时间:2014-05-26 15:12:56 来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
I. Introduction
1.1Social Background
The long and progressive reign of Queen Victoria came to a climax in the Diamond Jubilee Year (1897), a time of peace and plenty when the British Empire seemed to be at the summit of its power and security.
John Galsworthy lived in this special age. Through his life, he is preoccupied with the social injustice in his time. The time he lives and works is the period that the capitalist countries developed from free competition to Monopoly capitalism. At this time, the capitalist society’s all kinds of contradictions have become more and more intensified. The capitalist system has passed its golden period and shown a declining tendency. England used to be the most powerful country in the world, at this time also shows a declining trend. At the early 20th century, all kinds of social transformation trend of thought appear and the workers’ movements also upsurge at that time.
Douglas Hewitt says: “our lives have always been largely controlled by economic and political realities, and this is true whether we realize it or not”. So is John Galsworthy. The social upheaval influences his writing. Living in this time he sticks to his democratic and free stand. He never gives up condemning the ugly aspect of the civilized capitalist society. He also wants to find a way out for his class. On one hand, he has seen the declining tendency and contradictions of the capitalist society and bravely revealed them in his works; on the other hand, he aims to improve his class wishing it might retain its ruling position in society. So he is a bourgeois himself. He has never smashed the trammels of the capitalist system.
1.2John Galsworthy
John Galsworthy (1867-1933), one of the most prominent of the 20th century English realistic writers, was born in a well-to-do bourgeois family. He studied law at Oxford, but look to literary work after graduation. It is first published book was a volume of short stories, which was followed by two novels. All of these, however, attracted little attention. The Island Pharisees (1904) was his first important social novel, which gives a critical portrayal of bourgeois life. Meanwhile, Galsworthy improved his craft, taking for his model the Russian novelists, particularly Turgenev. The Man of Property (1906) was a landmark in the development of Galsworthy's art. The novel shows maturity and consummate craftsmanship. It established his place in literature as a representative of bourgeois realism in the 20th century English novel.
The idea of creating a series of novels portraying the history of English bourgeois life occurs red to Galsworthy while he was writing his next novel.  In Chancery. The project was carried out in The Forsyte Saga, his masterpiece. It took Galsworthy 22 years (1906- 1928) to accomplish this monumental work. The Forsyte Saga gives a profound and true-to-life picture of the English bourgeois society during a period of 40 years, beginning from the eighties of the I9th century up to the twenties of the 20th century. During the last years of his life Galsworthy wrote three novels of minor significance, which make up a trilogy, entitled The End of the Chapter (1931-1933). Galsworthy also distinguished himself as a playwright, having written 28 plays. In his plays he dwells upon the burning social problems of his life. His most important plays include The Silver Box (1906) accusing the British society for its contrasting treatment of two men, the one rich the other poor, who are guilty of the same crime, and Strife (1909), depicting the conflict between labors and capital.#p#分页标题#e#
The novels and plays of Galsworthy give a complete picture of English bourgeois society. A bourgeois himself, Galsworthy nevertheless clearly saw the decline of his class and truthfully portrayed this in his works. Yet his criticism of the bourgeoisie was limited to the spheres of ethics and aesthetics only. He aimed to improve his class, wishing it might retain its ruling position in society. His bourgeois conservatism is particularly evident in the works written after World War I and the October Revolution. Facing the crisis of British imperialism and the growing forces of socialism, Galsworthy began to idealize the decadent bourgeoisie. This is particularly evident in his last trilogy The End of the Chapter.
1.3The Man of Property
The Man of Property, the first novel of the Forsyte Saga, was the highest point of social criticism even attained by Galsworthy, marks the summit of critical realism in all Galsworthy's works. The chief difference between The Man of Property and all the succeeding parts of the whole epic lies in that the dominant critical note in the former becomes softened in the latter and turns into a sort of elegy on the irreparable decline of the once powerful class, the bourgeoisie.
