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社会学作业:AMERICA INDIVIDUALSIM-- ANALYZING THE CHINESE STA

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社会学作业:AMERICA INDIVIDUALSIM-- ANALYZING THE CHINESE STARS AMERICANS LIKE

Acknowledgements

Upon the smooth completion of the thesis, I would like to express my sincere thanks to many people.
First of all, I would like to express my sincere appreciation to my mentor Ms XI who has given me a lot of help. Her knowledge of American culture, her careful, constructive comments and suggestions have been extremely valuable in helping me revise this thesis. Without her help, the completion of the present paper would not have been possible
I would also like to express my deep appreciation to my classmates who have given a lot of important ideas for the topic.
Finally, I want to thank my father and mother for their spiritual and practical support that backed me up all the way through.

Abstract

This paper aims to talk about an important characteristic of American culture - individualism, through analyzing the Chinese star Americans like.
Due to the differences of culture, exotic star did not seem so easy to be accepted. But this law was broken Yao and Zhang Ziyi, who are not only smoothly integration into the United States of sports and entertainment circles, but also became the focus of the Americans. Yao's popularity to a certain extent, even goes beyond the local star  of the United States.
 Why would the Americans selected Yao Ming and Zhang Ziyi as their idol from a number of Chinese star? What is the nature they owned which made the American people love them so much? Analysis of the Americans’ opinion on Yao and Zhang Ziyi, as well as the main reason for their love, we can easily find the two main reasons which make Yao Ming and Zhang Ziyi acceptable by the United States,. The fighting spirit of Yao and the "Yao style humor", Zhang Ziyi’s "independent tenacity" are the characters which make most Americans appreciate.
American culture has always been respected in individualism。 Individualism is to emphasize personality, stress on personal independence, respect for the dignity of the individual, which is the most basic value of the United States. American individualism makes Americans have very strong sense of self-expression, and like to prove themselves through various methods. Therefore, they very appreciate the confidence person such as Zhang Ziyi. At the same time, the American people also appreciate a person with humorsense, because it is also a characteristic of self-expression. Of course, apart from Yao-style humor, the fighting spirit of him also matches with the heroism of American individualism. We can see that the characteristics owned by Yao and Zhang Ziyi are exactly match with the Americans’ self-pursuit.
Based on the inspection and information has been inferred, I think, it is because that the characteristics of the two are very consistent with individualism, which Americans pursuit of, that makes Yao Ming and Zhang Ziyi so popular in America.#p#分页标题#e#
  
Key words: Individualism, Ziyi Zhang, Yao Ming, American culture,Heroism

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements……………………………………………………………………i
Abstract in English…………………………………………………………………...ii
Abstract in Chinese…………………………………………….…………… …iii
Table of Contents…………………………………………………………………… iv
Chapter1 Introduction 1
Chapter2 The Evaluation of Americans 2
2.1 Zhang Ziyi, An Unique Chinese Girl 2
2.2Yaoming, An "East Way Hero" 3
Chapter 3 Individualism, An Important Feature of the American Culture 4
3.1The General Idea of Individualism 4
3.2 Individualism in America 5
3.3 Individualism Impact on the American Attitude toward Life 6
Chapter4 Yao, Zhang and Individualism 8
4.1Zhang, Appreciated by Her Confidence 8
4.2Yao,Appreciated by His Humor and Fighting Spirit 9
4.3 Yao and Zhang has the characteristics of individualism 10
Chapter5 Conclusion 11
References ……………………………………………………………………………12

