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国外留学生管理类课程作业:关于资产管理的重要性

时间:2014-10-23 10:40来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
基础设施投资的拥有者对于建立产品多样化有着一定的责任,并且做为组织结构也有着不同的复杂性。拥有者认为他们的资产和设施作为生产的因素,是未来经济增长的基础(弗罗洛夫et al .,2010;燕子和风笛,2007)。为了达到所需水平的增长,这些因素,我们也称为资产,必须有效进行管理。

在这种背景下管理的过程称为资产管理(Amadi-Echendu et al .,2007)。据米歇尔和丹妮拉所说(2011)资产管理基础设施开发和使用对于经济有很大的影响。如果相关的开发流程的执行没有进行充分的认知,那么相对于过程中所产生的复杂性、多样性以及社会和技术系统的进化,这一过程将必然会对于经济、环境、社会和文化资源的后果产生一定的影响。

弗罗洛夫et al .,(2010)和施耐德et al .,(2006)描述了资产管理…作为一个系统化、结构化的流程将会贯穿于整个实物资产。它包括几个活动,维护、维修和更新决策,以及长期经济(生命周期成本计算)资产。

Owners of large infrastructure portfolios have a responsibility over diversified set of constructed facilities having different complexities and sophistication (Vanier, 2001) and as organizations grow, business owners consider their buildings and installations as factors for production, a foundation for success and future growth (Frolov et al., 2010; Swallow and Chanter, 2007). In order to achieve the required level of success and growth, these factors, otherwise known as assets, must be managed effectively (Frolov et al., 2010).

Within this context the process of management known as asset management (Amadi-Echendu et al., 2007). According to Michele and Daniela, (2011) asset management has a big influence on infrastructure development and use. If the process is undertaken and executed without fully recognizing the complexity, diversity, social and technological evolution of the system, the process will almost inevitably have severe economic, environmental, social, and cultural resources consequences (Michele and Daniela, 2011)

Frolov et al., (2010) and Schneider et al., (2006) have described asset management…as a systematic, structured process covering the whole life of physical assets. It involves several activities in maintenance, repair and renewal decisions, as well as understanding the long-term economic life (Life Cycle Costing) of an assets’ (Amadi-Echendu et al., 2007; Vanier, 2000).

Mohseni, (2003) proposed that asset management is…a matter of understanding the risks…,developing and applying the correct business strategy and the right asset model to solve the problem, all supported and delivered by the organization processes and technology.

Research in asset management as noted by The Institute of Asset Management (2011) is a term derived from the financial industry, where its concepts are applied to financial investment portfolios and risk management (R.E. Brown and Spare, 2004). This has been substantiated by internet search of the key words “Asset Management” using academic and general search engines i.e.
As a result of this disparity, The Institute of Asset Management (2011) has put forward a definition of asset management, with reference to infrastructure, as “a process that converts the fundamental aims of the organization into the practical implications for choosing, acquiring, utilizing and maintaining appropriate assets while seeking the best total value approach (the optimal combination of costs, risks, performance and sustainability)”.

In effect, asset management is the holistic practice of investing in an asset to the benefit of the organization taking into cognizance the cost, risk and performance of the investment. It plays a key role in the detection and evaluation of decisions leading to long-term economic success and best possible earnings (R.E. Brown and Spare, 2004; Schneider et al., 2006). Thus it is no longer sufficient to consider asset management as simply the maintenance of an asset but rather as a holistic approach to the management of assets, incorporating elements such as strategy, risk measurement, safety, environment and human factors (Amadi-Echendu et al., 2007; Frolov et al., 2010).

As asset management plays an important role in the overall strategy of an organization its practice possesses the potential to enhance the value base of organizations and institutions if implemented appropriately. This has been identified in the reports of organizations that has adopted a form of asset management strategy (Amadi-Echendu et al., 2007; Dixon, 2007; Holland et al., 2005; D. Leung and Q. Leung, 2011; Vanier, 2001). In a study carried out by Holland et al., (2005), the organization adopted an asset management methodology which enabled it connect its business processes with its suppliers to co-ordinate the maintenance, operation and repair of specialized exploration and production equipment. This methodology was termed ‘strategic asset management’ and utilized a ‘multi-enterprise asset management system’ methodology (Holland et al., 2005) where a shared enterprise system was used with suppliers to manage the full economic cycles across organizational boundaries.