A gist of the story of The Man of Property may show the features of critical realism in Galsworthy's works. The central figure in The Man of Property is Soames Forsyte. The spirit of "Forsytism" is represented by Soames—that is, the principle of making the accumulation of wealth the sole aim in life, and that of considering everything in terms of one's property. The story evolves around Soames and his sense of property. At the opening scene, Soames has already married Irene, a girl 20 years his junior. Irene is young and beautiful; she loves art and cherishes noble ideals of life. But Soames does not pay the slightest attention to her thoughts and feelings, regarding her merely as a piece of his own properly. So Irene is very unhappy. The novel begins with the engagement between June Forsyte, granddaughter of Old Jolyon and daughter of Young Jolyon, to Philip Bosinney, an architect who is interested in art and not in practical things in life and who is therefore the antithesis to the Forsytes. Now Soames and Irene appear at the betrothal of the young couple. Soames asks the architect Bosinney to build a country house for him. In the process of the designing and building of the house, Irene and Bosinney become more and more attracted to each other because they have a common interest in art. Soon it is quite obvious that they are in love with each other. Rumors arise. Then Soames tries to have his revenge on Bosinney by suing him at the court for spending more money than stipulated. The triangular relationship of Soames, Irene and Bosinney ends in the tragic death of Bosinney, who is run over by a car in a London fog. But Irene refuses to have anything to do with Soames. So Soames wins but an empty triumph in the case. In dealing with this story, the author is definitely on the side of Irene and Bosinney, showing much sympathy for them, describing them as people beyond the pale of the practical, money-making world of the Forsytes, as rebels who share a common belief in art and beauty and are engaged in a struggle against the stifling atmosphere of the bourgeois world. At the same time Galsworthy blames Soames for extending his sense of property too far and wide not only to the physical but also to the spiritual possession of his wife, and for using the dirty Erick of revenge on his rival by suing him at the court. In doing so, Galsworthy lays bare the oppressive nature of the properly instinct of the bourgeoisie, and criticizes its sense of properly because it stifles the natural and justifiable human desire for art and beauty. #p#分页标题#e#

II.Forsyte Spirit
The Forsyte’s ancestors were having a rough time,pertinacious yeomen. In the 19th century, a square man named Jon Forsyte in family, who did the contractor, from rural into city, and then made his own way, became a lampedusa big boss. Later, they moved to London. After his death, he left estate 30,000 pounds. The ten children of them to invest in the operation had turned into more than 100 million pounds. But also as 3-5 Percent annum growth rate. Since then Britain has a large number of overseas colonies, and overseas capital to plunder. At that time, they lived in the vicinity of London’s Hyge Park, the oldest 86 years old, most young were more than 60, mainly depended on interest on investments of life, and also operating an industrial or a lawyer. In the novel opening, they have old enough. However, they still were the succession of their father, is the “merit” glorious generation. To brother Old Jolyon represented, they all generated wealth; where there had high profit where they were:
operator of tea, coal, railway, or start-up the publishing houses or law office; At the same time ,they wanted the sale of real estate(This was their family’s traditional business), and large-scale intervention in the bond and stock markets, and so on. In short, they had become a full and rich decent upper class. To the third generation, that is, the son of Old Jolyon as well as the cousin Soames, who had probably were from Eton, Harrow(Public School), Oxford, Cambridge(University)trained by the standard of the English gentlemen.
In this way, from boom to become the England upper class, the Forsyte gradually loved money, collected money, and were enrichment. And then “The Forsyte spirit” began formed.
What is Forsyte Spirit? Forsyte Spirit is the class nature of proprietary classes, whose major embodiments are this class’s servility attitude toward property, possessed attitude and their appetite of hunting property. In The Man of Property, servility attitude toward property was completed reflected by the Forsyte family members. The Forsyte was the enormity rich family, whose family members included lawyers, landlords, mining shareholders, business men, publishers and persons of other careers.
