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PESTEL分析:mant251管理和组织

时间:2016-03-16 09:46:40 来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
Strategic Management The industry analysis
战略管理的行业分析
行业分析的目的
了解产业结构带动竞争,这决定了行业盈利水平
评估行业吸引力
利用对产业结构变化的证据来预测未来的盈利能力
制定策略以改变产业结构来提高行业的盈利能力
识别关键成功因素
行业盈利能力的关键因素
三个关键因素:
1产品的价值给客户
2竞争强度
3相对议价能力在价值链的不同阶段
The Objectives of Industry Analysis
 
To understand how industry structure drives competition, which determines the level of industry profitability
To assess industry attractiveness
To use evidence on changes in industry structure to forecast future profitability
To formulate strategies to change industry structure to improve industry profitability
To identify Key Success Factors
 
Key determinants of industry profitability
 
Three key influences:
 
1 The value of the product to customers
2 The intensity of competition
3 Relative bargaining power at different stages of the value chain


Pestel framework continued…PESTEL框架继续…
政治因素,如政府政策、税收的变化,在国外市场的政治风险,政府补助/补贴。
经济因素,如个人可支配收入、汇率、失业率、通货膨胀率、国民经济增长率。
社会文化因素如人口变化、生活方式的改变,文化和时尚,改变移民的国际学生。
技术因素:技术的发展,ICT创新,增加研发支出。
环保(绿色的)因素,如碳排放(汽车)、能源(水)、废物处理和回收。
法律因素如竞争法(兼并)、健康与安全法,劳动法,机场的权利,禁烟令。
Political Factors e.g. government policies, taxation changes, political risk in foreign markets, government grants/subsidies.
Economic Factors e.g. personal disposable income, exchange rates, unemployment rates, inflation, national growth rates.
Socio-cultural Factors e.g. population changes, lifestyle changes, changes in culture and fashion, emigration, international students.
Technological Factors e.g. Technology developments, ICT innovations, increased spending on R&D.#p#分页标题#e#
Environmental (‘Green’) Factors e.g. carbon emissions (cars), energy consumption (water), waste disposal and re-cycling.
Legal Factors e.g. competition laws (mergers), health and safety laws, employment laws, airport rights, smoking ban.
 
Pestel continued….
 
PESTEL forces can be complex and intertwined. It can be better to focus on the key drivers for change – the environmental factors most likely to have a high impact on the success or failure of a strategy, i.e. high priority.
In complex or uncertain environments it is difficult to develop definitive views on the influences on strategy. Scenarios are plausible views of how the environment of an organisation might develop in the future based on key drivers of change about which there is a high level of uncertainty.
 
Porter’s Five Forces Competition Framework
 
Porter’s five forces framework helps identify the attractiveness of an industry in terms of five competitive force - the more immediate environment and the competitive forces at play.
Industry analysis: Five forces model
 
1. The Threat of Entry and Barriers to Entry
Barriers to entry are the factors that need to be overcome by new entrants to enter the market and to compete.
The easier it is the worse it is for incumbents – i.e. greater competition.
Examples - economies of scale; know-how; investment; legislation; retaliation; access to supply chains; product differentiation
2. Threat of Substitutes
Products or services that offer a similar benefit to an industry’s products or services.but by a different process.
Puts a cap on prices that can be charged in an industry.
Encourages managers to look outside their own industry, and to consider more distant threats and constraints.
Price/performance ratio is crucial as is the buyers propensity to avail of substitutes
3. Power of Buyers
The immediate customers – the more powerful they are the more they can ask for Key issues - concentration; switching costs; backward integration; buyer’s information; price sensitivity – % of total cost; is it a commodity or differentiated?

Five forces continued
 
4. Power of Suppliers
Suppliers are those who supply the organisation with what they need to produce the product or service - finance, raw material, fuel.
Key issues – concentration (iron ore); switching costs (Microsoft); forward integration; price sensitivity
5. Level of Competition Rivalry#p#分页标题#e#
Competitive rivals are organisations with similar products and services aimed at the same customer group and are direct competitors in the same industry/market (they are distinct from substitutes).
The more competitive it is, or where the forces are high, the worse for incumbents, i.e. the less attractive it is – too much pressure and competition..
Other forces worth noting include competitor balance/diversity; industry growth rate; high fixed costs; high exit barriers; cost conditions (e.g. ratio of fixed to
variable costs).
Once the degree of attractiveness has been understood, the five forces can help
set an agenda for action.
 
Five forces concluding points
 
Implications of five forces
Which industries should we enter or leave – industry attractiveness.
If we can forecast changes in industry structure we can predict the likely impact on competition and profitability. Helps with planning and positioning.
What influence can we exert? – use deliberate management strategies to influence structural variables that are depressing profitability.
The size of the company is a factor.
You must analyse at the right industry level
Crucial to consider timing issues and lifecycle issues in your analysis.
Is the five forces model out-dated?
Convergence of industries – particularly in the high tech sectors (e.g. digital industries - mobile phones/cameras/mp3 players).
Complementary products and services. An organisation is your complimentor if 1) customers value your product more when they have the other organisation’s product than when they have product alone 2) if it is more attractive for suppliers to provide resources to you when they are also supplying the other organisation than when they are supplying you alone.
 
Types of industries
 
Monopolistic industries - an industry with one firm and therefore no competitive rivalry.
A firm has ‘monopoly power’ if it has a dominant position in the market. For example,
BT in the UK fixed line telephone market.
Oligopolistic industries (or duopoly) - an industry dominated by a few firms with limited rivalry and in which firms have power over buyers and suppliers.
Perfectly competitive industries - where barriers to entry are low, there are many equal rivals each with very similar products, and information about competitors is freely available. Few (if any) markets are ‘perfect’ but may have features of highly competitive markets. Difficult to ear much profit and competition is primarily based on price.
 
#p#分页标题#e#

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