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青少年电视媒体的语类术语

时间:2015-10-31 22:01:32 来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
青少年电视媒体的语类术语

“电视”这个词的字面意思是“遥远的光”。 但正如我们所知道的,当我们看电视时,我们实际上只是看到了一些东西,我们称之为电视机前的玻璃上的图像。 换句话说,“电视”是一个隐喻,旨在描述这个出现图像的盒子,这是关于人们一些体验而产生的沟通方式。 ”(格瑞普思若 1998 )
 
斯图亚特·霍尔在1996年定义了电视是一个发起者或载体,导致操纵和两种物质变换。约翰在1995年关于电视产生了三个有用的观点。他谈到政治进入电视公共领域时,他指的是媒体:“媒体是一个密集或复杂的知识管理领域;一个代表世界,去通过视觉和听觉的公约援引现实信誉,而不是批判工作;政治也是被个性化主导的。”(约翰·角落,2005)
 
电视被认为是我们的社会和我们的日常生活的重要组成部分,无论是我们把它充当背景或给它100%的注意力。 不管怎样,一个电视节目总是上映。 这有很多的理论来支持。 也可以认为,电视对焦虑环境的观点想法会对社会产生影响,这表现在蒸汽时代的现代主义和1940年代马克思主义。 马克思主义是经济和政治理论的马克思卡尔和恩格斯弗里德里希提出的,它认为,这是由人类的行动和机构的经济决定的。霸权是由马克思主义批评家安东尼奥葛兰西用来描述人们如何影响接受权力精英们强加自己的意志和世界观对其他人口优势的概念,关系到观众。霸权是马克思主义评论家安东尼奥·葛兰西所使用的概念来描述人们如何通过接受主导地位的权力精英对他们的意志的强加,并以通过观众来影响全球其余的人。
 
The Terms Of Genre In Youth Television 
 
The word 'television' literally means 'distant light'. But as we all know, when watching television we are actually just seeing something a few feet away  an image on the glass front of the box we call a TV set. 'Television' is in other words a metaphor, intended to describe what this box, this experience, this form of communication, is all about.' (Jostein Gripsrud, 1998, pg. 17)
 
Stuart Hall (1996) has defined television as either an 'originator or a carrier'; resulting in manipulation and transformation of material in both cases. John Corner (1995) has produced three useful points regarding television. He talks about the moves of politics into the public area of television when he refers to the medium as:"A sphere of intensive or sophisticated knowledge management; one which represents the world through visual and aural conventions which work to invoke realist credibility rather than critical engagement; one in which politics is dominated by strategic personalisation." (John Corner, 2005, p.3)
 
Television is considered a huge part of our society and our day-to-day living; whether it is on in the background or with us giving it 100 per cent attention. Either way, a television programme is on. There are many theories to support this. It can also be argued that the idea of television can be referred to the anxiety surrounding television and its effects, steaming from the period of early modernism and Marxism in the 1940's. Marxism is the economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined. Hegemony is the concept used by the Marxist critic Antonio Gramsci to describe how people are influenced into accepting the dominance of power elite who impose their will and worldwide view on the rest of the population, in relation to audiences. 
 
It can be argued that the ideological role of the media is to persuade us that it is in our best interests to accept the dominance of the elite. Television studies are a set of academic disciplines that deals with critical approaches to television. Usually, it is distinguished from mass-communication research, which tends to approach the topic from an empirical perspective.
 
"Television today assumes some of the functions traditionally ascribed to myth and ritual (i.e. integrating individuals into the social order, celebrating dominant values, offering models of thought). Douglas Kellner (Media Culture 1995)
 
The role of audiences has changed dramatically throughout the assertion that youth television cannot be explained in terms of genre. Audiences are also an important factor when concerning whether assertion that youth television cannot be explained in terms of genre. An audience is considered a group of people who contribute in an understanding or encounter a work of art, literature, theatre, music, film or academics in any medium. McQuail (1969) suggests that this engagement with television and other mass media constitutes 'at least a mark and possibly even a requirement of membership of modern society'. One theory that is particularly effective in supporting the ways in which audiences is an important part of television is the Uses and Gratifications Model; suggesting that the audience were merely the receivers of messages. There are many areas that are identified in this model. Some of these include: the need for identity and finally, the need for information about our geographical and social world (news and drama).
 