However, we want to know what different careers or characters they were. All the Forsyte had the same characteristics in their attitude toward material which was their servility attitude toward property. They treated all things as their property and connected all their interests with their attitude for property. Their pursuance to this attitude not only in the social activities, but also in their family lives. And the young Jolyon, who was a black horse of the Forsyte family, had pungently and thoroughly observed: “Surely, we are the slave of the property, which is just the problem of degree. However, I want to say that the Forsyte is the thorough slave of property. They know what the good things, and safe things are. They hold fast to property, in spite of their wives, houses, money or name, which is their sign.” With the words of young Jolyon that the Forsytes were commission brokers, businessmen, and pillar of the society and the foundation stone of institution. To underrate, three fourths persons of Upper Academy of Sciences are the Forsyte; Seven eighths novelist are the Forsyte; the majority persons in press are the Forsyte. I don’t sure the situation in science session, but they have a numbers of delegates in religion session. The numbers of the Forsyte in upper-class house were more than the numbers in other places, not to mention the noblemen. From his words, we can draw conclusion, the history of the Forsyte Saga was not only an arm of family history, but also the history of the whole society of that period in Britain. However, the attitude that the Forsyte held was not only the consciousness of themselves, but also the consciousness of the England upper class. Therefore, When Galsworthy criticized their servility attitude toward property; he ripped into the England society in that period substantially.#p#分页标题#e#
III.Servility Attitude toward Property Reflected in Different Characters
Galsworthy was a satirical writer, who expressed his preference for “writing Forsyte Spirit-negative Forsyte Spirit” which was a unique perspective. The description of his inner heart focused on the Forsytes, mainly in Soames, James, Old Jolyon and Young Jolyon. And he deeply excavated their thought and mental activity, revealed their root causes of their actions, analyzed the Forsyte Spirit, which reflected the moderate style of subtle irony. Therefore, the following parts analyze that deep-rooted spirit of the Forsyte reflected in several important figures.
3.1 Soames
The Forsyte Saga initially centers on Soames Forsyte - a successful solicitor living in London with his beautiful wife Irene. A pillar of the late Victorian upper middle class, materially wealthy, he appears to be a golden existence endowed with all the necessary possessions for a 'Man of Property' but beneath this very proper exterior lies a core of unhappiness and brutal relationships.
Soames’s marriage was a tragedy. The tragedy of Soames reflected in the Forsyte Spirit which twisted the spirit of the human nature. He was rich, prudent, and proficient in the law, hard-worked, not hypocrisy; he was good at business and accumulating wealth and never debauchery; even looks was not that bad. However, his pursuit of love was a tragedy. Soames was a lawyer, the integration of legal concepts and possession, which made him, had a clear concept of his possession and the things that he might occupy. Whatever he faced, he must estimate their price. For example, building, buying paintings, investment, or getting married, which were calculated by him very canny; their attitude toward property made him and the Forsyte access others with the number of their property as measure: The rich can indulge, and the poor must be convergence. Irene did not have trousseaux, she must abide the women’s ethic; He did not understand what is more important in this world, except possession then possession of more money and property; He did not understand beauty and the feeling did not possess as the possession of money and material things, so he could not accept betray of Irene. Until 12-year separation, he treated the property as the negative debt to restore their marriage. For Soames, whether inner heart, acts or the way of thinking, were dominated by the attitude toward property. The tragedy of Soames rested with his confusion of money, personality and love. His soul was influenced by the long-term awareness for property, formed imperfect soul. His “human nature” was a typical corrosion for money in the Victoria era, which is in evitable. Galsworthy described his deep love for Irene, meanwhile pointed out the essence of this love: He always put Irene’s beauty as wealth, and was proud to occupy it. Actually, Soames loved beauty, but his love is the “beauty” of utilitarian effects, rather than beauty itself. In his eyes, people’s feeling was insignificant when the property law was threatened. This servility attitude toward property made him become cold as the law which was his property and the protection of his property. The two complemented each other, which reflected “Forsyte Spirit” had profound social foundation.#p#分页标题#e#
The author also described Soames’s “don’t let go” of Forsyte character for the things that he had once occupied. The reason that he did not want to free her, except love, the more important is that Irene was his wife. If he allowed her left, which disaccorded with the property law? He took the action in order to “recover” Irene with his indomitable perseverance, however was refused, discouraged and even reprimanded time and time again, he still didn’t give up. He didn’t take defeat, and was unscrupulous to go to the end. In the pursuit of love showed Soames’s indomitable spirit. It is the epitome of mental outlook of European bourgeoisie, when they recovered money and plundered wealth.
