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森林生物量能源的可能性及可持续利用

时间:2020-04-29 16:48来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
Abstract 摘要

化石燃料在能源消费中的替代,是缓解全球变暖的一项措施,还有其他的优势。增加使用的政治行动计划在欧洲和国家一级都存在。本文简要回顾了可持续利用森林生物量的建议,指导方针和其他合成出版物的内容。主题列出的优点,缺点和权衡,它们之间的权衡,从社会的角度来看,特别是在一般的林业和能源部门。在北欧和波罗的海国家,本文还确定在何种程度上木材能源包括在森林立法和森林认证标准下的“'programme的森林认证(PEFC)的“背书”和“'forest管理委员会”(FSC)方案。能源和森林政策在欧盟和国家的水平,和欧洲的PEFC森林标准分析。在能源政策方面,对能源的利用率普遍支持在森林政策,但森林立法很少使用作为一个直接的工具,以鼓励利用木材能源。法规有时限制使用环境理由。森林认证标准包括直接相关的指标,对能源的利用率的几个标准,与大多数情况下发现的环境标准。关于政策,立法,认证标准,建议和指导方针,和科学的作用和问题进行了讨论。The substitution of biomass for fossil fuels in energy consumption is a measure to mitigate global warming, as well as having other advantages. Political action plans for increased use exist at both European and national levels. This paper briefly reviews the contents of recommendations, guidelines, and other synthesis publications on sustainable use of forest biomass for energy. Topics are listed and an overview of advantages, disadvantages, and trade-offs between them is given, from the viewpoint of society in general and the forestry and energy sectors in particular. For the Nordic and Baltic countries, the paper also identifies the extent to which wood for energy is included in forest legislation and forest certification standards under the ‘‘Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification’’ (PEFC) and the ‘‘Forest Stewardship Council’’ (FSC) schemes. Energy and forest policies at EU and national levels, and European PEFC forest standards are analysed. With respect to energy policies, the utilisation of wood for energy is generally supported in forest policies, but forest legislation is seldom used as a direct tool to encourage the utilisation of wood for energy. Regulations sometimes restrict use for environmental reasons. Forest certification standards include indicators directly related to the utilisation of wood for  energy under several criteria, with most occurrences found under environmental criteria. Roles and problems in relation to policy, legislation, certification standards, recommendations and guidelines, and science are discussed. 
 
1. Introduction 介绍
 
The substitution of biomass for fossil fuels in energy consumption is a measure to decrease the emission of green house gases and thereby mitigate global warming. In this perspective, the use of forest biomass for energy is generally acknowledged as being in agreement with the principles for sustainable development. Carbon bound in biomass is released during combustion, but taken up by new vegetation again during photosynthesis with a corresponding build-up of carbon. There are other advantages of utilising forest biomass for energy, e.g. security of supplies and employment, but adverse effects for society, forestry, and the energy sector are also recognised. A major concern is to optimise the amount of forest biomass harvested for energy against recognised adverse effects. This balancing of trade-offs will have an impact on the amount of forest biomass produced for energy [1]. During the last 20–30 years, much research has been performed, and information has been disseminated and implemented at different levels to ensure sustainable forest fuel harvesting. Research and review work was performed within the EU-FP5 project ‘‘Wood for Energy-a contribution to the development of sustainable forest management’’ (WOOD-EN-MAN), which had partners from four Nordic and three Baltic countries. The present paper was written as a part of the synthesis work within the project. Its aim is to give a brief overview and identify the status of knowledge implementation among potential end-users of the scientific knowledge created and reviewed within the project. The aim is further to contribute to discussion, development, and harmonisation, but also to recognition of a need for local adaptation of governance complexes, including legislation, certification standards, and recommendations and guidelines in relation to the sustainable use of forest biomass and wood ash recycling. Bioenergy-relevant contents of a broader range of certification standards have also been reviewed by Lewandowski and Faaij [2] with the purpose of creating a generic set of criteria for sustainable bioenergy use. Within the framework of sustainable development, the paper more specifically   gives an overview of recommendations, guidelines, and synthesis literature related to utilisation of forest biomass for energy and wood ash recycling,   highlights the main incentives, advantages, disadvantages, and trade-offs between economic, environmental, and social sustainability criteria for society in general and the forestry and energy sectors,   identifies how criteria and indicators for sustainable utilisation of forest biomass for energy are included in forest policy, forest legislation, and forest certification, and   discusses the role of forest policy, legislation, certification, recommendations and guidelines, and research in relation to promotion of a sustainable utilisation of forest biomass for energy. Due to the composition of the WOOD-EN-MAN project group, the main geographic scope is the Nordic and Baltic countries, but comparisons have also been made with other European countries. (责任编辑:周海霞)


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