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国外地质工程留学生作业:溶洞对于地震地区的形成影响The role of underground caverns and the formation of large earthquakes

时间:2015-09-01 10:03来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
国外地质工程留学生作业

Hollow glassware production process illustrates the gas can change the shape and shaping hot magma , hot magma bubbles can exist in the form of a hollow cooling becomes hollow glassware , can infer the Earth's magma cools and condenses into a mountain or rock when wrapped layer of bubbles, bubbles forming local solidification becomes empty, thus forming caves and underground cave now . By extension , but also the role of the heat generated by the formation of earthquakes and volcanic hot underground cave . Long heat dissipation , and everything is causing geological activity , generating a variety of geological phenomena .
空心玻璃盛器的制造过程解释明白了气可以变更和刻画热岩浆的式样,热岩浆内存在气泡儿可以使之冷却后形成中空,成为空心玻璃盛器,由此可以推知,地球的岩浆冷却凝固成山或喷出岩层时里头包裹着气泡儿,有气泡儿的地方凝结成形成为空疏,因此形成了如今的山洞和地下天然洞穴。

 

Generate underground heat and crustal structure through holes
地下热气与地壳的通孔结构的萌生 

 

Gas heat generated
高热气体的发生

 

Gas heat generated mainly in two forms: first , when the fever heat of magma fluid substances in ionic form , the integration of various substances indiscriminately , when heat magmatic fluid temperature dropped to a certain extent , the presence of fluid in the heat various substances will restore its gaseous form and is released to form a gaseous form high fever ; second , the underlying crustal magma following heat reacts with the outer fluid in contact with the material , or to generate a variety of hot magmatic fluid heat The reaction between the material gas to produce hot gases of various compounds formed in the gaseous form of heat . For example , the bottom of the crust beneath the heat flow from the tens of thousands of degrees Celsius down to about a thousand degrees Celsius, which like H, O, C, CL, S and other substances will restore its gaseous form and is released between these substances or outside atmospheric pressure of the incoming material and heat the material at a high temperature fluid and the chemical reaction to produce other compounds in gaseous form , such as H2 O, CO2, N2, HC, HCL, H2 S, HF and other substances .

 

 Through-hole structure of the crust
Earth turned out to be a fireball , heat a fluid substance gaseous substances Earth's surface in contact with the outside react with burns calories and spatial distribution of heat outwards gradually cooled down, condensed into solid rock, and over the soft soil white crust. Heat flow from the Earth's surface to the inside layers of the layers to cool down gradually from outside to inside , condensed into a new layer of rock or soil , these new rock or soil to cool down together constitute the Earth's crust . This process continues, the crust becomes thicker and thicker .

 

The overall crustal rocks and soil layer in the middle and white on a loose honeycomb full of holes and small holes , and was connected to the three-dimensional network structure of the state , up and down ventilation. The main reason for the formation of this structure has the following two :

 

First, the crust is cooled below the condensation into rock or soil thermal fluid layer , the outer layer of soil is cooler , the heat inside the fluid layer , heat is heat flow through the rock layers of thermal fluid layer outward distribute encounter colder outside geotechnical layers within the ED also folded back part of the heat convection , heat convection makes repeated fluid layer between the heat and the cold soil layer is sandwiched in the middle of the rock thermal fluid layer of soil as steamed buns , fluffy in the middle to form the shape of the hole is full of three-dimensional network structure can be internal and external ventilation, when the soil after it cools and condenses diagenesis , this shape is fixed down.

 

Secondly, the soil of the gaseous substance is contained in the thermal fluid is not completely released, bubbles of different sizes are formed in the magma , after cooling, the air bubbles in the soil layer where the pores of different sizes are formed , empty can down the ventilation of underground caverns and caves formed in the same way .
Even the sheer rock , although hard, compact structure , among which there are still many small holes and small cracks , so that the gas can be normal traffic .

 

These layers are cooled down to the rock layer structure of the through hole and the soil together form the structure of the crust with a through hole , the through hole crust structure to ensure the normal exchange of material and energy outside the Earth . In the long-term evolution of the Earth's crust , due to the formation of moving , pushing , lifting , thickening and volcanic eruptions , and other reasons, the geological deformation, the formation of ventilatory function is weakened in some places , even the loss of ventilatory function , but the overall structure of the crust and ventilatory function does not change much .

