan, M and Signorelli, N. (1990) Cultivation analysis: conceptualisation and methodology. In Signorelli, N. and Morgan, N. (eds.) Cultivation analysis: new directions in media effects research Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.#p#分页标题#e#
Murdock, G. (1994) Visualising violence: television and the discourse of disorder. In Hamelink, C. and Linne, O. (eds) Mass communication research: on problems and policies Norwood, NJ: Ablex pp. 171-187.
Signorelli, N. (1990) Television‟s mean and dangerous world: a continuation of the cultural indicators perspective. In Signorelli, N. and Morgan, M. (eds) Cultivation analysis: new directions in media effects research Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
Shanahan, J & Morgan, M (1999) Television and its viewers. Cultivation theory and research Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Week 4: From Screen Violence to Real Violence? Natasha Whiteman
One of the most debated and investigated topics in communications and media is the question of the effects of screen violence. Does media violence contribute towards social violence? This lecture will question the direct correlation between the two by assessing the research undertaken on this issue.
Core Reading
Potter, W. J. (1999) On Media Violence. Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage
Potter, W. J. (2003) The 11 Myths of Media Violence. Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage
Linné, O. and Wartella, E. (1998) „Research about violence in the media: different traditions and changing paradigms‟ in Dickinson, R. et al. (eds.) Approaches to Audiences: A Reader, London: Arnold, pp. 104-119.
Murdock, G. (1997) „Reservoirs of Dogma‟ in M. Barker and J. Petley (eds.), Ill Effects: The Media/Violence Debate, 1st Edition, London: Routledge, pp. 67-124.
Vine, I. (1997) „The dangerous psycho-logic of media effects‟ in M. Barker and J. Petley (eds.), Ill Effects: The Media/Violence Debate, 1st Edition, London: Routledge, pp. 125-146.
Supplementary Reading
Barker, M. (ed.) (1984) The Video Nasties: Freedom and Censorship in the Media, Pluto Press: London.
MS7003 – The Study of Mass Media Audiences 10
Barker, M. (1997) „The Newsom Report: A Case Study in “Common Sense”‟, in M. Barker and J. Petley (eds.), Ill Effects: The Media/Violence Debate, 1st Edition London: Routledge, pp. 12-31.
Buckingham, D. (1998) „Children and television: a critical overview of the research‟ in Dickinson, R. et al. (eds.) Approaches to Audiences: A Reader‟, London: Arnold, pp 131-145.
Buckingham, D. (1996) Moving Images: Understanding children’s emotional responses to television, Manchester: Manchester University Press. See Chapters 2-4, pp. 19-138.
Cohen, Stanley (2002) Folk Devils and Moral Panics: The Creation of the Mods and Rockers, 3rd Edition, London: Routledge.
Cumberbatch, G. (1989) „Violence in the Mass Media: The Research
Evidence‟, in Guy Cumberbatch and Dennis Howitt, A Measure of
Uncertainty: The Effects of the Mass Media, Broadcasting Standards Council,
Research Monograph Series, No. 1, London: John Libbey.
Farrar, K. M., Krcmar, M., & Nowak, K. L. (2006) Contextual features of violent video games, mental models and aggression. Journal of Communication, 56(2), 387-405. [see also the references section of this paper which provides a list of other relevant published works]#p#分页标题#e#
Gauntlett, David (1995) Moving Experiences: Understanding Television’s Influences and Effects, Academia Research Monograph 13, London: John Libbey.
Gunter, B., Harrison, J., & Wykes, M. (2003) Violence on Television: Distribution, Form, Content and Themes. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Harris, Jessica (2001) The Effects of Computer Games On Young Children – A Review of the Research, RDS Occasional Paper, No. 72, London: Home Office, Research, Development and Statistics Directorate. – available online.
Howitt, D. (1989) & Cumberbatch, G. Mass Media, Violence and Society, London: Elek.
Lodziak, C. (1986) The Power of Television: A Critical Appraisal, London: Frances Pinter, Chapter 1.
Murdock, G and McCron, R. (1979) „The Television and Delinquency Debate‟ in Screen Education, pp. 51-68.
Newson, E. (1994) „Video Violence and the Protection of Children‟, Report of the Home Affairs Committee, 29 June, pp. 45-49. Also available on-line.
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Pearson, G. (1984) „Falling Standards: A Short, Sharp History of Moral Decline‟, in M. Barker (ed.), The Video Nasties: Freedom and Censorship in the Media, London: Pluto Press, pp. 88-103.
