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激励的方法及影响

时间:2015-08-27 11:23来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
 
激励是一个用来描述开始,前行,坚持和心理活动这一过程的常用词语。它是由拉丁文(Movere)而来,其义为引发。它也是一种内部的状态或者说一种内部条件,能够激发一个人的行为,使他朝着一个方向努力。激励以个人或是团体的形式鼓励人们工作,来获得最好的结果。它使人们想要去做,愿意发挥最高水平去努力实现组织的目标,通过努力和能力来满足个人需求。管理最重要的任务就是激发别人的积极性。这包括沟通,举一反三,勇于挑战,鼓励他人,获取反馈,包容,委托,开发和培训,通知,做摘要和提供奖励的能力。
 
存在两种形式的激励:内在的和外在的。内在激励是源于内部的,出现在当人们出于自我满足,意义或是需要而必须做某些事情时。外在激励发生在人们由于外界因素的影响而去做一些事情的时候。我们需要激励的最常见场所是工作的地方。 工作中激励也是成功领导他人的关键。它推动着生活,几乎在我们做的所有事中都扮演着重要的角色。如果没有它,我们将不关心结果,成就,学习,成功,失败和工作等等。
 
激励是我们团队的主题,已经介绍了很多关于激励的小标题例如激励的含义,马斯洛需要层次理论,激励的方法和激励的影响,奥尔德弗改进的需要层次结构模型,股权激励理论,弗鲁姆的期望理论,赫兹伯格的动机卫生理论。作为团队的一员,我已经介绍了激励的方法和影响主题。
 
 
工作中激励的方法和影响-APPROACHES TO MOTIVATION AT WORK AND INFLUENCES ON MOTIVATION
 
Motivation is a general term used to describe the process of starting, directing, and maintaining physical and psychological activities. The word motivation comes from the Latin movere "to move". It is also an internal state of being, or an internal condition that activates one's behaviour, giving it direction. Motivation is to encourage people to work, individually or in groups in the ways such as to produce best results. It is the will to act and the willingness to exert high levels of effort towards organizational goals, conditioned by the efforts and ability to satisfy some individual need. The management's important task is to motivate others. It comprises the abilities to communicate, to set an example, to challenge, to encourage, obtaining feedback, to involve, to delegate, to develop and train, to inform, to brief and to provide a just reward.
 
There are mainly two kinds of motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation is internal it occurs when people are bound to do something out of satisfaction, significance or need. Extrinsic motivation occurs when external factors make the person to do something. A work place is the most common place where we can apply need of motivation. Motivation also plays a key role in leadership success at work place. Motivation propels life it plays a major role in nearly everything we do without motivation we would simply not care about outcomes means, accomplishment, education, success, failure, employment etc.
 
Motivation is our group topic and we have covered many sub topics in motivation like Meaning of motivation, Maslow hierarchy of needs theory, Approaches to motivation and influences of motivation, Alderfer's modified need hierarchy model, Equity theory of motivation, Vroom's expectancy theory, Herzberg's motivation -hygiene theory. And as a member of group I have covered the topic Approaches to motivation and influences of motivation.
 
工作中激励的方法和影响-APPROACHES TO MOTIVATION AT WORK AND INFLUENCES OF MOTIVATION
 
There are number of different approaches to work motivation, most of which can be broken into either content theories or process theories. Content theories focus on what motivates people to perform and are concerned with identifying the different rewards that people seek in their work. Process theories focus on how rewards control behaviour. These theories are concerned with the dynamics or process aspects of work motivation. The content theory of motivation mainly focuses on the internal factors that energize and direct human behaviour. Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Alderfer's ERG theory, Herzberg's motivator-hygiene theory (Herzberg's dual factors theory) and McClelland's learned needs or three needs theory are some of the major content theories. The most famous content theory is Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of human needs. Maslow introduced five levels of basic needs through his theory. Basic needs are categorized as physiological needs, safety and security needs, needs of love, needs for self esteem and needs for self-actualization.
 