(Vanier, 2001) highlighted several components embodied in the life cycle cost analysis method of asset management. These included: The current replacement value CRV, defined as the cost to replace an asset in present ‘local currency’;

As the number of built or acquired asset is set to increases in the United Kingdom in the future (Ravetz, 2008), it will be inevitable that organizations will have a large portfolio of assets to inspect or maintain. This phenomenon may cause the potential future deferred maintenance there by affecting the asset value (Ravetz, 2008; Vanier, 2000). Deferred maintenance as defined by (Vanier, 2000) is the cost of the maintenance…required to bring the asset to its original potential, typically constituting work that has been postponed or phased for future action. To avoid this sort of problem, proper asset management practice needs to be adopted.

In order to properly utilize and manage this large portfolio of asset effectively, tools supported with robust methodology must be developed to suit the purpose of the asset management (Amadi-Echendu et al., 2007; Frolov et al., 2010; IAM, 2011; Vanier, 2000).

The way asset management is performed will influence the availability of the service provided, the quality and cost (Tsang, 2002), but doing this present its self with some complexity (Frolov et al., 2010; Vanier, 2000) such as challenges of choice and decisions on what to manage, when to manage and how to manage, but it is non-the-less intractable (Vanier, 2000). This challenges can be attributed to constraints of adequate funding and appropriate support technologies (Michele and Daniela, 2011; Schraven et al., 2011; Vanier, 2000) as a result, certain components of infrastructure can be neglected and receive only remedial treatments.

Attempts to solve this problem would require an interdisciplinary approach, in which synergies should exist between traditional disciplines such as: accounting, engineering, finance, humanities, logistics, and information systems technologies for its success (Amadi-Echendu et al., 2007; Frolov et al., 2010) all driven by reliable data and information. Despite this interdisciplinary approach as highlighted by authors, a recurrent theme that presents itself as a challenge to effective asset management is lack of accurate data and information (Amadi-Echendu et al., 2007; Shien; Lin et al., 2007; Michele and Daniela, 2011; Too, 2008; Vanier, 2000) as many asset intensive organizations generate enormous amounts of data that can only be used in limited arenas (Shien; Lin et al., 2007; Vanier, 2000).

Information management technology can be considered as an enabler to manage this challenge. The implementation of an integrated information technology (IT) system could lead to better deployment of service and maintenance resources…thereby reducing costly maintenance tasks and increases the quality of service (Zhang et al., 2009). There are many existing tools and techniques that address part of these challenges, but there is no one solution that could readily be adopted or implemented holistically (Vanier, 2000).

Common technologies proposed include; Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Systems, Building Information Modeling (BIM) Systems, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Computer Maintenance Management Systems (CMMS), Integrated Workplace Management Systems (IWMS) (Abudayyeh et al., 2005; Akcamete, 2011; R.E. Brown and Humphrey, 2005; Andy Koronios et al., 2007; Lewis et al., 2010; O’Donoghue and Prendergast, 2004; Shehab et al., 2004; Vanier, 2001; Zhang et al., 2009). Basically these technologies work by linking several enterprise wide applications to a centralized database where the information (in data form) is stored, organized, manipulated, and retrieved (Error: Reference source not found In asset management, this is termed “Enterprise Asset Management”, and is discussed in the next section below.

Having this information technology system cannot ensure or guarantee that asset management will be effectively carried out hence it is essential to develop a methodology towards a comprehensive asset management practice that will incorporate information technology principles. Several authors and associations have proposed specific methodologies to enhance asset management (Amaratunga et al., 2002; R.E. Brown and Spare, 2004; Ebinger and Madritsch, 2012; IAM, 2011). Most commonly adopted is the Publicly Available Standard 55 (PAS55) (Dixon, 2007; IAM, 2011; Andy Koronios et al., 2007; Woodhouse, 2007). Koronios et al., (2007) summarizes the Publicly Available Specification (PAS 55) as a 21-point requirements specification that aims to be aligned or integrated with other related business system standards.

