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英国硕士论文开题报告范文:评价在过去的50年里,中国成功的造林计划

时间:2016-08-13 10:05:40 来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
Table of Contents目录
 
第1章简介
会有对造林现状概述、森林砍伐和造林过程的介绍和分析。有关的关键概念,如植树造林和造林,他们之间的差异也将被提及。
 
第2章问题
在中国给予了相关的数据和描述造林的现状提出了植树造林活动,目前存在的问题在中国​​。
 
第三章综合评价
通过分析收集到的数据评估在中国及其影响造林活动的总体现状。在这一部分,土地能力(土地适宜)将被用作主要指示用于评估,因为它是在评估土地的第一阶段。
 
第4章差距
确定种植面积,并在近过去50年内在中国的造林计划人工林生产区之间的差距。
 
第5章的原因及建议
分析造成种植面积和中国的人工林生产区域之间提到的差距,并提供改进建议的理由。

 

Chapter 1 Introduction
There will be an introduction and analysis of an overview on the worldwide situation of forestation and the process of deforestation and reforestation. The related key concepts like afforestation and reforestation and the differences between them will be also mentioned.
 
Chapter 2 The Problem
Putting forward the current problems in the forestation activities in China by giving out the related data and describing the current situation of forestation in China
 
Chapter 3 The Overall Evaluation
Evaluating the overall current situation of forestation activities in China and their impacts by analyzing the data collected. In this part, land capability (land suitability) will be used as the main indicate for evaluation, as it is the first stage in evaluating land.
 
Chapter 4 The Gap
Determine the gap between the planting area and productive area of forest plantations in the forestation programs in China within the nearly last 50 years.
 
Chapter 5 The Reasons and Suggestion
Analyzing the reasons causing the gap mentioned between the planting area and productive area of forest plantations in China and providing suggestions for improvements
 

 

1. Problem statement and motivation

 

Reforestation refers to the creation or renovation activities of the forest, which is to foster a fundamental part of the forest. Forestation is known as the large planting area of reforestation, which can form the forests and the forest environment in the future. 

 

1.1 The significance of the research and benefits of forestation
First of all, from the soil and water conservation, reforestation, returning farmland to forest and ecological reconstruction is extremely important. Reforestation can make land and water be maintained. Low vegetation coverage will lead to a lot of sediment flowing into the river, destroying the land, filling up the rivers and making the estuary silted up, which is of great harm. It is necessary to develop reforestation in order to curb soil erosion, because trees have crown roots to firmly grasp the soil like a giant hand. #p#分页标题#e#
Secondly, forestation can prevent desertification. On the one hand, reforestation of deserted arable land takes control of soil erosion, achieves windbreak and sand fixation and increases the water storage capacity of the soil. On the other hand, the build of shelter forest makes it able to withstand the attacks from the sand. The speed of wind and sand will be reduced 70% to 80% with the protection of shelter forest.
Thirdly, forestation brings economic benefits to mankind. Forest products can be fruits, herbs, and can be processed into tea, rubber, carbon and other products. Besides, as the forest gradually matured, the direct and indirect economic benefits generate, creating a lot of labor and employment opportunities.
Therefore, forestation promotes the sustainable development of the local economy. In this way, the forestation programs in China, who owns a land of 9.6 million square kilometers, will make a huge difference not only to the regional climate and economy in China, but also a significance progress in the environmental protection and ecological environment around the world.

 

1.2 The planting area in China
Driven by the nationwide voluntary tree-planting campaign to promote the key projects of forestation, forestation in China has gained rapid development. Especially in recent years through the implementation of the reform of collective forest right system, a wave of tree planting has set off, significantly accelerating the pace of forestation. In 2008 and 2009, the national forestation has achieved 4,771,300 hectares and 5,884,700 hectares, respectively 22.1% and 23.3% higher than the last year. According to statistics, key forestation programs from 1979 to 2009 has completed the forestation of 83,021,300 hectares in China, since the reform and opening up policies. Among them, the Three-North Shelterbelt Project completed the forestation of 31.7932 million hectares, with 8.6306 million hectares being completed in the Natural Forest Protection project, Grain for Green Project completing 21.9211 million hectares, Tianjin sandstorm source control project completing 5,773,700 hectares, Fast Growing Forest Base completing 1.8197 million hectares, Yangtze River shelterbelt project completing 6,019,200 hectares, Pearl River shelterbelt project completing 505,400 hectares, Coastal Protecting Forest project completing 1,709,300 hectares, Taihang Mountain Greening Program completing 4,292,600 hectares and Plain Green Project completing 556,900 hectares. In total, artificial forest area in China has reached 62 million hectares, being the country with the largest plantation area in the world (China Network, 2010).
The data can be concluded in following chart:
The Planting Area (data source from: China Network, 2010)
 
1.3 The actual benefits
The forestation projects in China seem to be very effective, however, the tree planting in China not only failed to improve the environment, but also sowed the seeds of a crisis to the ecological environment. In general, the forest area in China is small, with a low forest coverage rate in the world. The natural forest cover rate continues to decline and blindly forestation brings counterproductive. This kind of unscientific planting with little follow-up protection brings disasters to the ecological balance and natural forests. The natural forests in China annually disappear 400,000 hectares. According to the average of nearly a decade of logging and deforestation rate, by 5055 China will lose all forests. In this way, the gap between the planting area and productive area of forest plantations become bigger and bigger.#p#分页标题#e#