Petley, J. (1997) „Us and Them‟ in M. Barker and J. Petley (eds.), Ill Effects: The Media/Violence Debate, 1st Edition London: Routledge, pp. 87-101.
Philo, G. (1999) „Children and film/video/TV violence‟ in Philo, G. (ed.) Message Received, Glasgow Media Research, Harlow: Longman, pp. 35-53.
Von Feilitzen, C. (1995) Media violence: four research perspectives‟ in Dickinson, R. et al. (eds.) Approaches to Audience: A Readers, London: Arnold, pp. 88-103.
Week 5: Cultural Studies Approaches: encoding/decoding and the critique of qualitative methods Kostas Saltzis
This lecture aims to introduce cultural studies‟ „challenge‟ to the study of mass media audiences. It begins by examining the encoding/decoding model of Stuart Hall and considers the role of the cultural studies approach in developing the idea of the active audience. It asks if this approach is responsible for „cultural populism‟.
Core Reading
Hall, S. (1974) „Encoding, Decoding‟ in During, S. (ed.) (1993) The Cultural Studies Reader, London: Routledge, pp. 368-381. Also available in Hall, S. et al. (1980) (eds.) Culture, Media, Language, pp. 128-38.
Fiske, J. (1998) „Television: polysemy and popularity‟ in Dickinson, R. et al. Approaches to Audiences: A Reader, London: Arnold, pp. 194-204.
McGuigan, J. (1992) „Trajectories of cultural populism‟ in Cultural Populism, London: Routledge, pp. 45-88.
Supplementary Reading
Abercrombie, N and Longhurst, B. (1998) Audiences: A Sociological Theory of Performance and Imagination, London: Sage.
Alasuutari, P. (ed.) (1999) Rethinking the Media Audience, London: Sage.
Ang, I. (1989) „Wanted: Audiences. On the Politics of Empirical Audience Studies‟, E. Seiter, H. Borchers, G. Kruetzner and E.-M. Warth (eds.) Remote Control: Television, Audiences and Cultural Power, London: Routledge.#p#分页标题#e#
Carey, J.W. (1995) „Communication and Culture‟, Communication Research 2: 173-91.
Carey, J.W. (1995) „Mass communication and cultural studies‟ in Boyd-Barrett, O. and Newbold, C. (eds.) Approaches to Media, A Reader, London: Arnold, pp. 365-373.
MS7003 – The Study of Mass Media Audiences 12
Corner, J. (1991) „Meaning, genre and context‟ in J. Curran and M. Gurevitch (eds.), Mass Media and Society, London: Arnold, pp. 267-284.
Curran, J. (1995) „The new revisionism in mass communication research: a reassessment‟ in Boyd-Barrett, O. and Newcomb, C. (eds.) Approaches to Media: A Reader, London: Arnold, pp. 505-511.
Hermes, Joke (2002) „The Active Audience‟, in P. Cobley and A. Briggs (eds.), The Media: An Introduction, Harlow: Pearson: 282-293.
Jensen, J. and Pauly, J.J. (1997) „Imagining the Audience: Losses and Gains in Cultural Studies‟ in Ferguson, M. and Golding, P. (eds.) Cultural Studies in Question, London: Sage, pp. 155-169.
Jensen, K. B (2002) „Media reception: qualitative traditions‟ in K. B. Jensen (ed.) A Handbook of Media and Communication Research, London: Routledge, pp. 138-155.
Jordan, M., & Brunt. R. (1988) „Constituting the television audience: a problem of method‟ in Drummond, P., & Patterson, R. (eds.) Television and its Audience, London: British Film Institute
Moores, S. (1992) „Texts, readers and contexts of reading‟ in Media, Culture and Society, Vol. 12, pp. 9-29.
Moores, S. (1993) „Ideology, Subjectivity and Decoding‟ in Interpreting Audiences: The Ethnography of Media Consumption, London: Sage, pp. 11-53.
Morley, D. (1980) The Nationwide Audience: Television, Audiences and Cultural Studies, London: BFI. Also Morley, D (1992) Television, Audiences and Cultural Studies, London: Routledge, Part II.
Murdock, G. (1998) „Mass communication and the construction of meaning‟ in Dickinson, R. et al. Approaches to Audiences: A Reader, London: Arnold pp. 205-217.
Nightingale, V. (1996) „Encoding, Decoding‟ in her book Studying Audiences: The Shock of the Real, London: Routledge, pp. 21-39.
Stevenson, N. (1996) „Critical Perspectives within Audience Research‟ in his book Understanding Media Cultures, London: Sage, pp. 75-113.