 

Underground heat and volcanic eruptions
Volcano Causes
The basic principle of a volcanic eruption
The basic principle is that the pressure cooker -type eruption heat expansion .
Volcanoes formed three basic conditions
Volcanoes formed three basic conditions : First, the bottom crust can form a large bubble of hot gas gathering or large arches ; Second, the bottom crust continues to gather a lot of heat in a large gas bubbles and is heated, the third is from the bottom to the surface of the crust different forms of three-dimensional network structure through holes .

 

Several cases crust underlying the generation of voids or arches : First , move the crust crust underlying cause is pushed , lifted and formed arches ; Second , when the underlying crustal magma condense into solid rock layer , which contains air bubbles due to magma after leaving the soil layer of condensation in the presence of voids ; third, the hot gases heat the fluid below the bottom of the crust produced by pushing up the bottom than the sparse soft crust formed arches .

 

Various hot gases are formed in the material forms many thermal bubble bottom crust , or a hole in the crust of the bottom arch gathered together to form a large number of hot bubbles, the bubbles below the thermal fluid heat hot gas continuously added to it , and heating was continued so large hot bubble continues to expand and constantly expanding variety of hot bubble of hot gas mix consisting become explosive , a powder keg ready to explode .

 

Via-hole structure of the crust , the crust so that the arch of the bottom hole of the large voids or heat aggregated heat up and expand the high pressure space becomes easier , and thermal bubble formation can follow through hole cracks, voids continue from the inside out ground swell , promote , expand, open up from the bottom to the surface crust of the channel , and finally, red open ground ejection of hot gas and magma , forming a volcanic eruption.

 

Volcano eruption
The following substances bottom crust body contains high heat , such as H, O, CL, C , etc. is released in gaseous form , and gradually push the bottom crust soft hot magma bubbles, or gather in a large arch hole bottom crust together to form a large thermal bubble ; addition , heat the fluid substance with the chemical reaction of other substances gaseous form of various compounds , such as H2 O, CO2, N2, HC, HCL and other gaseous compounds in the hole together form a mixed hot bubbles. Continuously heat the fluid movement and chemical reaction , a large variety of hot gas is constantly created, and the gas is heated continuously add heat to the surrounding air bubble expands into a large thermal bubble expansion space , or small thermal expansion of the bubbles in the expansion combined into a hot bubble , bubble hot rock layers along cracks or holes extending upward expansion continued to expand , out of one or more bubbles to the surface from the hot channel . Below the bottom crust under the pressure of the fluid heating and heat crust formation by weight , a large warm air in heat and pressure, and when the accumulation of energy along the expansion force that it has to be able to open a channel impulse out of the ground , the gas heat from this passage will be spewing out hot magma below the big bubble of fluid under high pressure is also followed, spray ground , which is a volcanic eruption .

 

Some characteristics of different periods of the volcano
Some features of the early Earth volcanoes
Generally speaking , the Earth 's crust early relatively thin layer of soil , the temperature is relatively high, the texture is relatively soft , toughness is relatively large, more easily bent when the crust move easily pushed by the soil layer in the bottom of the bending is also easier to below forming arches . Crust below the bottom heat with a fluid substance on the outside of the material is pressed into the chemical reaction to produce hot gases of various substances , these hot gases heat the bottom crust formation of many bubbles, or among a large number of arches gathered into the bottom crust hot bubbles, the bubbles into one or more small thermal hot bubble , hot bubble expands to expand in the expansion of the surrounding red open up a thin surface crust , heat and hot magma gushed from the ground , pushed to the ground plot hot magma to form a volcano.

 

The crust was thin , pressurized hot red open the crust surface bubbles easily when hot bubble spewing out red open the crust , the following heat surrounded by hot magma ejected together , heap integrated mountain , after cooling to become rock mountain. Therefore , at this time there are less obvious volcanic features : volcanic shorter duration ; volcanic eruptions rarely repeated jet phenomenon ; volcano no obvious crater, a volcano is a bunch of solid lava into a solid peaks ( containing bubbles of magma has cooled cave ) ; higher ground temperatures , volcanic eruptions are very frequent , most land surface could erupt volcano.

 

Some features of the Earth's volcanic stage
Some features of this stage of the volcano are: 1 ) the number of small volcanic eruption stage , the long time interval. The reasons are: first , at this stage in the heat of the Earth's interior has been greatly reduced , greatly thickened crust , and in the bottom of the crust arch cave gathered a lot of heat bubbles accumulate enough force to break through the thick swelling crustal rocks soil , not very easy ; Second , thick crust of geological rock layer is a three-dimensional network structure and the small number of small vent holes composition , it has a lot of space and can accommodate a lot of heat absorbing fluid releasing or hot gases generated by the chemical reaction of the expansion force has formed a large heat bubble cushioning role there , to form a powerful volcanic eruption big enough to heat bubbles take a long time to accumulate energy .