Just like Maslow's hierarchy of needs, ERG theory explains existence, relatedness, and growth needs. Through dual factors theory, Herzberg describes certain factors in the workplace which result in job satisfaction. McClelland's learned needs or three needs theory uses a projective technique called the Thematic Aptitude Test so as to evaluate people based on three needs; power, achievement and affiliation. People with high need of power take action in a way that influences the other's behaviour.
 
Process theory is one more type of motivation theory. Process theories of motivation provide an opportunity to understand though processes that influence behaviour. The major process theories of motivation include Adam's equity theory, Vroom's expectancy theory, goal setting theory, and reinforcement theory .Goal setting theory suggests that the individuals are motivated to reach set goals. It also requires that the set goals should be specific. Reinforcement theory is concerned with controlling behaviour my manipulating its consequences.
 
There are four different types of approaches to motivation.
 
Economic needs motivation.
 
Social concept of motivation.
 
Self-actualization needs.
 
Complex man concept of motivation.
 
金钱激励-ECONOMIC NEEDS MOTIVATION
 
According to Taylor man is a rational economic animal with maximising his economic gain. Taylor had a simple view about what motivated people at work is money and no other factor motivate as much as money motivate people. In this approach man form of motivation is high wages. In short, the more money you offer the worker, the more motivated they will be to work. And the weakness in this approach is money is an important motivation at work for many people, it isn't for everyone. Taylor overlooked the fact that people work for many reasons other than financial reward.
 
社会观念激励-SOCIAL CONCEPT OF MOTIVATION
 
In this type of motivation approach people are believed to be motivated by human needs and achieve their satisfaction through social groups with whom they interact. Encouraging team building, providing supportive practices, and permitting co-workers the opportunity to interact socially on the job, Also people are motivated by giving day off or special bonuses on religious or family festival. By doing this people are more motivate and encouraged to do his best possible thing for the work assigned to them. Difficult to participate and connect with the group cause elevation of turnover of people resulting into lowering of moral, psychological fatigue, reduced levels of performance,
 
自我实现的需求-SELF-ACTUALIZATION NEEDS
 
According to Maslow: "desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything one is capable of becoming" It is about the question of reaching one's full potential as a person unlike lower level needs, this need is never fully satisfied as one grows psychologically there are always new opportunities to continue to grow. Organizations can help employees satisfy self actualization needs by encouraging creativity, allowing risk taking decision making and supporting workers in their efforts to develop their skills.
 
Self actualized individuals are often motivated by a strong sense of personal ethics and responsibility. They enjoy solving real world problems and are often concerned with helping other people improve their own life.
 
Also self actualized persons have frequent occurrences of peak experiences, which are energized moments of profound happiness and harmony. According to Maslow only a small percentage of the population reaches the level of self actualization.
 
对于复杂的人的激励-COMPLEX MAN CONCEPT OF MOTIVATION
 
In this type of motivation approach people are unique, different and their approaches also vary. Complex man is based on the fact that people are variable, they change the ways they seek fulfilment, respond in a variety of ways. There are large numbers of variables which influence organizational performance. It is not limited to social or monetary rewards. In this type of approach sometimes people are motivated by verbal acknowledgement and sometimes people are not satisfied by promoting to higher post.
 
结论-CONCLUSION
 
An understanding of motivation approaches theories can help mangers increase employee performance. Employees generally fall into two types: self motivated, and those that require external motivation to stay motivated. Self motivated employees tend to exhibit good performance even if they are never provided with much external motivation, but their performance increases still more if they are provided with that motivation. Employees that do require external motivation certainly improve in performance when skilfully motivated. Highly motivated employees are highly productive employees and they are superior.
 
Last but not least I would like to tell something about my group we are in group 9 including 6 people. We were divided in a group by college authority we were aware about each other but not so familiar. Initially when we were formed in a group all were working with their own method which resulted into conflict between team members. Due to more interventions of each other we appointed one person as a group leader. Now all the conflicts are settled and all members resist the task with full cooperation.
 
We all have work very hard as team members to give our best and make this topic interesting. All have dedicated their time from busy schedule and gather at one place to prepare for the topic. As a group the level of motivation was very high as our group leader have worked very hard to coordinate with each team member and execute the order to be in the loop with each other so we can solve our difficulty by consulting each other. All team members were very cooperative and dedicative which resulted into good quality of work.
 
 
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