Week 6: Feminist Audience Research: From Psychoanalysis to Ethnography Tracy Simmons
Feminist have long been concerned about the portrayal of women in the media. This lecture examines why feminist research shifted from psychoanalytic portrayals of images of women to ethnographic research with women. We will also consider the role of feminism in the development of „new‟ audience research techniques. Did feminism contribute to „relativism‟ in audience research?
MS7003 – The Study of Mass Media Audiences 13
Core Reading:
Geraghty, C. (1996) „Feminism and Media Consumption‟ in J. Curran, D. Morley and V. Walkedine (eds.) Cultural Studies and Communications London: Arnold, pp 306-322.#p#分页标题#e#
Murdock, G. (1997) „Thin Descriptions: Questions of Methods in Cultural Analysis‟, in McGuigan, J. (ed.) Cultural Methodologies, London: Sage, pp 178-192.
Seiter, E. (1990) „Making Distinctions in Television Audience Research‟ Cultural Studies 4 (1): 61 – 84. (Also in Newcomb, Horace (ed.) (5th edition) (1994/1976). Television: The Critical View. New York: Oxford University Press, pp 387-410)
Supplementary Reading:
Ang, I. Watching Dallas: Soap Opera and the Melodramatic Imagination, London: Methuen.
Ang, I. and Hermes, J. (1991) „Gender and/in Media Consumption in J. Curran and M. Gurevitch (eds.) Mass Media and Society, 2cnd edition, London: Arnold.
Geertz, C. (1973) „Introduction‟ and „Thick Description‟, The Interpretation of Cultures, New York: Basic Books.
Gillespie, M. (1995) Television, Ethnicity and Cultural Change, London and New York: Routledge.
Gray, A. (1999) „Audience and Reception Research in Retrospect: the Trouble with Audiences‟, Alasuutari, P. (ed) Rethinking the Media Audience, London: Sage.
Gray, A. (1995) „I Want to Tell You a Story: The Narratives of Video Playtime‟, in B. Skeggs (ed.) Feminist Cultural Theory: Process and Production, Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Gray, A. (1992) Video Playtime: The Gendering of a Leisure Technology, London: Routledge
Griffin, C. (1980) „Feminist Ethnography‟ Stenciled Papers, CCCS University of Birmingham.
Hallam,
http://www.ukthesis.org/J. and Marshment, M. (1995) „Framing Experience: Case Studies in the Reception of Oranges Are Not the Only Fruit’ Screen, 36 (1) 1 – 15.
Hobson, D. (1982) Crossroads: The Drama of a Soap Opera, London: Methuen.
Hobson, D. (1989) „Soap opera fans at work‟ in E. Seiter, H. Borchers, G. Kruetzner and E.-M. Warth (eds.) Remote Control: Television, Audiences and Cultural Power, London: Routledge.
Hobson, D. (1990) „Women Audiences and the Workplace‟ in M.E. Brown (ed.) Television and Women’s Culture: The Politics of the Popular, London : Sage.
MS7003 – The Study of Mass Media Audiences 14
Lacey, J. (1999) „Seeing through happiness: Hollywood musicals and the construction of the American Dream in Liverpool in the 1950‟s, Journal of Popular British Cinema, No. 2, pp. 54-65.
Merrick, H. (1997) „The Readers Feminism Doesn‟t See: Feminist Fans, Critics and Science Fiction‟, in D. Cartmell, I. Q. Hunter, H, Kaye and I. Whelehan (eds.) Trash Aesthetics: Popular Culture and its Audience, London: Pluto Press.
McQuigan, J. (1992) Cultural Populism, London: Routledge.
McRobbie, A. „Girls and Subcultures‟ in Hall et al (eds.) Resistance Through Rituals London: Hutchinson.
McRobbie, A. (1982) „The Politics of Feminist Research: Between Talk, Text and
Action‟, Feminist Review, 12: 46 – 57.#p#分页标题#e#
Nightingale, V. (1996) Studying Audiences: The Shock of the Real, London: Routledge.
Radway, J. (1984) Reading the Romance: Women. Patriarchy and Popular Literature, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Seiter, E. (1995) „Mothers watching children watching TV‟, in B. Skeggs (ed.) Feminist Cultural Theory: Process and Production, Manchester, Manchester University Press.
Seiter, E. (1989b) „Don‟t Treat Us Like We‟re So Stupid and Naïve‟ in Remote Control: Television, Audiences and Cultural Power, London: Routledge.