An enterprise asset management system supports and enables the asset management strategy of an organization. Its historical development can be traced to the evolution of the enterprise resource planning (ERP) system (Figure 1. Timeline depicting development of ERP Technology). ERP evolved from the material requirement planning (MRP) philosophy in the 1970s and was predominantly utilized in the manufacturing industry (I.J. Chen, 2001; Chung and Snyder, 2000; Shehab et al., 2004; Slack et al., 2007). According to Slack et al., (2007) the MRP helps operations make volume and timing calculations…using a set of calculations embedded in the system. In the 1980s, technology in computer development improved (i.e. produced more powerful and sophisticated equipments), and new versions of MRP were developed know as Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP II) which had the capability of modelling ‘what-if’ scenarios, planning and scheduling internal resources (I.J. Chen, 2001; Chung and Snyder, 2000; Shehab et al., 2004; Slack et al., 2007). As organizations expanded and became multinationals, the philosophy of ‘just-in-time’ and lean production were adopted (Shehab et al., 2004; Slack et al., 2007). Thus the need to pool resources from different geographic locations became imperative. This culminated in the development of the enterprise resource planning (ERP) system. The ERP system basic function was designed to integrate information from operation, finance and supply chain units (Chung and Snyder, 2000; Rao, 2000; Shehab et al., 2004) to satisfy the dynamic customer demand (I.J. Chen, 2001).

Enterprise Asset Management (EAM) systems work on the same principles of ERP systems, the major difference being in what is managed - ‘Assets’. According to Emerald Group Publishing Limited, (2002) EAM function refers to the acquisition, tracking, maintenance and disposal of the capital assets of an organisation. The system is designed to satisfy the function by handling effectively the physical assets typically owned by heavy industry organisations i.e. oil and gas, aerospace, utilities and manufacturing (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2002; Holland et al., 2005; Meng et al., 2008) and is mainly organised within the remit of maintenance, repair and operation (Holland et al., 2005).

Enterprise asset management systems have been identified as very important tools in the decision making process performed by asset managers in large asset intensive organizations (Holland et al., 2005; Shien Lin et al., 2006; Too, 2008; Vanier, 2001; Woodhouse, 2007). They are able to gather and hold vast amounts of data, perform complex business logic and present users with this information just as in the same way an ERP system would (Connolly and Begg, 2010).

Several enterprise asset management systems have been developed or proposed based on database technologies, RFID [1] , WebGIS [2] , WLAN [3] and LAN [4] methods (DAWSON et al., 2007; ITO, 2007; Meng et al., 2008; Nicastro et al., 2002; Spriggs et al., 2002). These conceptual systems are designed to automate the process of asset management by ensuring tracking, monitoring and information transfer are performed automatically with minimal errors (Meng et al., 2008)

The most commonly commercially available systems include IBM Maximo® (IBM Corporation, 2012), Oracle Enterprise Asset Management (Oracle Corporation, 2012) and SAP Enterprise Asset Management (SAP AG, 2012). These systems deliver a comprehensive view of all asset types, production and facilities etc across an enterprise and allows organizations to setup assets in a hierarchical structure with parent-child relationships (IBM Corporation, 2012; Oracle Corporation, 2012). This hierarchical structure makes it easier to find and group assets as well as roll up asset costs (Oracle Corporation, 2012).

EAM systems adopt an n-tier architecture to achieve optimum efficiency. An n-tier architecture in information technology system design consists of; the client user interface layer, the application layer constituting the business logic and data processing layer, and the database server layer which stores the required data in a structured and logical format (Error: Reference source not found) (Connolly and Begg, 2010).

This architecture is designed to allow enterprise scalability without the need to add more resources i.e. hardware (Connolly and Begg, 2010), hence as the organisation acquire or reduce asset data, the systems expands and contracts with it.

Under the background of economic globalization trend is all the more turbulent, the structure of the world economy is undergoing profound change, is characterized by the development of financial globalization and information revolution of science and technology innovation is to promote services to accelerate the development in the world.Now the proportion of service industry of national economy is more and more big.According to statistics, the output value accounted for the proportion of gross national product (GNP) is 70% in developed countries, and middle income countries close to 60%, and low-income developing countries is about 40%.Along with the development of service industry of international division of labor, the scale of the international service exchanges are also increasing, in 2009, the World service exports reached $3.3 trillion, data from World Bank Database, BEA Database and Chinese commerce ministry's website.