Much of our media consumption is specialized, private and motivated by specific enthusiasms and prejudices. Our choice not to consume certain media forms - for example tabloid newspapers or comics - may be informed by prejudices about form and culture value. However, a medium such as comic - which has been a victim of such value judgments - is as much a part of 'the media' as newspapers or cinema are. (Adam Briggs and Paul Cobley, 1998, p.11)#p#分页标题#e#
 
One way in which the assertion of youth television can be explained is through the use of genre. The term 'genre' refers to a category of films that are grouped together based on subject matter, theme or tone. Film genres include action, drama, comedy, horror, musical, western, documentary, or science fiction. According to Graham Roberts and Heather Wallis (2001), the understanding of genre - whether it be by audience or critic - is predicated upon the understanding/expectation of conventions and characteristics. It is an advantage to film-makers and audience alike that this produces and economy of storytelling. One of the most popular genres of television that is most popular in the category of 'youth television' is the crime genre. This is because with there being an element of truth there, this also allows the audience to use their own imagination in regards to the storyline; involving the mystery and drama genres to be involved. This is something that appeals to the youth audience as it keeps the particular programmes with this genre fresh and original in regards to material. One television programme that fits into this hybrid genre very well, and that is extremely popular with the television audiences, including the youth audiences is CSI: Crime Scene Investigation (2000). This is a US drama that follows the activities and whereabouts of a team of forensic experts or 'criminalists'. Their purpose in the majority of episodes is to solve investigations into cases of accidental death or murder. The team of characters is made up of many roles. Some of these include: police detectives, the coroner, amongst the small group of laboratory analysts. Some may argues that these are the most prominent characters in the programme. There are many key aspects that may CSI: Crime Scene Investigation the show it is today, as well as the show that keeps many viewers, including the youth audience key members of the target audience. Some of these key aspects of the show include: the 'crime scene', which may include locations like, casino or bar, a house, a city street or a kitchen. Another key aspect that is clearly defined running through each episode is then the team of forensic experts then collect as much evidence as they can find from the crime scene and take it to the laboratory for the laboratory analysts to look at the evidence collected. The evidence collected could be objects like: bodies, body parts, clothing, hair, dust, bullets, insects, blood, fingerprints, footprints, DNA samples, photographs or surveillance footage. With the audience watching closely and intensively as the characters on screen come to a verdict, the show is ended by some sort of arrest or conviction being made. In conclusion to this, this is enjoyed by the target audience of the youth and young adults as CSI: Crime Scene Investigation highlights issues that are gruesome or explicitly sexual or disgusting, therefore keeping the audience gripped throughout, keeping the US television show fresh and original for viewers to keep on watching and enjoying.
 
There is an intimacy to murder and at CSI we owe it to the families to face that intimacy. I approach with a true reverence. I don't look away. I don't let the camera look away.' (Ann Donahue, executive producer CSI, LaTempa, 2002)
 
Another one of the most popular genres of television that is most popular in the category of 'youth television' is the comedy genre or the drama. This is because when watching a comedy for example, it improves the audience's mood as the material within a specific programme would make you either smile or laugh and therefore is a very popular type of genre with all target audiences and age ranges, from child right through to adult, involving the youth audience greatly. Also with the genre type drama, it allows the audience to either feel realism from the material within the specific programme concerned or escapism from what is happening. Whatever the viewer takes from the experience in watching the specific programme, it is therefore a positive factor in keeping the audience gripped. One television programme that fits into this hybrid genre very well, and that is extremely popular with the television audiences, including the youth audiences is Gossip Girl (2007). Gossip Girl is a hit television in the United States, based on a hit book series of the same name written by Cecily von Ziegesar (www.imdb.com). The story follows a group of privileged teenagers living in the Upper East Side of Manhattan, New York. It follows the highs and lows of what modern day teenagers go through, including social and economical issues. Some of the controversial issues that are raised in the episodes of Gossip Girl are issues such as: divorce, murder, bankrupts, adultery, love and friendship. This is shown to be extremely popular within the youth audiences as it is already on its third season on the television series, clearly showing there is a gap in the market for an audience to enjoy watching this. Also, as all the main protagonists and characters in Gossip Girl are teenagers, this allows the audience to relate to each character and their problems more and therefore enjoying the programme more.
 
In conclusion to the debates that are raised in the statement that the assertion of youth television cannot be explained in terms of genre; it is clearly shown that the type of genre that a specific television programme is, whether it be a crime, drama, comedy, romance or reality, defines the type of audience that chooses to watch, as they have their own needs and desires that are require to be met. Therefore, this changes the idea to the statement that the declaration of youth television can be explained in terms of genre.
 
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