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英国硕士论文:对于一个现代职场最有效的管理方式

时间:2017-07-31 20:03:22 来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
这个领导项目是对现代商业组织有效领导的研究。
这个项目开始于领导的介绍,回顾领导理论在历史上和区分早期领导这是中央在领导特征和风格与领导力发展,新的领导理论,转换型领导,魅力型领导文学的焦点之间,和富有远见的领导。
下一部分是关于在现代组织中应用和使用的不同领导模式和框架。这些模型确定了担任领导职务的人的责任。
下面的部分介绍了juthoor开发服务和讨论的领导策略和方法,应用于公司的类型。领导工作的重点则转移到团队领导由于在juthoor发展服务的实践。
个人领导力部分描述和评估了我自己的领导风格和领导能力,这些技能需要开发和提高。这一部分包括个人思考和个人领导的广泛行动计划。
该项目最后概述了讨论的内容,并提出了更好的领导才能取得更好业绩的建议。
 
Executive Summary 执行摘要
This leadership project is a study of effective leadership in modern business organizations.
 
This project begins with an introduction on leadership, a review of leadership theories throughout the history and distinguishes between the focus of earlier literature on leadership which is central around leader characteristics & styles and the new leadership theories of leadership development, transformational leadership, charismatic leadership, and visionary leadership.
 
The next section is on the different leadership models and frameworks being applied and used in modern organizations. These models identify the responsibilities required of people holding leadership positions.
 
The following section introduces Juthoor Development Services and discusses the type of leadership strategies and approaches that are used and applied in the company. The focus of leadership then is shifted to that of team leadership due to the practices in Juthoor Development Services.
 
The section on Personal Leadership describes and evaluates my own leadership style and the leadership skills that need to be developed and enhanced. This section includes personal reflections and an extensive action plan on individual leadership.
 
The project concludes with an overview on what was discussed and recommendations for better leadership which results in better performance.
 
Introduction 简介
A leader is an individual that possesses a mixture of skills and styles that makes a team want to follow the leader's direction; hence leadership is the ability to motivate and influence a team to achieve a specific target and goal. Leadership is all about creating a vision and comprises the power to convert the vision into reality. Different styles of leadership, different kinds of leaders lead to different results in an organization. In the business world, leadership is generally related to performance. Effective leaders are those who have the ability to add value to their company by increasing its bottom lines. It is widely known that organizations all around the world lose because managers are not adequately skilled and knowledgeable. The main reason behind this issue is that managers are not aware of how important their role is in an organization. They are unaware of the necessity of "leadership" issues that should enter into all their decision-making activities.#p#分页标题#e#
 
Literature Review 文献综述
Strategic leadership is fundamental for accomplishing and sustaining competitive advantage in this century (Ireland and Hitt, 1999). Effective leaders have been repetitively distinguished for their important role they play in identifying opportunities and making the right decisions that overall affect an organizations procedures and bottom line (Finkelstein et. Al, 1996). The effective and efficient skill leaders' practice adds substantial business value to the organization.
 
Review of academic research and studies on leadership expose a changing series of "schools of thought" starting from the "Great Man" theory to Transformational Leadership theory. Earlier, majority of leadership literature and study was mainly centered on leaders' characteristics and leadership styles. According to (Yukl, 1998), great attention of earlier leadership studies were centered on the performance of lower-level management and how they should perform as they offer supervision, support and constructive feedback to their team However, this new century and modern research shows a new interest and fresh new perspective on leadership. Nowadays, research, studies and theories are focusing on leadership as a whole, followers and the relative nature of leadership in an organization. The rapid change in the business environment has made people think about leadership on different levels. Leithwood et al. (1999) believe that instead of looking only at the quality and characteristics of a leader, our focus needs to be shifted to the leadership challenges in organizations and companies. They viewed leadership in term of their nature and the challenges faced which will result in developing leadership as a whole instead of just a single leader.
 
The result and materialization that has come out from the new interest of studying leadership - mainly focused on managing invariable change - is called the "New Paradigm" model. Today, leaders steer a world that is undergoing continuous change. The New Paradigm model involves modern theories and styles such as charismatic leadership, visionary leadership and transformational leadership. Visionary leadership refers to the act of creating a practical, sensible, and solid vision of the future for a company (Nanus, 1992), Charismatic leadership involves creating a personality that is so influential that people are naturally drawn to the leader, and transformational leadership is a leadership style that forms positive transformation in followers. Transformational leadership is the style being promoted in modern organizations. Old models view leadership as a process that that entails motivating others takes place within a team and entails goal achievement (Northouse, 2001). Modern leadership focuses on leadership development and development of social capital. Other modern studies have emphasized on the relationship between leaders and their followers, some authors stress the importance of studying "follower ship" because leaders are followers and followers are leaders. The two entities are interconnected and are equally essential for the success of the organization.#p#分页标题#e#
 
Leadership Is Not a Solo Act
The picture of a heroic person who leaps in to save the day is what is engraved into our minds. But all gathered facts from studies imply that the constant success of a company is a collective and group effort rather than a single effort. Kouzes and Posner (2002) confirm that after studying numerous cases on effective leadership, they did not find any example of astonishing accomplishment that happened without the dynamic participation and support of many individuals. What is understood from this is that Leadership is a team endeavor. Without team work and the support of people a single person cannot get astonishing things done in a company.
 