 

2. Research Gap

 

Given the huge survey data and so many forestation programs with encouraging progress, however, there is no existing literature or materials clarifying the overall process of forestation projects in China since its reform and opening up in nearly 50 years. Apart from the regional forestation programs around China, which can be concluded in nearly ten key programs, forestation programs sponsored by the companies or initiated by non-profit organizations also make their own contributions, which can not be ignored, to the forestation progress in China. Take the forestation programs sponsored by Honda Co. for example, which is called tree planting activities of Honda joint venture in China, it has been a long-term national environmental charity project to be undertaken across China. This project was officially launched in Xinghe County, Inner Mongolia in China. The first phase of the project lasted five years, with a total investment of 10 million yuan. It completed the planning project of 740,000 trees, the green area of which has achieved 7,000 acres. Honda and Xinghe County work together to open a second five-year forestation project in 2013, with the forestation funds increased to 20 million yuan. The forestation programs initiated by different organizations and companies need a comprehensive statistic and research (Honda, 2015).
Also, the forestation project has taken many forms relying on the rapid development of information technology. Apart from the traditional forestation activities, relying on electronic information platform, integrated forestation activities began to play their role in the forestation progress in China. Take the recent Million Forest Project for an instance, it is an integrated forestation activity consists of online and offline parts. It is co-sponsored by The Climate Group, together with China Green Foundation and the United Nations Environment (Guyi, 2014). The goal is to plant one million sea buckthorn trees, to help poor areas in western China, increasing their revenue and improving the ecological environment. This project also involves the online activities in other regions in China, making them engage in such interactive activities and contribute their own strength to save forest resources.
Therefore, it can be seen that this research should make comprehensive nationwide survey on forestation activities in China and explore a logical thread to organize them and their failure in increasing the productive area of forest plantations in China within the nearly last 50 years. The main research gap in this research should be the viewing angle of such a huge time and space span contained in so many forestation programs that has been or will be implemented in China.

 

3. Objectives 

 

The main goal of this research paper will determine the gap between the planting area and productive area of forest plantations in the forestation programs in China within the nearly last 50 years. However, in achieving this, several subdivision targets should be made:#p#分页标题#e#
1) Explore the overall planning and deployment of forestation programs of the Chinese government, focusing the large projects within regional units.
2) Summarize the forestation programs initiated by companies and organizations in China, including their scale, affects, quantity and contributions.
3) Examine the mechanisms and means used in such forestation programs and their impacts respectively.
4) Examine the forestation progress in China from the whole time and discover the development in such programs. 
5) Make a conclusion of the overall means used in the forestation programs during such a long time and within such large territory.
6) Evaluate the overall impacts of the forestation programs taken in China, from the perspectives of environmental and ecological protection, economic benefits, its long-term climate effects and so on.
7) Determine the gap between the planting area and productive area of forest plantations in the forestation programs in China within the nearly last 50 years.
8) Analyze the reasons and see what can be improved.
 
Generally speaking, this research will firstly make its way through the overall viewing angle of the Chinese forestation programs in this nearly 50 years and make a conclusion about that. After that, the overall means and plans contained in them will be evaluated and analyzed. Thirdly, the impacts of these forestation programs in China will be concluded and last but not least, it will be discussed that what can be drawn from the gap between the planting area and productive area of forest plantations and see what can be improved in the overall layout used in these forestation programs in this nearly 50 years in China.
 

 

4. Procedures and Methods

 

According to the subdivision targets listed above, there will be four steps in conducting this research.
In the first step, the literature investigation method, data analysis method and historical research method will be used, based on the literature and data describing the forestation programs taken in China in this nearly 50 years. After the analysis, the literature and data will be reviewed in a historical perspective with the policy analysis through these 50 years in forestation programs.
In the second step, the literature investigation method, conceptual analysis and comparative study will be used. Related literature investigation on the forestation progress and related theories will be reviewed with the core concepts analyzed. With the comparative study between the forestation practice in China and the theories in literature materials, the overall means and plans contained in forestation programs taken in China in this nearly 50 years will be concluded.
In the third step, the speculation research method, behavioral research method and the historical research method will be used. So that the impacts of the forestation programs taken in China in this nearly 50 years will be analyzed in a comprehensive manner.#p#分页标题#e#
In the last step of this research, the behavioral research method, historical research method and comparative study will be used to determine gap between the planting area and productive area of forest plantations and conclude it from an overall point of view.

 

5. References and the books to be read

 

China Network. (2010). The Case of Forestation In China. [electronic resource].
Dobson, A. P., Bradshaw, A. D. & Baker, A. J. M. (1997). Hopes for the Future: Restoration Ecology and Conservation Biology. Science. 277(5325), 515-522.
Guyi. (2014). Million Forest’ activities. [electronic resource].
Honda. (2015). China (Inner Mongolia): Holding a tree-planting project in Inner Mongolia. [electronic resource].
Jon R. L. (2012). China’s Reforestation Programs: Big Success or Just an Illusion? [electronic resource].
Richardson, S. D. (1990). Forests and forestry in China: Changing patterns of resource development. Island Press, Washington DC.
Qiu, H., et al. (2010). Bioethanol development in China and the potential impacts on its agricultural economy. Applied Energy, Elsevier, 87(1), 110-120.
Wenhua, L. Degradation and restoration of forest ecosystems in China. Ecol Manage 201(10), 33-41.
 
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