Compared with less than $71 billion in 1970 increased by 45 times, the world service trade exports have accounted for 1/5 of the world's total exports trade.At the same time, in the face of the financial crisis impact on global trade, service trade accounts for larger national recovery quickly appeared in the post-crisis era, its recovery faster than relying on goods trade country.Thus, service trade has become the main trend of world trade is inevitable outcome of the development of world productivity.

The United States as the world's largest exporter of trade in services, service industry is highly developed.In 2009, its service trade exports have accounted for 15.4% of total exports of world trade in services, showing its strong advantage in international trade in services.In addition, China's service trade has maintained steady momentum of growth, output value of GDP grew by an average of 0.6% a year, but because of China's service industry and service trade development started relatively late, the service product competitiveness is weak, with the developed countries, especially in America's bilateral trade in services has been in a state of imbalance, China's service trade both in the overall level of trade in services and in department structure is a great disparity compared with the United States.
Affected by the GDP and employment of services in the United States, in 2005, for example, service industry output value accounted for 70.93% of America's GDP, that is engaged in the service sector of the population accounts for 72.47% of total employment.Since 1984, the U.S. service sector output value was more than 60% of the total GDP, visible, along with the service industry development, the importance of trade in services in the United States foreign trade is increasingly significant.

America's trade in services from $4, 22.02 billion in 1997 up to $8, 79.94 billion in 2009, the average annual growth rate of 8.3%.Among them, the proportion of service trade export of world service trade export, in 1997-2003 an average of around 28%, to 30% in 2004 and lasted for 4 years, due to the slow economic recovery, rose slightly in 2009, to 33%.On trade in services exports as a whole, to present the rise in the United States, only a slight decline in 2009.Among them, the trade in services exports from $2, 56.09 billion in 1997 up to $5, 09.18 billion, 2009, 13 years expanded 1.99 times.2009 service trade export of world service trade export proportion reached 15.4%, ranks first in the world.U.S. trade in services imports of the world service trade imports, in 1997-2008 an average of around 16%, only 1997, 2005 and 2006, under 16%, the rest were greater than 16%, obvious increase of 19.2% in 2009.U.S. services trade imports and exports, general upward trend.Among them, the trade in services imports rising from $65.93 billion in 1997 to $3, 70.76 billion, 2009, 13 years expanded 2.23 times.Service trade imports in 2009, although a slight decline, but the world service trade import proportion reached 11.9%, ranks first in the world.

As the third industry of service industry of China's GDP and employment less affected, in 2009, for example, service industry output value accounted for 42.6% of China's GDP, that is engaged in the service sector of the population accounts for 33.2% of total employment.China's economic structure, due to the first and second industry accounts for larger proportion, the proportion of the tertiary industry is small, although China's service trade growth rate faster, but its contribution to the national economy is low.

China's trade in services from $1997 in 52.23 billion to $2, 86.8 billion in 2009, an average annual growth rate of 34.5%, is the average annual growth of more than four times.Among them, China's service trade export of world service trade export proportion, in 1997-2002 and remain above 10% on average, 2003 down to 9.57% and maintain to 2004, 2005 and 2006, fell again, dropped to 8.7%, 2007-2009 and rose slightly and maintain at around 9%.In terms of China's service trade exports, presents the overall upward trend, with only a 12.11% drop in 2009 than in 2009.Among them, China's service trade exports from $1997 in 24.5 billion to 2009 $1, 28.6 billion, 13 years expanded 5.25 times.2009 service trade export of world service trade export proportion is 3.88%, ranking fifth in the world.However, China's service trade exports in 2009 was only a quarter of the United States.China's service trade import in world service trade imports, in 1997-2007 from 16.30% to 16.30%, 2008-2009 increased slightly remain above 12%.China's service trade imports and exports, general upward trend.Among them, China's trade in services imports rose by $1997 in 27.73 billion to 1997 years of $1, 58.2 billion, 13 years expanded 5.7 times.Although in world service trade import in 2009 the top ten countries, China is the only compared with 2008, there is no decline in the economy (Germany and the UK imports of $255 billion and $160 billion respectively ranked the second and third, virtue and British imports are around 10% year-on-year decline), world trade in services imports was 5%, ranked fourth in the world, but the service trade volume accounted for only one-third of the United States.(责任编辑:BUG)


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