Sholle, D. (1991) „Reading the Audience, Reading Resistance: Prospects and Problems‟ Journal of Film and Video 43 (1-2): 80-89.
Stacey, J. (1994) Star Gazing: Hollywood Cinema and Female Spectatorship, London: Routledge.
Thomas L. (2002) „Introducing the Audience Study‟, Fans, Feminisms and ‘Quality’ Media, London Routledge
Van Zoonen, L. (1994) Feminist Media Studies London: Sage
Week 7: Race, Identity and Media Consumption Natasha Whiteman
This lecture will consider the ways in which one‟s race or ethnic background might impact on media interpretation. It will also examine the possible relationship between the media‟s depiction of different racial and ethnic groups and the viewing strategies of different groups in society.
MS7003 – The Study of Mass Media Audiences 15
Core Reading
Harindranath, R. (1998) „Documentary meanings and interpretive contexts: observations on Indian “repertoires”‟, in Dickinson, R., Harindranath, R. & Linné, O. (eds.) Approaches to Audiences: A Reader, London: Arnold, pp. 283-297.
Liebes, T. (1998) „Cultural difference in the retelling of television fiction‟ in Dickinson, R., Harindranath, R. & Linné, O. (eds.) Approaches to Audiences: A Reader, London: Arnold, pp. 272-282
Supplementary Reading
Ang, I., Chalmers, S., Law, L., & Thomas, M. (eds.)(2000) Alter/Asians: Asian-Australian Identity in Art, Media and Popular Culture, Annandale: Pluto.
Bobo, J. (1995) Black Women as Cultural Readers, New York: Columbia University Press.
Castells, M. (1997) The Power of Identity, Oxford: Blackwell.
Cashmore, E. (1997) The Black Culture Industry, London: Routledge.
Delaney, P., (1997) “Gangsta Rap” and the “New Vaudeville; in Dennis, E., & Pease, E. C. (eds.) The Media in Black and White, New Brunswick, N. J.: Transaction Publishers, pp. 83-88.
Dijk, T. A. (1991) Racism and the Press, London: Routledge.
Dines, G. & Humez, J. M. (2002) Gender, Race and Class in Media: a text reader, London: Sage, (chapter 29, pp. 283-292; chapter 39, pp. 396-405; chapter 55, pp. 586-596).
Downing, J. (2005) Representing Race: racism, ethnicities and media, London: Sage.
Dyer, R. (1997) White, London: Routledge.
Gabriel, J., (1996) „What do you do when minority means you? Falling Down and the construction of whiteness, Screen 37:2.#p#分页标题#e#
Gabriel, J., (1998) Whitewash: racialized politics and the media, London: Routledge.
Kellstedt, P. M. (2003) The Mass Media and the Dynamics of American Racial Attitudes, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Law, I. (2002) Race in the News, Basingstoke: Palgrave.
Osgerby, B. (1998) Youth in Britain Since 1945, Oxford: Blackwell.
Pearson, Geoffrey (1983) Hooligan: A History of Respectable Fears,
Macmillan: London.
MS7003 – The Study of Mass Media Audiences 16
Ross, K., Playdon, P. (eds.) (2001) Black Marks: Minority Ethnic Audiences and Media, London: Ashgate Publishing.
Springhall, John (1998) Youth, Popular Culture and Moral Panics: Penny Gaffs to Gangsta-Rap, 1830-1996, Basingstoke: Macmillan.
Shohat, E. & Stam, R. (1994) Unthinking Eurocentrism: multiculturalism and the media, London: Routledge.
Sreberny, A. (1999) Include me in: rethinking ethnicity on television: audience and production perspectives, GB: Broadcasting Standards Commission.
Ward, B. (2001) Media, Culture and the Modern African American Freedom Struggle, Gainsville: University Press of Florida.
Week 8: Measuring Audiences Natasha Whiteman
This session explores the ways in which the broadcasting industry measures and tracks its audiences and looks at the kinds of knowledge these practices produce. It will also consider the academic theories about the industry‟s view of the audience. Do the media deliver audiences to advertisers? Are the media slaves to audience ratings?
Core Reading
Ang I (1990) Desperately Seeking the Audience, London: Routledge.
Gunter, B. (1999) Media Research Methods: measuring audiences, reactions and impacts, London: Sage.
Hagen, I. (1999) „Slaves of the Ratings Tyranny? Media Images of the Audience‟ n Alasuutari, P (ed.) Rethinking the Media Audience, London: Sage, pp. 130-150.
