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供应链管理英文论文

时间:2015-08-31 17:00来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
史密斯(2007)写了一篇有关企业从事稳定食品供应并与农业、商业相接,以此增加产品附加值、满足消费者需求的文章。影响供应量的三个因素如下:价格、商品及知识。而其影响程度取决于供应链的种类。然而,全球食品销售是标准化规范的,降价、运输及存储问题无法回避,而知识及其影响力仅仅限制商品供应链。食品制造商不断要求其供应商保持最低的“企业社会责任感”来帮助他们维持商誉。根据史密斯的观点,靠近生产商的企业更能维持稳定、高质量的原材料供应。而供应商与农户关系越和谐,便越能减少产品浪费问题,且更能采取和谐友好的生产模式。以上研究所采用的方法论包括产品生命周期分析、碳排放量分析、生态足迹法、财务支出影响分析、“食物里程”分析、HACCP研究、生命周期思考、利益相关者沟通以及调查研究。
 
Smith (2007) wrote a paper which reviewed opportunities to businesses to engage in sustainable food supply chain and link them with agricultural and business practices with the end goal to add value and satisfy consumer needs and wants efficiently. Three things influence flow of supply chain: money; goods and knowledge. The level of influence is based upon the type of supply chain. However knowledge and influence only trickle along commodity supply chains, where food is sold according to standardized specification worldwide, lower costs are incurred and there is ease of transport and storage .Food manufacturers are increasingly asking their suppliers to maintain minimum 'Corporate Social Responsibility' to help maintain brand reputation. According to Smith the food business benefit from reliable supply chain of high quality raw material which is usually located near manufacturing facility. Good relationships between suppliers and farmers also help reduce waste and employ environment friendly methods. The methods for the chosen study were lifecycle analysis; carbon accounting material flow analyses; ecological foot printing; converting impacts into financial costs; food miles; HACCP studies; life cycle thinking; stakeholder dialogue and surveys. Life cycle analysis was useful for supply chain analyses of processing, manufacturing and distribution with direct insights into eco efficiency and waste management. HACCP was useful for mapping supply chains. Stakeholder dialogue and surveys was used for highlighting problem areas. It was concluded that the discussed options available to businesses to create sustainable supply chains will create benefits for them.
 
Moin and Salhi (2007) gave an overall view of Supply Chain management but mainly focused on Inventory Routing area. It has been increasingly important for companies to achieve supply chain management by integrating various processes in a supply chain in order to gain competitive advantage. The paper focuses on distribution logistics and inventory control and their inter-relationship. In order to allocate inventory to selected customer the routing cost is needed so that marginal profit can be calculated. In turn the delivery cost depends upon vehicle routes. To integrate this inter-relationship is challenge faced by businesses, since it conflicts the aim of supplier which is to satisfy customers but maintain low distribution cost. This problem is called Inventory Routing Problem (IRP). The models used in the paper are single-period model, multi period and infinite horizon models are used followed by Stochastic IRP model. Single period model. Single period model was the first to integrate inventory allocation by treating a single-item, single period problem with random demands at retailers. The objective was to minimize single period expected cost of transportation, inventory and storage cost. In multi period model the long term effects of short term planning was considered as single period model were considered sub problems and a mixed inter programming model was proposed. Infinite horizon function had the objective to minimize the long run or mean average costs. In this demand is assumed constant and deterministic and review policies for inventory is incorporated in recent models. In Stochastic IRP probability of customer usage is calculated. The demand is considered hypothetical. The paper concluded stating most activities within IRP depend upon time horizon. Stochastic model was considered the most useful in real life but can be complex. Multi period models are found more efficient than single period but the question that arises is that how can long term information be integrate with short term and vice versa. The infinite horizon models are found to be computationally efficient and capable of solving large customers.(责任编辑:BUG)


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