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What Is Strategy Management 浅析战略管理

时间:2015-08-07 19:35来源 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
首先,波特在1980年出版《竞争策略》后,相继《竞争优势》在1985年发行,管理领域中有许多新的理论,一些人认为波特的通用策略已被拒绝使用,原因是因为其策略过于静态化和不受欢迎,比如resource-competence-based战略管理方法越来越受人们的青睐(Barney and Grant, 1991),且企业的核心竞争力更加重要(Baden-Fuller和Stopford 1992)。D 'Avani(1994)提出一个新的超强竞争理论且对持续竞争优势理论持反对意见(Porter, 1985)。此外,明茨伯格批判波特的观点,认为如果日本企业想要维持自己的竞争优势,则必须“学习策略”,他还认为,策略将是以某种方式在学习的过程出现(Mintzberg and Waters, 1985)。然而,波特则认为他们对某一观点产生了误解。之后,波特决定对他们的批判——“策略是什么”给出回复。因此,波特写这篇文章的主要目的是要反对明茨伯格的观点,同时在评论他们的理论之后给出回复,迎接他们的挑战。为的是告诉他们的观点是错误的,除此之外还解释和定义“什么是策略”。
In 1996, Porter wrote an academic paper What is Strategy in Harvard Business Review, and has been reviewed and debated from the academic. There are some purposes and motivations of the article.
First of all, after Porter has published Competitive Strategy in 1980, Competitive Advantage in 1985, there are many new theories from the management area and some argued that Porter's generic strategies have been rejected as too static and challenged, such as the resource-competence-based approach to strategic management gained increasing acceptance (Barney and Grant, 1991) and the core competence of the organization is greater importance (Baden-Fuller and Stopford, 1992). And D'Avani (1994) also put forward a new theory of hypercompetition and disagreed with the continued competitive advantage theory (Porter, 1985). Besides, Mintzberg criticized Porter's view that Japanese companies would have to "learn strategy" if they were to be able to sustain competitive advantage. He also argued that the strategy will somehow emerge from the learning process (Mintzberg and Waters, 1985). However, Porter believed that they have some misunderstanding. Then, Porter decided to make response to their criticisms in this article of "What is Strategy". Thus, the main purpose of the article written by Porter is to refuses, response and challenges their theories, thinking and criticisms in order to tell them they are wrong, but also explain and define the meaning about what strategy is.
Secondly, the other motivation is Porter wants to propose some solutions to the contemporary business issue and environment. Under the pressure by internal and external environment factors, many companies and managers fail to distinguish between operational effectiveness and strategy, only achieving the maximization operational effectiveness and lower cost in the past 10 years, they were still confusing, running into trouble and just want to copy the operational effectiveness of other company or buy other company and merger to increase their competitiveness. As a result, there has increasingly enterprises losing their competitive advantage and the core of strategy easier by the growth trap. Porter (1996) believed that this would lead them actual downing the path of mutually destructive competition, far away from their competitive positions and no one can win at the end. Hence, he wants to use his article to help them clarifying operational effectiveness is not a strategy, what they should do themselves and what they should not to do if they want to become more competitive in the future, such as deepening a position, profitable growth, setting combination activities and trade-off. They are also the important contents of strategy.(责任编辑:huiyinad)

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