Chapter1 Introduction

In the first round voting star balloting of this year, Yao won 881,223 votes, the largest number of votes once again better than O'Neal (854,930). Yao Ming is not only the highest in the votes of center, but also the highest in the league. Kevin Garnett, LeBron James, Kobe Bryant, Allen Iverson and other superstars are 30~40 votes lower than Yao. Yao It is interesting that the Americans are in the frantic love Yao Ming, and even more persistent than we are. Chinese Consulate General in Houston cultural counselor Zhao Haisheng said that Yao not only enhance the Chinese people's pride, but also the pride of Asia. I met a lot of Koreans and Japanese, they also feel pride that Yao Ming and they have the same colour , also from Asia, from the same geography and culture.
Zhang Ziyi is similar to Yao. Four years ago, in Ang Lee's "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon" Zhang Ziyi suddenly become an international movie star. One year later, she and Jackie Chan cooperated in the United States action movies "Rush Hour 2" . "New York Post" said her as” Angels face, superior acting, Ziyi Zhang is expected to become China's chief actress". Zhang Ziyi's career in the United States is more and more successful. In addition to a lot of new plays, even the ordinary American people become to like her. During an authority of an entertainment media in the United States "Arts", which named "the most impact of the Masters," Zhang Ziyi won the first prize, even to the front of Angelina Jolie .#p#分页标题#e#
Are Americans really like Yao Ming and Zhang ziyi?  What makes Yao Ming and Zhang Ziyi so popular in the United States? Personality? Strength? Character? Which one helps them get the worship of Americans?
 This paper mainly analyzes an important feature of American culture – individualism through American attitude to the two Chinese stars. Through American’s evaluation of Yao Ming and Zhang Ziyi, as well as the individualism in the American culture, to analyze the cultural reason why Americans like them

Chapter2 The Evaluation of Americans

2.1 Zhang Ziyi, An Unique Chinese Girl

Ziyi Zhang , Who repeatedly boarded the cover of Western magazines is indeed the most popular Asian star at present in the United States, who also represents the "First Oriental Beauty" in Western’s view.
Western mainstream media focus far more attention on Zhang Ziyi than China's domestic media. When year 2007 Zhang Ziyi come to Washington, a number of major media make a report of her participation in the White House welcoming ceremony. "Washington Post" published a long article in a prominent position which named" ’Wohu ‘conquered her audience,", and report Zhang Ziyi’s activities in Washington carefully. At the end of the article, "Washington Post" reporter sighed that "I was watching her in the crowd, and could not help but think: God , how cute the girl is!"
Let us take a look at the evaluation made by Americans to Yao Zhang Ziyi. The magazine "Variety" said that Zhang Ziyi, in the eyes of the general public, is not only a typical Chinese beautiful girl, but also can play Kung Fu well. What is more important is "her diligence". Her independent personality and perseverance also appreciate by the Americans.
Her unique temperament makes the Americans think of the screen princess- Audrey Hepburn. The joint producer of "Memoirs of a Geisha," Lucy Fischer said: "She reminds me of the Audrey Hepburn, she will become the next superstar." (何钟迎,2005,章子怡让美国人想起奥黛丽-赫本,《华商晨报》8月12日)
We could see it is the unique personality that helps Zhang Ziyi to be popular in America.

2.2Yaoming, An "East Way Hero"

In the United States, Yao's name is very famous in the Houston Rockets and many people there are proud of him. The 2.26 m NCAA is not only the idol of the Chinese people, but also the idol of American. However, Yao is so well-known in the United States, not just because of his height, or his game, but because he is unique, there is only one Yao.
Some super fans in Houston take Yao as the center of life. Jane is a female member of Yao club, she and her husband moved their house from Houston to Indianapolis just for Yao Ming. There is a room in her house devoted to Yao Ming, there are a lot of  Yao Ming’s posters and logo inside. Jane is just one of the fans who is so crazy with Yao. (邹德浩,2006,东方式的英雄! 姚明:美国人眼里的"中国名片", 《人民日报》海外版8月1日)#p#分页标题#e#
On one occasion, the Chinese Consulate General in Houston consular Wang take a lecture in a Houston high school to introduce Chinese culture. On the lecture, he asked the children where is the capital of China. Someone Beijing, and some else said Hong Kong, even Shanghai. But when asked what is their understanding of China, they all in one voice replied: "Yao."
论文范文Since Yao came to the United States after the first year, at the store, you can see that Yao Ming has been on many magazine covers and television programs. The media here reported a lot on him, the "USA Today" and even the "New York Times" often published huge photo of Yao and reports. So Yao can be said to be the first sports stars from China to conquer the United States .
Yao is appreciated by the Westerners not only because of his quick but also his fighting spirit on the court. Some New York people said, in their view, Yao is not only smart but also kind, have team spirit, he is a hero who is always for the sake of others. Yao has also been regarded by the Americans as one of the most amiable players, and his good image has affected many Americans to educate their children to "strive to become a man like Yao."
From the Americans’ evaluation, we can found that the features of Zhang and Yao are just match with the American characteristics - individualism.