 

Volcano 2 ) significant stage crater , fires broke out longer duration. The reason is that the underground heat bubbles along the cracks, voids or rock layers through holes , and constantly promote and extend upward , out of one or more of the crust from the bottom to the surface of the channel , spewing hot gases and magma , forming a volcanic eruption. By a large number of high-pressure hot gas and magma flock to the crater through the channel , once only a small portion of the gas and magma through , blocked a lot of stranded gas and magma to erupt after a long repeatedly to spray finish , volcano to stop. Therefore , volcanic eruption magma longer duration .
After the eruption , if the geological structure has not changed much , the bottom crust still form a large hole in the heat , to re- gather a large amount of hot gas , after a period of time after the accumulation of gas energy , heat expansion force and might break the original crater re- emitted hot gases and magma , this volcano became active volcano. On the contrary, is an extinct volcano .

 

 Modern distribution of volcanoes
Investigate the distribution of volcanoes , three conditions must be considered the foregoing volcanic eruption , volcanic birth of the first two conditions are intrinsic factors volcanic formation , but also examine the distribution of volcanic theory must reference factor ; condition after a volcano final eruption of external factors must be considered when analyzing plus the actual distribution of the volcano. Distribution of volcanoes can be divided into theoretical and practical distribution distribution , distribution theory refers to theory, but it may no longer be the threat of volcanic eruption of the volcano area still exists ; actual distribution refers to the presence of volcanic threat and some volcano will erupt area.

 

Modern theoretical distribution volcano
The Earth's surface every large plateau or big mountain regions are theoretical distribution of the volcano , because of the large plateau or high mountain regions breeds volcano, should erupting volcano, where history was a volcano -prone land , and now , due to the thick crust formation , ready volcanic eruption thermal expansion force ultimately can not get a bubble from the bottom to the surface crust of the channel and the volcanic eruption , erupting hot springs at best only.

 

The actual distribution of modern volcanoes
Long mountains, geologically active than the lower altitudes , the actual distribution of the volcanic region . Specifically, the actual distribution of the volcanic region :
First, because the continent westward movement of the arm caused by geological land more active western Pacific region and the central region of the Atlantic ; Second , because the continent is moving hemispheres concentrated to about 30 degrees northern latitude regions of the north and south push each other continents middle ground , namely the Caribbean, Indonesia and the Mediterranean region .

 

 Formation of underground karst underground caves and hot and caves
Causes of underground caverns and caves
Underground water caverns and caves are not the result of erosion or corrosion . Instead, the earth's surface thick layer of hot lava cools and condenses into the rock during the magma some remain in the gaseous substance is pressed into a variety of different sized bubbles into the magma rock layer after cooling , these bubbles became the place where the underground caverns or caves .

 

Several of underground caverns and caves formed
Formed on the early Earth , the formation of underground caves and karst caves have in several situations:

 

The material layer due to its surface magma Earth's surface and the heat consumption of reaction heat and gradually cooled space outwardly into rock , in this process , the gas released from the magma layer material is not distributed out to remain in after the formation of bubbles in the magma , the magma cooled , the place became a bubble underground caverns or caves ;

 

The following are the rocks of the Earth's surface is a magma layer of heat flowing fluid magma , hot gases produced by the reaction of various compounds of various thermal mass heat fluid to release gaseous substances and other gaseous substances occur in contact with their appearances , under the strong heat of the fluid driven heat outward driving under the rocks of the Earth's surface layer and a surface layer which radiated through the earth . In this process, some scattered hot gases to the ground, some of the hot gas is not dissipated , but remained in the rocks of the magma is being formed and a wide variety of large and small bubbles forming magma cooled after the place where these bubbles became a wide variety of underground caverns ; some of the hot gas in the process of promoting the Earth's surface , in the rocks of the magma layer being in the hole or cave arch aggregation, formation of large bubbles, these large bubbles constantly replenished following the release of the gas layer fever heat of gas and heat , continue to swell and expand around , when it accumulated enough hot gas and heat , making it possible to produce the expansive force rushed to open one or more when the channel to reach the surface , a large gas bubble in the heat out of this channel on land along this surface , and subsequently at high pressure high heat also follow and subsequently spewing out magma , forming volcanoes, spewing out lava mountains of the ground cooling since become rocky mountain , if the magma in the gaseous substance has not been released, the formation of gas bubbles , the magma cooled since become rocky mountain cave in the magma , which is the formation of the cave ;(责任编辑:anne)


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