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国际人力资源管理(人力资源管理学会)中国公司位于英国的文化多样性视角

时间:2016-02-19 09:49:00 来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
1.0 Introduction介绍
 
文化之间的差异,不同地区的人们提出了跨文化人力资源管理(HRM)的新主题,为中国企业在国外(崩朋那样,和Leong,2000)。企业人力资源管理越来越受当地的价值观、思维方式和社会实践活动,它直接影响到一系列的人力资源管理中的招聘模式,跨国企业的政策,人员培训,绩效管理,薪酬,等等(安捷伦、施密特、陌生人和brettel,2014)。不同文化之间的差异,从价值、规范、思维往往演变为文化冲突的方法,如心理方面的冲突,对时间观念的冲突、思想冲突的方式,餐饮习惯等等(崩朋那样,和隆,2000;安捷伦、施密特、陌生人和brettel,2014)。为了解决中国企业跨国经营中文化差异的问题,跨文化管理显得尤为重要。在这项研究中,它以中国位于英国的公司为对象,了解员工在中国企业文化差异的表现,以及在国际管理公司的措施,试图找到这些公司在跨文化管理的特点和不足,提出了中国从文化的多样性透视企业未来的国际人力资源管理的建议。With the increasing deepening relationship between global economy and culture, in order to gain competitive advantage and take the initiative in the fierce market competition, more and more Chinese enterprises go abroad to seek effective allocation of resources on a global scale. At the same time, the cultural differences between people of different regions propose new topics of cross-cultural human resource management (HRM) for Chinese enterprises located abroad (Pheng, and Leong, 2000). Corporate HRM increasingly subjects to local values, ways of thinking and social practices, which directly affects a series of HRM policies of the multinationals in recruitment patterns, personnel training, performance management, compensation, and so on (Engelen, Schmidt, Strenger and Brettel, 2014). Differences between different cultures in terms of values, norms, ways of thinking often evolve into a clash of cultures, such as the conflicts in psychological aspects, the conflicts for concept of time, ways of thinking conflict, dining customs and so on (Pheng, and Leong, 2000; Engelen, Schmidt, Strenger and Brettel, 2014). To solve the problem of cultural differences in multinational management of Chinese enterprises, cross-cultural management is particularly important. In this study, it takes Chinese companies located in UK as an object to understand the performance of cultural differences of employees in the Chinese companies, as well as the measures of the companies in international IHRM, trying to find the characteristics and shortcomings of these companies in cross-cultural management to bring forward recommendations for the future IHRM of the Chinese enterprises from a cultural diversity perspective.

2.0 Research aims and objectives研究目标和目标

Research aims of this study are to understand the performance of cultural differences of employees in Chinese enterprises located in UK, and the corporate cross-cultural management practices to put forward recommendations on their future IHRM measures of the Chinese enterprises. Based on the research aims and Hofstede’s model of national cultural differences (Hofstede, 1980), this study designs the following objectives.#p#分页标题#e#
Objective 1: From five perspectives: power distance, individualism-collectivism, masculinity-feminism, uncertainty avoidance and long-term orientation to understand the performance of cultural diversity of employees in Chinese companies located in UK;
Objective 2: To understand what measures that the Chinese companies have taken in IHRM in terms of a cultural diversity perspective, as well as the weaknesses of those measures;
Objective 3: To propose for the future IHRM measures of the Chinese enterprises in terms of cross-cultural management.