Smythe, D. (1995) „On the audience commodity and its work‟ in Boyd-Barrett, O. & Newbold, C. Approaches to Media: A Reader, London: Arnold, pp. 222-228.
Supplementary Reading
Ang, I (1996) „New Technologies, Audience Measurement and the Tactics of Television Consumption, in her book Living Room Wars, London: Routledge, pp. 53-65.
Barnard, S. (2000) „Listening – Measurement and Meaning‟ in Studying Radio, London: Arnold, pp. 85-106.
BBC (2003) „About the BBC: Purposes and Values‟, http://www.bbc.co.uk/info/purpose/
Ettema, J.S., Whitney, C.D. (eds) (1994) Audience Making: How the Media Create the Audience, London: Sage.
MS7003 – The Study of Mass Media Audiences 17
Hagen, I., Wasko, J. (eds) (1999) Consuming Audiences: Production and Reception in Media Research, Hampton Press.
Hellman, H. (1999) „Legitimations of television programme policies: patterns of argumentation and discursive convergences in a multichannel age‟ in Alasuutari, P (ed.) Rethinking The Media Audience, London: Sage, pp. 105-129.#p#分页标题#e#
Schulz, W. (2000) „Television Audiences‟ in Wieten, J. (et al.) (eds.) Television Across Europe, London: Sage, pp. 112-134.
Stoessl, S. (1998) „Administrative Research of Audiences‟ in Briggs, A. and Cobley, P. (eds.) The Media: An Introduction, Harlow: Pearson, pp. 250-261.
Morley, D. (1990) „Behind the ratings: the politics of audience research‟ in Willis, J and Wollen, T (eds), The Neglected Audience, London: BFI, pp. 5-14.
McQuail, D. (1997) „Questions of Media Reach‟ in his book Audience Analysis, London: Sage, pp. 43-64.
Meehan, E. (1992) „Why we don‟t count: the commodity audience‟ in Patricia
Mellencamp (ed) Logics of Television, London: BFI, pp. 117-137.
Sharot, T. (1994) „Measuring Television Audiences in the UK‟ in Kent R. (ed.) Measuring Media Audiences, London: Sage.
Webster, J. G. (2005) Beneath the veneer of fragmentation: Television audience polarization in a multichannel world. Journal of Communucation, 55(2), 366-382.
Week 9: Audiences, Fans and Fandom Natasha Whiteman
From being considered as dysfunctional and antisocial, fans are now characterised either as active and creative, or as elitist. This lecture introduces different approaches to the study of fandom focusing on theories within the field of communication studies and psychology.
Core Reading:
Gray, J, Sandvoss, C and Harrington, C. L. (2007) „Why study fans?‟ in Gray, J, Sandvoss, C and Harrington, C. L. Fandom: Identities and Communities in a Mediated World, New York: New York University Press, pp 1-16.
Fiske, J. (1992) „The Cultural Economy of Fandom‟ in L. Lewis (ed.) The Adoring Audience: Fan Culture and Popular Media, London: Routledge, pp 30-49.
Jenkins, H. (1992) „Get a Life!: Fans, Poachers, Nomads‟, Textual Poachers: Television Fans and Participatory Culture, London and New York: Routledge, pp 9-50.
MS7003 – The Study of Mass Media Audiences 18
Supplementary Reading:
Barabas, S. (2001) „the Movie Star Fan Club‟ in Movie Crazy: fans, stars and the cult of celebrity, New York: Palgrave, pp. 109 – 134.
Barker, M. (1993) „The Bill Clinton Fan Syndrome‟ Media, Culture and Society, 15: 669 – 673.
Baym, N. (1998) „Talking About Soaps: Communicative Practices in a Computer- Mediated Fan Culture‟, in C. Harris, and A. Alexander (eds.) Theorizing Fandom: Fans, Subculture and Identity, Cresskill, N.J.: Hampton Press.
Bourdieu, P. (1993) The Field of Cultural Production: Essays on Art and Literature, Cambridge: Polity Press, pp. 29-144.
Brower, S. (1992) „Fans as Tastemakers: Viewers for Quality Television‟ in L. Lewis (ed.) The Adoring Audience: Fan Culture and Popular Media, London and New York: Routledge.