3.2 Young Jolyon
Although Young Jolyon had free and democratic thought, he was the man of property. After 14-year life abroad, he came back to his father’s house. Living in this well-off, there was so much furniture. He had to admitted “property is the core of everything … The sanctity of marriage depended on the sanctity of family; and the sanctity of family depended on the sanctity of property. Therefore, we can say that Young Jolyon and Soames’s attitude toward property were different only in varying degrees. If we say that Soames was a downright man of property, Young Jolyon was a secretive man of property.
Young Jolyon was the cousin of Soames, was also the main comparison for him. Young Jolyon once abandoned his wife and daughter in older to eloped with a foreign woman, for which been shut out. He did everything like that for the feelings at the expense of the interests and property. It appeared to be inconceivable for his relatives. He lived in the small and pathetic houses as a lower middle class. His house was not the major target of investment, but was the shelter’s premises. Even at home, there was no single piece of furniture to the value of five pounds of money. He differed from the majority of Forsytes: he was not a collector, but a creator, was painting pertinacious in a relatively embarrassing condition. Particularly, we should pay more attention his attitude toward the women. Once a time, when he was painting in the Botarical Garden, accidentally, he found that Irene was dating with Bossiney. Immediately, he was touched by Irene’s beauty and the tenderness that she revealed. And he filled with “a strong attraction and chivalry”. “Attraction” was an expression of non-possessor to maintain distance. “Chivalry” was the desire of helping the weak. However, these vocabularies were never found in Soames’s life dictionary.
However, although Young Jolyon stayed from the front line to make money, despite he was quite differ from the mainstream of other Forsytes, but he himself (as well as narrative fiction) admitted that he was essentially still a Forsyte more than once. After elopement, he acted properly cautions: In a company he became a insurance agent, had a successful investment with the limited property inherited from is grandfather. After his former wife’s death, he married to lover, was living in a small house with own garden. To sum up the family’s wise to make him maintain his life in the level of the middle class.#p#分页标题#e#
In the arts activities, Young Jolyon seemed unable to extricate itself from the fate that was determined by the Forsyte’s instinct. Involuntarily, in older to put his own painting capacity transformed into profit-making business. He accepted the criticisms and suggestions of the experts convincingly, “He chooses the subjects to which were took a fancy by people, painted the landscape of London. As a result, he bought a good price, gained both money and fortune. The Forsyte Spirit was reflected in Jolyon, is also his servility attitude toward property, in spite of which was not evident. As a positive character in The Man of Property, he really had this spirit. Otherwise, he would not force himself to maintain this kind of life, would treat the draw as the art, rather than a tool, to go valuation and use it to earn money.
As for the beauty of women, we said have in the above that he respected women’s beauty. However, his attitude of the attraction and chivalry toward Irene also had some similarities with Soames. That is he regarded female’s beauty as a complex; which was written in the novel, her face made him think of the draw “ Holy Love”, and put Irene and draw the same position, which is not accidental, but a fundamental attitude was unconsciously revealing.
In addition, Young Jolyon had the similarities that was cannot neglected with other characters in the book. Actually, they were the same kind of persons; one had the same thought and spirit. Deep-rooted servility attitude toward property made them unable to extricate themselves from the Forsyte’s world and descent.