Chapter 3 Individualism, An Important Feature of the American Culture

3.1The General Idea of Individualism

Individualism is the core of American culture, and its main motivation is autonomous, independent choice to achieve self-realization through self-reliance. It reflects a variety of forms including egoism, personal heroism, and liberalism, in some extreme cases, even embodied in anarchism. (李建红,2004,论美国文化中的个人主义表现 [J],湖南工程学院学报(社会科学版) 代写硕士论文 02期; 38-40)
Whether it's myth or reality -- and it is certainly a bit of both -- individualism has long been considered a defining criterion of American culture. After all, this is a country where the most popular kind of music, at least among the suburban middle class, bears the name "Alternative."
Of course, if everybody listens to "Alternative," it ceases to be so (maybe it's Garth Brooks) -- and this irony provides at least a suggestion that much of the "individualism" in which contemporary Americans take such pride is not so much a deep "habit of the heart" as a superficial construction of image. If you buy a Stetson, you can be a cowboy too.( Dietrich, W. (1995). Northwest Passage: The Great Columbia River,NY: Simon and Schuster)
"Individualism supplied the nation with a rationalization of its characteristic attitudes, behavior patterns and aspirations, It endowed the past, the present and the future with the perspective of unity and progress. It explained the peculiar social and political organization of the nation--unity in spite of hetero geneity and it pointed toward an ideal social organization in harmony with American experience. #p#分页标题#e#
Individualism expressed sathe universalism and idealism most characteristic of the national consciousness. This concept evolved in contradistinction to socialism, the universal and messianic character of which it shared."(Yehoshua Arieli, Individualism and Nationalism in American ldeoIogy 1964)

3.2 Individualism in America

Individualism is perhaps the primary concept that, transcending such categories as race, gender, class, age and region, unites Americans across time and space to give coherence to the national experience.
From the earliest beginnings of the republic to the post-modernist present, the rights of the individual citizen and his or her place in the scheme of things has been of primary importance to American philosophers, artists, political theorists, theologians and others concerned with articulating national values and principles. Communitarian ideas rise from time to time to challenge individualism, but none have yet been successful in seriously weakening its hold on American culture. Incorporated into American "common-sense thinking," the philosophy of individualism becomes in the popular mind the very essence of what being an American means.
Although the mediator is the main value, one believe that every person has value, attach great importance to personal self-control and self-development. In short, individualism based on personal philosophy of life. This is exactly the individualism what the Americans insist on.
American individualism as the core of national values,  Americans respect for the dignity of the individual, the right to freedom, which is the most basic value of the United States, it enables American society always full of vitality ".
America, however, is a nation of individuals and individualism. This is the essence of our founding documents—that each of us could pursue our own happiness and goals, and that we would be free to do so with limited interference.
 This sense of individualism not only exists in our political thinking, but in our cultural thinking as well. It exists within the Western/Action movie with its solitary hero and in Jazz with its emphasis on individualistic improvisation. It exists in the entrepreneurial technology economy with its dynamic and creative business leaders.( Shawn E. Klein,2001,entary from the Navigator Special: The Assault on Civilization,  Published in the November 2001 Navigator)

3.3 Individualism Impact on the American Attitude toward Life

Individualism, as an important part of American culture, has been gradually affecting the American attitude towards life

3.3.1 Americans’ strong sense of controlling their own lives.

In the United States, when people make a decision, the main consideration is their own views rather than their elders’ and friends’ view. Personal choice is considered the most important. "The Perspective of taking control of their own mind also gives America unique attitude to life. Therefore" unique "in the United States is a fairly substantial praise words.#p#分页标题#e#

3.3.2 Americans Request the Government of individualism.

Since they think that personal life is their own business, of course, it would not need others to meddle in their affairs. It seems that an important task of the United States government is to ensure the people's freedom and ensure the people's right.
The government should not intervene in the private things.
Let us first see the effect on self-government.  When the Federal Government undertakes to go into commercial business it must at once set up the organization and administration of that business, and it immediately finds itself in a labyrinth.... Commercial business requires a concentration of responsibility.  Our government to succeed in business would need to become in effect a despotism.  There at once begins the destruction of self-government....
It is a false liberalism that interprets itself into the government operation of commercial business.  Every step of bureaucratizing of the business of our country poisons the very 代写博士论文roots of liberalism ¬ that is political equality, free speech, free assembly, free press and equality of opportunity.  It is not the road to more liberty, but to less liberty.  Liberalism should not be striving to spread bureaucracy but striving to set bounds to it....( HERBERT HOOVER,1928)
 
3.3.3Americans’ Strong Sense of Personal Struggle.