Brown, M.E. & Barwick, L. (1987). Fables and endless genealogies: soap opera and women‟s culture. Continuum: The Australian Journal of Media & Culture, 1(2): 71-82.#p#分页标题#e#
Fowles, Jib (1992) Starstruck: celebrity performers and the American public, Washington/ London: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Giles, D. (2000) Illusions of Immortality, MacMillan, Chapter 8, pp. 128-145
Hermes, J. (1995). Reading Women’s Magazines. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Gwenllian Jones, S. (2000) „Starring Lucy Lawless?‟ Continuum: Journal of Media & Cultural Studies, Vol. 14. No. 1, 9 – 22
Gray, J. (2003) „New Audiences, New Textualities: Anti-Fans and Non-Fans,‟ International Journal of Cultural Studies, Vol. 6, No. 1, 64-81.
Hermes, J. (1999) „Media figures in identity construction‟ in Alasuutari, P (ed.) Rethinking the Media Audience, London: Sage, pp. 69-85.
Hill, M. (2002) Fan Cultures, London: Routledge.
Jenson, J. (1992) „Fandom as Pathology: The Consequences of Characterisation‟ L. Lewis (ed.) The Adoring Audience: Fan Culture and Popular Media, London: Routledge.
Maltby, J., Houran J. & McCutcheon, L.E. (2003). A clinical interpretation of attitudes and behaviors associated with celebrity worship. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorders, 191(1):25-9.
MS7003 – The Study of Mass Media Audiences 19
Stacey, J. (1994) „With Stars in Their Eyes: Female Spectators and the Paradoxes of Consumption‟ in Star Gazing: Hollywood Cinema and Female Spectatorship, London: Routledge, pp. 179 – 223.
Turner, G. (2004) „consuming celebrity‟ (chapter 6‟ in Understanding Celebrity, London: Sage, pp. 109-127).
Week Ten: New Media Audiences: Interactivity and Fragmentation
Kostas Saltzis
This lecture examines the role that new information and communication technologies are playing in re-shaping our understanding of media audiences and the extent to which it is replacing or complementing the audience for traditional communications media. Now that audiences can also be producers of content through blogs, wikis and their own home pages, what does such a change signal mean for understanding audiences, media effects and the very notion of a „mass media‟?
Core Reading
Livingston, S. „The challenge of changing audiences – Or, what is the audience researcher to do in the age of the Internet?‟ European Journal of Communication 19(1): 75-86.
Siapera, E. (2004) „From couch potatoes to cybernauts? The expanding notion of the audience on TV channels and websites.‟ New Media and Society 6(2) 155-172.
Roscoe, T. (1999) „The construction of the World Wide Web audience.‟ Media, Culture & Society 21: 673-684.
Tewksbury, D. (2005) The seeds of audience fragmentation: specialization in the use of online news sites. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 49 (3) p332(17).
Supplementary Reading
Andrews, D., Nonnecke, B. & Preece, J.(2003) „Electronic survey methodology: A case study in reaching hard-to-involve Internet users.‟ International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction. 16 (2): 185-210.#p#分页标题#e#
Bargh, J. A. & McKenna, K. Y. A. (2004) „The Internet and Social Life‟ Annual Review of Psychology 55: 573-590.
Farnsworth, S. J. and Owen, D. (2004). „Internet use and the 2000 presidential election‟ Electoral Studies 23 (3): 415-429.
Hine, C. (2001) „Web pages, authors and audiences: the meaning of a mouse click‟ in Information, Communication and Society vol. 4(2) pp 192-198.
Jones, S. (ed.) (1999) Doing Internet Research: Critical Issues and Methods for Examining the Net, London: Sage.
MS7003 – The Study of Mass Media Audiences 20
留学生论文网Lowery, W. & Anderson, W. (2005) „The journalist behind the curtain: Participatory functions on the Internet and their impact on perceptions of the work of journalism‟ Journal of Computer Mediated Communication 10 (3) 2005.
Lievrouw, L. A. and Livingston, S. Eds. (2006) The Handbook of New Media London: Sage.
McChesney, H. (2003) „The Titanic Sails On: Why the Internet Won‟t Sink the Media Giants, in Dines, G., & Humez, J. M. Gender, Race, and Class in Media, London: Sage, pp.677-683.
Mortensen, T. and Walker, J. (2002) „Blogging Thoughts: personal publication as an online research tool‟, in (Eds.) Researching ICTs in context‟ Online publication <http://www.intermedia.uio.no/konferanser/skikt-02/docs/Researching_ICTs_in_context-Ch11-Mortensen-Walker.pdf>
Wright, K. B. (2005). „Research Internet-Based Populations: Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Survey Research, Online Questionnaire Authoring Software Packages, and Web Survey Services.‟ Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 10(3).

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