3.3 Old Jolyon
Old Jolyon was an elder in the Forsyte family; he was also a representative of the U.K old social system and the traditional customs of the older generation. However, without exception to some extent he is a slave of property. He was Young Jolyon’s father; meanwhile he was also a positive character in Galsworthy’s impression. After all, he was a member of the Forsyte, and more inseparable from the typical of Forsyte. There are several manifestations of the following aspects.    
Old Jolyon’s servility toward property was reflected in his treatment of Joan’s marriage. He thought that Bossiney was not a good choice, because he had no money and education. (That is their Forsyte so-called cultivation). The book’s second chapter described as the following:
He must keep his powder dry to Joan’s marriage. If they wanted to use his all cash, he will never agree this marriage. His view to Bossiney includes the obvious Forsyte characteristics. That is “This kid has no money, and is a rampage, innocent guy. Even sometimes, he could be eating cocoa for a week to live. This guy does not know what money is, but like a beast”. “And even since their engagement, he couldn’t see Joan. He believes that this is uneconomical and is regretted to give her a large number of money.#p#分页标题#e#
        It was truly reflected that they were the kind of persons who were shrewd and calculating as the Forsyte, no matter what the valuation should be.
His servility attitude toward property way also reflected in his son’s elopement.
It is described in the text:
Old Jolyon sit down calico chair and look around. In his eyes, this place can be said to be coming down, and the whole things-he would not come out feeling-simple. According to his view, there is no a single piece of furniture values five pounds. Walls have painted for a long time, on which was hung some watercolor painting. Some sections of ceiling had cracked. He didn’t realize that a Forsyte –his son-was living in this place. He does not speak out his true feeling, but is sad in his inner heart.
Marx pointed out in Communist Manifesto “The bourgeoisie has torn the veil of the feeling from the family so that family relations become pure relationship of the money.” This thesis of Marx was full verified in The Forsyte Saga. Forsyte’s servility and possessive attitude toward property made their family relations become relations of money. Actually it was a group of cold-blooded animal. On the surface, they visited each other, which gave outsiders an impression that they have a good relationship and were living in harmony; but in essences they had mutual jealousy and cheated one another. They should hide the real number of their own property; some of them also tried their best to get other Forsyte’s property in their own hand. Although Old Jolyon was not like others who were selfish and greed, he wanted to possess others’ property. When he had heard some one admired Soames’s villa in Roomy Mountain. He dreamed of the villa and wanted to contend for it from his James and Soames’s hands so that he can not only share the good location and beautiful environment of the house, but also he can beat their arrogance- it is also a punishment for both of them, because they were usually put the view of Jolyon as a poor hobo. He believed “To seize their beloved objected, which will be a big win to defeat James. Feeling for the Forsyte was just a luxury. “Only if they gained more material pleasure and more desire, they can enjoy it. Regardless of affection for the property,we can see what a sad thing this is. The servility toward property was downright reflected in Old Jolyon.
3.4 James
As for the father of Soames, “Money is his sunshine and his visual media; without it, he truly cannot see the things clearly, is unable understand the things’ phenomenon.”  Even in contacts with his relatives and others, “Eventually, he will completely measure it with money”; the degree of their friendship depended on the relations of money. Therefore, there was no feeling between James and his son Soames; they just viewed each other as a kind of “investment”.#p#分页标题#e#
The servility attitude toward property was reflected in the relation between James and his son Soames. This tight knot between James and Soames was the thing that can describe by a non-linguistic analysis, which was deeply hided in the country and the nation organizations- It is said that blood was denser than the water. Actually, this father and son were not cold-blooded. In fact, take James as an example, the sons and daughters had became the main existent purpose. These persons equaled with a part of him. Maybe some day, his money would reach in their hands. This was the fundament reasons for him scraping up the money; a person to live to 75 years old, get rid of assembling money, there was nothing to give him happiness. The core of life was assembling money for sons and daughters. However, the more important thing for family members was not the money, but the tolerance, understanding and the communications of the feeling. James can’t understand it, just knew to earn the money blindly, to put the money existing doubled. He never expressed his true feeling to his children, even appeared no feeling at all. Actually, the purpose of assembling money ultimately was to him himself. This is a kind of servility attitude toward money.