In the United States, the personal struggle  is thought to be a lofty attitude toward life. These cultural elements have increasingly sophisticated since the colonial began. Young people on the important matters, such as marriage, never ask for money from parents. They feel that they use their hands to create happiness.
If you ask Americans what kind of person in their mind is a hero, they will said immediately: "The people who start from scratch."
Tocqueville says American’s fathers only knew about egoism. Now American have this new thing: individualism. "Individualism," and this is one of the places where he comes as close as he ever does to defining it, is a calm and considered feeling which disposes each citizen to isolate himself from the mass of his fellows and withdraw into the circle of family and friends; with this little society formed to his taste, he gladly leaves the greater society to look out after itself.
As this tendency grows, he wrote,
there are more and more people who though neither rich nor powerful enough to have much hold over others, have gained or kept enough wealth and enough understanding to look after their own needs. Such folk owe no man anything and hardly expect anything from anybody. They form the habit of thinking of themselves in isolation and imagine that their whole destiny is in their hands.( Michael Novak,(2008),Community and individualism: Two views, Studies in Philosophy and Education)
 Convinced of their own, convinced of their own destiny, this is just the individualism now the Americans insisted on.#p#分页标题#e#

Chapter4 Yao, Zhang and Individualism

Zhang and Yao are truly the proud of the Chinese people. They help to widely spread Chinese culture to the world. However, it is undeniable that there are many Chinese people do not such like them.

4.1Zhang, Appreciated by Her Confidence

Some people even feel disgusted about Zhang. Most people do not like her because she is too much show herself. Some users named her as "Opinionated Woman". However, the feature, which is rejected by Chinese fans, may just be the reason why Americans appreciate of Zhang.
Americans love to show themselves. Some Americans eat number of "hot dogs", smoking number of cigarettes, even take a harbor marriage just strive for a world record. Americans do not love "with the pandemic." For example, in the class, the Americans like to sit on the front. When teachers questioned, the American students are vying to raise their hands. In the United States remained silent on the classroom of students, it is difficult to get "A" results.( 李其荣,2004-10-8,美国个人主义价值观透析)
Simply said, Americans are keen to prove themselves in various ways, so that to let people recognized them Likewise, they also appreciate those who is self-confidence and courage to show themselves. Zhang is just a unique girl who dared to show her strength and capacity to the world. Just as Dragon Li in <Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon>, her dedication to hard efforts to let people all over the world recognized her.

4.2Yao,Appreciated by His Humor and Fighting Spirit

As Yao, his sense of humor and his fighting spirit on the court with are just match with American individualism.
Americans sense of humor is a feature of self-expression. Former President Ronald Reagan was called as ‘Publicity Man," One of the reasons is that he loved jokes. In1981, Reagan was assassinated, almost killed. when taken to the hospital, he also said to the  doctors in a humor way “I hope you are all Republicans”.
Yao Ming’s sense of humor is well known, and some people even concluded with a 10 classic humorous quotations of Yao Ming. Yao's English getting better and better, one reporter asked: "Don’t You (Yao) think that your English is more fluently than your Chinese?" Yao immediately said to his interpreter Colin "I only can answer your question English. Colin Powell, please help to translate, " (红蜻蜓,2007-7-6姚明机智幽默十大经典语录)Such a friendly and humor young man will certainly win the goodwill of Americans.
Of course, the fighting spirit and sense of teamwork of Yao Ming also make Americans admire him. Injured but still insist on competition, never give up until the final second, all these are match with struggle spirit of American individualism