Dispersed Leadership
A theory that is currently gaining interest and getting plenty of attention is the "dispersed" leadership. This type of leadership, with its basics in sociology and psychology defines leadership as a practice that is spread throughout a company rather than exclusively with the officially elected 'leader'. The importance therefore transfers from developing leaders to developing 'leaderful' companies with a communal accountability for leadership.
 
The significances of group of people relationships in the leadership agreement, the requirement of a leader to be recognized and accepted by his/her followers and the understanding that no single person is the perfect leader in all situations have set a rise to a new school of leadership thought. The dispersed leadership theory introduces a less official approach to leadership where the leader's responsibility is separated from the organizational hierarchy. It is suggested that people at all levels in the organization and in all jobs can apply leadership influence over their peers and consequently influencing the whole leadership of the organization.
 
Heifetz (1994) differentiates between the practice of "leadership" and the practice of "power" - hence separating leadership from formal organizational power roles. Raelin (2003) discusses of developing "leaderful" organizations through simultaneous and combined effort. The first thing to do is make a clear distinction between the concept of "leader" and "leadership". Leadership is referred as a method of logic-making and direction-giving inside a team and the leader can only be defined on the base of his/her association with others in the team who are acting as followers. Along these lines, it is fairly probable to visualize the leader as emergent rather than predefined and that the leader's responsibility can be implicit in the course of exploratory of the relationships within the team (other than by giving attention to the leader's personal character or qualities).
 
Dispersed leadership demonstrates on notions such as organizational culture and environment to emphasize on the appropriate nature of leadership. It is a communal conception and suggests for a shift from the growth of individual leader characteristics to recognition of what comprises an effective leadership practice within a company. A shift in the spotlight from the individual leaders to the leadership relationships (amongst the leader and followers).#p#分页标题#e#
 
Leadership Development
Leadership development is the process of developing leadership practices and leaders in an organization. It focuses on creating and sustaining social assets as a whole. At the core of leadership developments involves the combined capability of individuals to set goals and successfully carry out leadership functions and roles to build a strong team that meets commitments and attains organizational goals. The accomplishment of goals and leadership activities should come with and without official authority.
 
Saxenian (2006) has branded the new type of leaders that have emerged as "New Argonauts" who challenge the business and dynamically lead an organization despite the ongoing change in the business environment. According to Saxenian, these 'Argonauts' leaders certainly echo today's leadership. (Argonauts where a brand of heroes in ancient Greek, source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argonauts).
 
Transformational Leadership in modern organizations
When companies adopted themselves to the constant evolutionary change, transactional management was in good turn of managing those changes. However, with the circumstances and situations of present organizations performance need undertaking some essential, transformational changes. And managing these changes needs new traits; one of these traits is applying transformational leadership in organizations.
 
The book "Leadership" written by James MacGregor Burns in (1978) was one of the first books to introduce the concept of transformational leadership. Transformational leadership is where leaders transform their followers. This leadership theory holds high importance in this century especially in recent literature. Transformational leadership builds on the foundation of transactional leadership. Nevertheless, as Burns clearly affirms "what is needed today is not the old traditional style of Transactional leadership, but the new style of Transformational leadership".
 
Tichy and Devanna (1986) have researched leadership throughout the years and came up with a list of specific characteristics which distinguish transformational from transactional leaders. Some of these characteristics are listed below:
 
Agents of Change: Transformational leaders encourage flat structures and flexible workplaces. They are able to get the organization to adapt quickly to change.
 
Courage: Transformational leaders face reality and do not fear risk.
 
Confidence in the followers: Transformational leaders have faith in their team members. They give them a boost and push when required and try their best to empower them.
 
Life-long Learning: Transformational leaders believe in life-long education and attempt to extract lessons from experiences.#p#分页标题#e#
 
Vision Capabilities: Transformational leaders see the big picture. Their visionary abilities are excellent.
 
Live by their Values: Transformation leaders have values they live by.
 
Passion and Enthusiasm: They pump their followers with their enthusiasm to get them going.
 
Ability to face the unknown: Transformational leaders do not life with fear and are ready to face the worst situations knowing that they can handle anything that comes their way.
 
According to Bass (1998), 'the transformational leader motivates followers to do more than formerly expected'. Bass reveals that a leader is able to transform his/her followers by:
 
Emphasizing on the significant of goal and task, by creating awareness
 
Encouraging the followers to direct their efforts for the company
 
Meeting the followers needs.
 