James’s servility was also reflected in his appraising to everything. No matter what in his eyes can be measured with money. When he visited Soames’s new house in countryside, he was always asking this question and that, feared of the payment uneconomical, feared of put the money in the wrong place. He was born on a prudent person who was very rare in the Forsyte family. The description in the novel, “Finally, all he had seen, and then got out from the original door. At that time, he had the feeling that it just wasted time, effort and money, everything was in vain.
However, what determined their Forsyte Spirit, which is also the servility attitude toward property? Maybe they were born with it, or were inherited by their ancestors, or others. We have to analyze the causes of this servility attitude.
IV. The Causes of Servility Attitude toward Property
4.1 Social System
During the second half of the 19th century and the first 20 years in the 20th century, also in the reign of Queen Victoria British, overseas colonies developed rapidly. Only from the year of 1850 to the year of 1914, the oversea investment increased from 200 million pounds to 4 billion pounds, was a half of the total investment of the capitalist countries at that time, the domestic renter class was up to one million people. In this reign of more than 60 years, the British freedom of capitalism developed to its peak, and was the transition to the monopoly capitalism. At that time, economy, culture had an unprecedented prosperity. Constitution monarchy had the full development so that Queen Victoria became a British symbol of peace and prosperity.#p#分页标题#e#
Under the social system, a kind of group-the Forsyte emerged, who accounted for the important organizations of England more than 90 percents. The family had a prominent position, comfortable life, was lush and well-developed, which was a result of possessing wealth, and accumulating money. Later, it produced the Forsyte Spirit, which was shown by their endless possessive to property, consciousness of measuring all things with money, and their spirit of never let go of possession, their unyielding toughness of grabbing more wealth. In their inner heart, nothing can bring them happiness except money. They were slave of the property, whose living purpose was getting more and more money.
In this era, economic expansion, moral degeneration and severity of the private system were more scurvies as well as Individualism. Because of increasing inequality of British society, corruption of the bourgeois rulers and the upper class, appeared the corresponding persons under this social system. In particular the Forsytes who were leading of the mainstream of that society, whose spirit represented thought of the whole society. That was worship for money and the servility attitude toward property.
4.2 Family History
The Man of Property described the upper class of the United Kingdom, the main representative was the Forsyte Family. They were neither industrialists, nor shop boss, but so-called men of property with the England industrial development and the increasingly powerful imperialism, who owned estates and securities.
We had known that the Forsyte’s ancestors were having a rough time,pertinacious yeomen. In the 19th century, a square man, named Jon Forsyte in family, who did the contractor, from rural into city, and then made his own way, became a lampedusa big boss. Later, they moved to London. After his death, he left estate 30,000 pounds. After the ten children of them invest in the operation, their family had turned into more than 100 million pounds. But also as 3-5 Percent annum growth rate. Since then Britain has a large number of overseas colonies, and overseas capital to plunder. At that time, they lived in the vicinity of London’s Hyge Park, the oldest 86 years old, most young were more than 60, mainly depended on interest on investments of life, and also operating an industrial or a lawyer. In the novel opening, they have old enough. However, they still were the succession of their father, is the “merit” glorious generation. 