3.0 Literature review文献综述
 
3.1 Influence of cultural diversity on HRM
High-quality staff, recruitment and incentives of excellent personnel and efficient implementation has become an important condition for modern enterprises to win in competition, of which HRM is becoming a core competitiveness of enterprises. The difficulties in the management of the core have been magnified in the context of cultural differences (Tukiainen, 2015). According to statistics, among the failed cross-border merges and acquisitions cases in the world, 80% of them were caused by the unfavorable cross-cultural management (Zaidman, and Drory, 2001; Pheng and Leong, 2000). Thus highly efficient HRM is bound to play a crucial role in the operation of an enterprise in a cross-cultural context (Popescu et al., 2014). Cultural diversity tends to cause some problems: misleading arising from language barriers or inaccurate translations (Popescu et al., 2014), a lack of understanding of the social environment of the other side (Woods et al., 2013), a lack of understanding of the business environment of the other side, a lack of mental preparation for difficult problems in joint adventures (Bonache, Trullen and Sanchez, 2012). Cultural diversity results in a lot of management problems, which seriously threatens the sustainable development of enterprises (Popescu et al., 2014; Engelen et al., 2014). This phenomenon has attracted attention of many scholars, among them, Hofstede was one of the most respectful for his model of national cultural differences (Hofstede, 1980).
3.2 Hofstede’s model of national cultural differences
Hofstede spent 28 years on the survey towards a total of 11 million people in 51 countries and regions, the investigation was from five dimensions: power distance, individualism-collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity-feminism and long-term orientation to discuss the differences between different cultures (Hofstede, 1980). 
3.2.1 Power distance
Power distance is used to represent the levels of people's acceptance of the unequal distribution of power in an organization (Hofstede, 1980). In general, the power distance index in the context of oriental culture is higher, people usually respond to inequality calmly; the power distance index generated under influence of western culture is lower, the people have a strong spirit of resistance towards inequalities of power distribution (Hofstede, 1980; 1983). #p#分页标题#e#
3.2.2 Individualism-collectivism
The culture emphasizing individualism tends to lay stress on individual rights and freedoms, especially individual professions and reward. Collectivists respects harmony between members of a group, they feel that they should be loyal absolutely for the group. Generally, cultures of western countries have characteristics of individualism culture, oriental culture has the characteristics of collectivism (Hofstede, 1980;1985).
3.2.3 Uncertainty avoidance 
Uncertainty Avoidance refers to the attitude of people towards potential risks and uncertainties (Hofstede, 1980). In a society of low uncertainty avoidance, people are relatively calm in the face of risk. They also show tolerance to other people’s different behavior and opinions. In a society of high uncertainty avoidance, people show high levels of anxiety and worry for potential risks and uncertainties. In such a society, companies and organizations may have more formal rules, people lack tolerance towards abnormal thought and behavioral. Countries like China and UK belong to the societies of lower uncertainty avoidance (Hofstede, 1980; 1983).
3.2.4 Masculinity-feminism
Cultural characteristics of masculinity are overconfident and materialism, the national culture of femininity emphasizes quality of life, the culture has emphasis on the relationship between people and show sensitivity and concern about other people’s happy (Hofstede, 1980; 1983).
3.2.5 Long-term orientation
A culture of long-term orientation focuses on future, pays attention to thrift and perseverance. They believe that savings should be abundant, thrift is important; they stubbornly adhere to achieving targets; they are sensitive for social relations and hierarchical relationships; they are willing to invest for the future. In the culture of short-term orientation, the values focus on the past and the present. People respect tradition and pay attention to fulfilling social responsibility, but here and now is the most important (Hofstede, 1980;1985).
3.3 Cross-cultural management
Cross-cultural management is through the process of cultural integration to establish a mutual trust, mutual respect relationship between employees of different cultural backgrounds (Bonache, Trullen and Sanchez, 2012), training employees to accept different ways of thinking and cultivating their intercultural competence of working with people with different cultural backgrounds (Popescu et al., 2014), so as to make the two sides reach a consensus in the future corporate values, management modes and systems (Engelen et al., 2014; Woods et al., 2013). Cross-cultural management generally includes the following contents. First, to understand that each national culture has its own unique personality, for instance, Chinese people emphasize collectivism and ignore individualism; British people respect individualism, thus cultural conflicts may arise from this and should be known and prevented in advance (Pheng, and Leong, 2000). Second, to select an appropriate mode of cultural integration, there are basic four modes of cultural integration (Shimoni, 2011; Kim, Kim and Lim, 2013; Lelchook and Luque, 2015). The first mode is: in an organization, a culture dominates other cultures (Huff, Song and Gresch, 2014). The second is the compromise of two cultures, they seek common ground while accept the existing differences, in order to ensure the stability and development of an organization (Shimoni, 2011; Lelchook and Luque, 2015). The third mode is through mutual complement and coordination between cultures to form a new and unified culture of an organization (Shimoni, 2011). The fourth mode means that on the premise of very limited cultural contact and exchange of employees with different cultural backgrounds in an enterprise, they keep their own culture independent (Kim, Kim and Lim, 2013; Lelchook and Luque, 2015). Third, to implement cross-cultural training, which includes: language learning, awareness of both national cultures, cultural sensitivity training, cross-cultural communication and conflict management (Tutar, Altinoz and Cakiroglu, 2014; Huff, Song and Gresch, 2014).#p#分页标题#e#
3.4 Gap
Relevant theories of Hofstede’s model of national cultural differences were the research results in the 1970s and 1980s, with the development of times, economy and society, cultures of each country also changed, especially for Chinese people, the rapid economic development will inevitably have a huge impact on China's culture, then it is necessary to re-examine the cultural characteristics of Chinese people, that is why this study aims to understand the performance of cultural differences of staff of Chinese enterprises located in UK. In addition, the performance of behavior of employees in multinational corporations is influenced by their own culture, as well as the external cultural environment. Researches on cultural differences in the past mostly focused on the characteristics of behavior of local staff in a local cultural environment, while there were less research analyzing the characteristics of behavior of employees in other cultural environment. In Chinese companies located in UK, there are often employees with a variety of cultural backgrounds, these employees are not only influenced by their own cultures, but also influenced by British culture, so their organizational behavior is differ from what they behave in their own countries, from this point of view to explore the IHRM of Chinese companies in UK has a certain sense of innovation.

