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计算机网络留学论文-Software industries

时间:2015-08-08 16:00来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
软件行业

在上世纪60年代早期,电脑以一种标准方式销售,软件产业自此迅速起步。大学和企业开始使用这些计算机,并寻求程序来做某些计算任务。这些程序有很多是由专职的工作人员编写的。有些在使用某种机器的用户间免费。但其它是建立在一个商业基础上,第一个独立的软件公司在1959-1960的美国建立。很快,计算机开始将操作系统软件和编程环境与机器捆绑在一起。当时占据了大部分电脑市场的IBM成为一个家喻户晓的名字。

当数字设备公司带来了一个相对廉价的微型计算机市场,使公司和大学使用电脑,在新的强大的编程语言和方法方面不断创新。新的软件是为微型计算机设计的。包括IBM在内的其它公司效仿DECs的例子,产生了IBM AS400等。

随着20世纪70年代个人电脑的兴起,为办公室员工提供了电脑操作,计算机行业明显扩大。在随后几年中,它还为游戏、应用和公用事业创造了一个不断增长的市场。微软第一款产品,是当时占主导地位的操作系统。

软件行业——Software industry
 
The software industries started in the early 1960s, almost immediately after computers ('mainframes') were first sold in a more or less standardized way. Universities and businesses began to use these computers and to seek out programs to do certain computing tasks. Many of these programs were written in-house by full-time staff programmers. Some were distributed freely between users of a particular machine for no charge. But others were done on a commercial basis, and the very first standalone software firms started in the United States in 1959-1960. Pretty soon, the computer-makers started bundling operating systems software and programming environments with their machines. IBM, which delivered most of the computers at the time, became a household name in corporate businesses worldwide.
 
When Digital Equipment Corporation brought a relatively low-priced micro-computer to market, it brought computing within reach of many more companies and universities worldwide, and it spawned great innovation in terms of new, powerful programming languages and methodologies. New software was built for micro-computers, and others, including IBM, followed DECs example quickly, resulting in the IBM AS400 amongst others.
 
The industry expanded greatly with the rise of the personal computer in the mid-1970s, which brought computing to the desktop of the office worker. In subsequent years, it also created a growing market for games, applications, and utilities. DOS, Microsoft's first product, was the dominant operating system at the time.
 
In the early years of the 21st century, another successful business model has arisen for hosted software, called software as a service, or SaaS; this was at least the third time this model had been attempted. SaaS reduces the concerns about software piracy, since it can only be accessed through the Web, and by definition no client software is loaded onto the end user's PC.(责任编辑:huiyinad)


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