Because of the family’s history which the Forsyte family was rich in one night with the effort of a group of double-dealing businessmen; which caused them have a special feeling to money. For this upstart, the property was the last word. Only if clutched to the property in their hands tightly, they would live safely and comfortable. Therefore, this unique pursuit of holding property formed the typical and classic Forsyte Spirit, which also was servility attitude toward property. At last, the family history had led to the ideology that poisoned people’s mind.#p#分页标题#e#
4.3 Public Consciousness
There is an adage in China: “People die for money as well as birds for food,” which had been a universal consciousness, also deep-rooted thought. Therefore British people also liked that. Money for them had become the most important thing. They lived for money, struggled for money, were hard-worked for money, even gave up their lives for money, and disregarded affection for money. This is people’s general awareness, money is omnipotent. To hold their property is the top priority in life, especially for the Forsyte who represented the British upper class, were mercenary and sting; even the purpose of procreating offspring was for holding money.
The Forsyte family had been the mainstay of modern capital society, political and cultural order, and basic ideology. The author also suggested that one of the Forsyte member or family may decline, but the Forsyte Spirit had the constant expansion trend. Because the reality of nurturing this spirit has not changed, and had deep-rooted existence in people’s consciousness. And maybe, the evolution of history will change the Forsyt’s living environment, but it can’t change their mode of thinking and the behavior patterns. Because this spirit had solidified to the capitalist tradition and tradition are difficult to change.
TaoZhu, who was a great Chinese revolutionary, once said: “If a person is dominated by material things, has a strong individual desires, he must be a person who shorted of dreams, has the lower interests and empty spiritual life, especially who is a very doleful person in life”. Of course, after the analysis of the Forsyte’s servility attitude in The Man of Property, we found their lives were indeed tragic. In short, the Forsytes were parasites; they gripped the other lives and depended on them. As Lawrence said: “They are parasites in their predecessors and contemporary’s body, what they have done is… collecting property in fear, eroding the living. They do not have lives, because they will always be alive, they fear death. They accumulate property in older to block the death”.
The servility and possessive attitude toward property and a desire for hunting money reflected in the book are the main features of Forsyte Spirit. Galsworthy had criticized this bourgeois ideology in The Forsyte Saga, which had the progressing meaning. He also criticized bourgeois philosophy of life, moral degeneration and inexorable private ownership. We know it was a natural result to produce class arising for money in that social system. Family history of the Forsytes also determined the nature of this class; and public consciousness in that period made them more arrogant, powerful and live in the world of money. They indulged in it, could not extricate themselves. Eventually, they became the slaves of money and the begger of the property. There is an old saying: “Birds die in pursuit of food, and human beings die in pursuit of wealth.” Although money is the root of producing all evil, while it may be the procondition of happiness. Therefore, we must be correct to treat money and have a positive attitude toward property. All this tells us that property is not the most important thing in our lives, love is permanent; we shouldn’t become slaves of property, otherwise our lives will be very dismal and we may mocked by others.#p#分页标题#e#
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[2]  Galsworthy, John, The Man of property. Shanghai: Foreign language education
press, 2003.
[3]  Hewitt, Douglas, English Fiction of the Early Modern Period, 1890—1940[M]. Longman literature in English series, 1988.
[4]  Lian Shuihua. A Brief Comment on John Galsworthy’s The Apple Tree. Chinese papers download center, 2008.
[5]  Marx K and Engel F’s, On Art and Literature. Telos press (St. Louis) ,1973.
[6]  Ward A. C. , Twenty-Century Literature. London: Methuen, 1956.
[7]  Wu Weiren, History and Anthology of English Literature. Beijing: Foreign
language and researce press, 1988.
[8]  陈惇. “二十世纪现实主义的重要代表——高尔斯华绥”[J].北京师范大学学报(社会科学版) ,1993,(05) .
[9]  陈嘉. 《英国文学作品选读》[M]. 北京:商务印书馆,1988.
[10] 李明.“作为长河小说的《福尔赛世家》”.长江大学学报(社会科学版),2006.
[11] 张晓明.“福赛特主义——评《福赛特世家》的主题思想” . 北方论丛, 1999.
[12] 周煦良,黄梅等译.《有产者》. 漓江出版社,2003.


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