4.0 Methodology方法论

This dissertation will make use of quantitative and qualitative research approaches together, which is beneficial for taking advantages of both approaches and avoiding their weaknesses (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2007). The use of quantitative research approach will investigate the performance of cultural differences of employees of Chinese companies in UK. The qualitative study will help to understand the characteristics and weaknesses of cross-cultural management practices of the Chinese companies. Questionnaires will be used to collect quantitative data. 240 copies of questionnaires will be distributed in this study, the objects will be employees of Chinese companies in UK. The author will through personal relationship to contact with relevant management personnel of six Chinese enterprises in UK, 40 employees of each company will participate in the survey. The questionnaire will be distributed and taken back by emailing. The content of questionnaire is divided into three parts, the first part explain the purpose of the survey, as well as how to fill out the questionnaire. The second part will be designed based on Hofstede’s model of cultural differences, specific content of the questionnaire is presented as table 1. Answers of the questionnaire will be expressed based on Likert scale, 1-5 will represent ‘strongly disagree’ to ‘strongly agree’. The third part shows the objects’ personal information, such as age, income, gender, income. A semi-structured interview will be used to collect qualitative data. The interviewees will be three management personnel of HRM department of three companies, through them to understand their cross-cultural management measures, specific interview outline is showed in table 2. The interview will be conducted via Skype, the interview of each time will last about 20 minutes.#p#分页标题#e#
Part II
Question 1 You have the courage to express your views towards management of your company, do you agree?
Question 2 You believe that the management of your company is democratic, do you agree? 
Question 3 You like the leadership of the management of your company, do you agree?
Question 4 You believe that you can devote yourself to the company at the expense of your individual benefits, do you agree?
Question 5 You believe that all employees should be equal, do you agree?
Question 6 You believe that the communication between employees should be direct, do you agree?
Question 7 You believe that a better position and income are the main purpose and motive of your working, do you agree?
Question 8 You believe that to maintain a good cooperation with your colleagues is very important, do you agree?
Question 9 You are willing to accept more challenge and pressure, do you agree?
Question 10 You suffer more pressure and anxiety at work, do you agree? 
Question 11 You believe that the systems of your company are strict and implemented efficiently in practice, do you agree?
Question 12 You believe that your company provides more space for innovation, do you agree?
Question 13 You are willing to strive for the long-term goals of yourself and your company, do you agree?
Question 14 You are willing to achieve a long-term goal at the expense of your individual benefits, do you agree?
Question 15 You care more about the long-term development potential of your company than its current operation, do you agree?
Table 1: Questionnaire
Question 1 Do you know the cultural backgrounds of your staff? What methods do you adopt to understand their cultural backgrounds?
Question 2 How do you coordinate, control and manage the conflicts of cultural differences between employees? Why?#p#分页标题#e#
Question 3 Have you provided a cross-cultural training? What are the specific measures?
Question 4 What are the advantages and disadvantages of your cross-cultural management?
Question 5 What cross-cultural management measures will your company take in future?
Table 2: Interview Outline
SPSS 19.0 will be taken for the quantitative data analysis, which provides descriptive statistics for the standard deviation, mean and frequency, percentage of the collected data, according to what Best (1997) found to examine the results of the questionnaire, which is showed as follows.
1.00-1.80 1.81-2.61 2.62-3.41 3.42-4.21 4.22-5.00
Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree
Table 3: The translation of level ranking of the answers
The qualitative data in this study will be analyzed based on the literature review to understand the characteristics and weaknesses of cross-cultural management practices of the Chinese companies in UK.