4.3 Yao and Zhang has the characteristics of individualism

Whether facing to praise or accuse, Yao did not change himself to meet the Americans’ tastes. Yao is Yao. Because of this, "Yao Style Humor" is very welcomed by mainstream American society. The hosts of CNN, no matter men and women, have brought only praise never criticize to Yao, even when his or rocket team’s performance is not so good.#p#分页标题#e#
Unlike many American movie stars that always have some negative rumors, Zhang Ziyi has been away from parties and nightclubs, and has never been involved in embarrassing or drunken behavior loss to the scandal. Her reputation is built entirely on the her great act in the  films and shaping characters on the film.
Academy Professor of Beijing Film, Huang-Gazette, said during an interview, that Zhang Ziyi and Yao Ming in the word become a focus of attention, which relevant with their personal charisma. Zhang Ziyi in the film "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon", play the heroine, a combination of martial arts elements, which is very much in line with the pursuit of western independent women. The agile, fighting spirit and the competition manners of Yao, and are truly match with the heroism West appreciate. Therefore, Zhang and Yao become China's no accident that the Ambassador's cultural image. (江雪晴,2006,“好莱坞的姚明” 美国人为章子怡着迷,《环球时报》4月26日)

Chapter5 Conclusion

Generally speaking, the history of individualism in the United States has played a irreplaceable role, as a core value of American culture.
The most noble aspirations of American society and Americans are linked with individualism closely. Americans believe in the dignity of the individual, independent thinking, independent judgments, as well as relying on its own strength to achieve personal interests. These are the positive performance of individualism. Individualism stresses personality, uniqueness, genius, and the fullest development of capabilities and talents. With the development of American society,American individualism, regarded as elite in American culture, is being acclaimed by Americans for a long time. It is the symbol of the nation as well as the principal part of the culture. The main theme is, self-motivation, self-choices, to the success. It plays an important role in America society, including politics domain in democracy, economics, culture, even people themselves and their lives. It gives those different changes and progress, though some time brings out bad effects. It’s also viewed as virtue existing in American culture.
Now, the Sino-US cultural exchanges between the two countries have become an important bridge, which enhance mutual understanding and friendship. A few years ago when Yao landed the United States, the Americans began to have a new sight of China. He launched a "Yao fever" to the Americans that made them have an general idea about the Chinese people's modest, self-disciplined style. And when "Zhang Ziyi Tornado" landed the United State, the Americans received a modern Chinese fashion and vitality image.
American journalist once asked Zhang Ziyi: "Movie stars belong to the world. Nevertheless, when you represent your country as the official mandate to be here, how do you feel about these two roles?" Ziyi Zhang replied: "walk a red carpet, I feel strongly excited, warm atmosphere. I told myself, this is just part of my job. And I really loved the film production process, and I exert the greatest efforts when shoot every scene, this is the real me. "by the United States media attention, Zhang Ziyi said:" I think that I am just passing by of Hollywood, not a member. " From the speech of Zhang Ziyi, we can see that confidence and unique temperament. This is precisely one of the reasons why the Americans are infatuated with her.#p#分页标题#e#
The characteristic owned by Yao and Zhang Ziyi is exactly in line with the Americans pursuit of self-personality, also in line with the Americans pursuit of individualism. That is one of the reasons why they were popular in America.
The United States is a country advocating heroism. In their view, Yao Ming is a "East way heroic." The United States is also a national respecting liberalism. Zhang Ziyi, in their view, is a mysterious woman who is independent and has unique charisma.
It is Individualism, what  helps Yao Ming and Zhang Ziyi successful in America.

References
Dietrich, W. (1995). Northwest Passage: The Great Columbia River,NY: Simon and Schuster,158-189
HERBERT HOOVER,1928,Michael Novak,(2008),Community and individualism: Two views, Studies in Philosophy and Education
Shawn E. Klein, 2001, entary from the Navigator Special: The Assault on Civilization,  Navigator
Yehoshua Arieli, (1964),Individualism and Nationalism in American ldeoIogy
红蜻蜓,2007-7-6姚明机智幽默十大经典语录
何钟迎,2005,代写论文章子怡让美国人想起奥黛丽-赫本,《华商晨报》8月12日
江雪晴, 2006, “好莱坞的姚明” 美国人为章子怡着迷,《环球时报》4月26日
李建红,2004,论美国文化中的个人主义表现 [J],湖南工程学院学报(社会科学版) 02期; 38-40
李其荣,2004-10-8,美国个人主义价值观透
邹德浩,2006,东方式的英雄! 姚明:美国人眼里的"中国名片", 《人民日报》海外版8月1日

 

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