5.0 Research schedule研究进度

Timetable of implementation the study is designed as follows. 
Description Date Days
Task 1 Introduction April 1-- 5, 2015 5
Task 2 Literature review April 6--20, 2015 15
Task 3 Collection of data April 21-- May 9,2015 20
Task 4 Discussion May 10-- 24, 2015 15
Task 5 Draft May 25-- June 4, 2015 10
Task 6 Amending June 5-- 24, 2015 #p#分页标题#e#20
Task 7 Editing and submitting June 25--July 1, 2015 7
Table 4: Timetable
 
6.0 Ethical issues伦理问题
 
Each participant in this study will be informed about the purpose and content of this investigation in advance. They will be free to choose to participate or deny to be involved in this investigation. Their personal information and privacy will not be disclosed or used for commercial purposes. The author will be rigorous, objective, honest and serious to deal with the data collected in this study to ensure the authenticity and accuracy of the research results. The author will be based on an objective spirit to communicate with the participants to avoid misleading and induction, ensuring that the objects will truly express their views and psychological conditions truly.

7.0 Conclusion总结

This study will be based on Hofstede's model of cultural differences to design the questionnaire, so as to understand the performance of the cultural differences of employees of Chinese companies in UK, through semi-structured interviews to explore the characteristics and shortcomings of the cross-cultural management measures of the Chinese enterprises. Through the investigation of this dissertation, it will understand that whether the current cross-cultural management practices of Chinese enterprises in UK match with the behavior of the multicultural employee, whether it helps to build the relationship of mutual respect, mutual trust between employees of different cultural backgrounds. Limitations of this study is that the amount of the questionnaires are only about 240 copies, the sample size may not be large enough to make the research findings representative. In addition, there are a lot of Chinese companies located in the UK, each company has their own characteristics, their staff composition also varies, therefore each company's own cross-cultural management measures will be different, this study take the Chinese companies in UK as a whole to carry out the investigation, ignoring the differences in cross-cultural management aspects between different enterprises, so the research results of this dissertation may provide limited reference significance for a single enterprise.
 
References文献
 
Best, J.W. (1997). Research in education. 3rd ed. Englewood Cliff, NJ: Prentice Hall, Inc.
Bonache, J., Trullen, J. and Sanchez, J. I. (2012). Managing cross-cultural differences: Testing human resource models in Latin America. Journal of Business Research, 65(12), pp. 1773-1781.
Engelen, A., Schmidt, S., Strenger, L. and Brettel, M. (2014). Top management's transformational leader behaviors and innovation orientation: a cross-cultural perspective ineight countries. Journal of International Management, 20(2), pp.124-136.#p#分页标题#e#
Hofstede, G.H. (1980). Culture consequences: international differences in work-related values. London: Sage Publications. 
Hofstede, G.H. (1983). The cultural relativity of organizational practices and theories. Journal of International Business Studies, Fall, pp. 76-88.
Hofstede, G.H. (1985). The interaction between national and organizational value system. Journal of Management Studies, 22(4), pp. 347-57.
Huff, K. C., Song, P. and Gresch, E. B. (2014). Cultural intelligence, personality, and cross-cultural adjustment: a study of expatriates in Japan. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 38(1), pp.151-157. 
Kim, S. Y., Kim, J. and Lim, T. S. (2013). The impact of relational holism on conflict management styles in colleagueship and friendship: A cross-cultural study. Studies in Communication Sciences, 13(1), pp. 58-66.
Lelchook, A. and Luque, M.S. (2015). Cross-cultural training in industrial and organizational psychology. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (Second Edition), pp. 334-341.
Pheng, L.S. and Leong, C.H.Y. (2000). Cross-cultural project management for international construction in China. International Journal of Project Management, 18(5), pp.307-316.
Popescu, A.D., Borca, C., Fistis, G. and Draghici, A. (2014). Cultural diversity and differences in cross-cultural project teams. Procedia Technology, 16, pp.525-531.
Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2007). Research methods for business students (4th, ed.).Essex, Pearson Education Limited.
Shimoni, B. (2011). The representation of cultures in international and cross cultural management: Hybridizations of management cultures in Thailand and Israel. Journal of International Management, 17(1), pp. 30-41.
Tukiainen, S. (2015). Sensemaking of managing cultural differences in a Finnish-Polish project. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 31(1), pp.69-83.
Tutar, H., Altinoz, M. and Cakiroglu, D. (2014). A study on cultural difference management strategies at multinational organizations. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 150(15), pp. 345-353.
Woods, P., Poropat, A., Barker, M., Hills, R., Hibbins, R. and Borbasi, S. (2013). Building friendship through a cross-cultural mentoring program. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 37(5), pp.523-535.
Zaidman, N. and Drory, A. (2001). Upward impression management in the work place cross-cultural analysis. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 25(6), pp. 671-690.
 
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