Bass and Avolio (1994) have proposed five transformational styles that leaders typically display; these styles and behaviours are illustrated in the table below:
 
Transformational Style
Leader Behaviour
Idealized Behaviors
Speak about their values
 
Emphasize the significance of having a sense of purpose
 
Take into consideration the consequences of decisions made
 
Support new opportunities
 
Discuss the issue of trust amongst each other
 
Inspirational Motivation
Have an optimistic look about the future
 
Talk with enthusiasm about what needs to be accomplished
 
Articulate a compelling vision of the future
 
state confidence about goal attainment
 
present a thrilling image and picture of what to consider
 
Intellectual Stimulation
Examination of critical issues
 
search for differing views when attempting to solve issues
 
Encourage individuals to look at things from different perspectives
 
Propose new methods of how to complete tasks
 
Individualized Consideration
Make time for mentoring and teaching
 
Help others to build on their strengths
 
Spend time listening to others personal needs
 
Encourage personal development
 
Idealized Attributes
Lets others know that it is a pride being connected with them and#p#分页标题#e#
 
Work to build others respect
 
Show power and capability
 
Assure everyone that barriers will be overcome
 
In 2007, Hooper and Potter broaden the concept of transformational leadership and identified 7 types of competences of "transformational leaders", these competences are:
 
1) Building direction
 
2) Being a Role Model
 
3) Communication
 
4) Arrangements and Grouping
 
5) Get the best in his/her people
 
6) Leader as a change representative
 
7) Suggesting decision in a crucial situation
 
Nature of Leadership in Modern Organizations
Contemporary organizations take up a range of HR management and leadership activities to boost staff contentment and satisfaction. Efforts are centered on enhancing and raising the quality, expertise and capabilities of the employees. In addition, providing intensive training and development activities helps in improving the quality.
 
- Recent studies have given a lot of attention to emotional intelligence, especially transformational leadership. Emotional intelligence has become a major part of leadership in modern organizations. Emotional intelligence is a leader's capability to one's ability to be alert of one's personal feelings, be alert of employees' feelings, to distinguish between them and to use the information to direct the leader's thoughts and behaviour. Emotional Intelligence contains three types of capabilities: assessment and expression of feelings, directive of feeling and using feelings in the decision-making process. According to Goleman (1998) "emotional intelligence is twice as important as technical skills and IQ for jobs at all levels."
 
- Motivation is also an important element in leadership in modern organizations. The abilities of any employee will be limited if they are not encouraged and motivated to execute their jobs. According to Bass (1998), compensation, appraisals, incentives and job security can motive employees to achieve their assigned goals and execute their jobs effectively. As a leader, part of the job involves understanding employees and learning motivational strategies to enhance performance. The main challenge is that every employee is different, therefore, what may work for one employee wont work for the other.
 
Communication has also been a major part of leadership. Up-ward and down-ward communication are equally important and need to be transparent and effective. A Leaders responsibility is to ensure such communication takes place and should eliminate all obstacles in the way of corporate communication.#p#分页标题#e#
 
Team leadership is the most rapidly growing area of current research. Modern leaders in organizations do not think of themselves simply as a body of authority, but rather a team leader because they understand the significance of a team compared to just individuals. By understanding the skills of the team members and what motivates them, leaders earn respect from their style not solely because of their position.
 
Culture and leadership
Modern theory has shifted its attention to figure out what the link between leadership and culture and how leadership changes from one culture to another. Collins (2001) has revealed proof of leadership behaviours that are cross-cultural, and others that are culturally focused. However, studies and evidence on the relationship between the two elements (leadership and culture) are still very limited.
 
John Adair Action Centred Leadership Model - a model for team leadership
According to Adair, the effectiveness of the leader relies on meeting three areas of need within the work group.The three parts of Adair's model are generally represented by 3 overlapping circles; this model is a helpful technique in assessing what effective leader's responsibilities are. The challenge for the leader is to manage all parts of the circles successfully.
 
Task
definition of task to be achieved
 
Action plan
 
allocation of job and resources
 
managing the quality and time of effort
 
monitor performance aligned with action plan
 
amending the plan
 
Team
sustaining regulation and control
 
encourage team work
 
motivate team
 
assign junior-leaders
 
encourage and inspire team communication
 
develop and build the team
 
Individual
listen to personal troubles and issues
 
Appreciate and honour individuals
 
give positions and ranks
 
distinguish and use individual capabilities
 
develop he individual
 
To be able to meet the three areas within the work group, specific leadership roles have to be executed, these functions are:
 
Awareness of what is happening in the work group and its processes. Being alert at all times.
 
Understanding the functions and tasks that are required and the skill to accomplish and complete the task successfully.#p#分页标题#e#
 
Case Study: Juthoor Development Services
Juthoor development services are an organization comprising a team of real estate development professionals who provide comprehensive services to clients across the Middle East. Juthoor works with its clients through out the three critical phases of the development process (project feasibility, project implementation and development control). The complete organization is based on Team work, although each employee has an important role to play, their combined efforts is much more valuable. Jose Lora, is the CEO of the company and leader, heads the entire team of professionals.
 
Juthoor's vision
Juthoor Development Services vision is to build the Oman of tomorrow. The employees' key responsibility is to work towards this vision. The success of the organization lies in the employees' ability to work as a team and build the Oman of tomorrow.
 
Leadership in Juthoor Development Services
The leader's relationship with his/her followers is extremely important. An organizations failure or success rate all relies on the leader and the nature of leadership. According to Robbins and Finley (2000), involvement and empowerment of the employees are two key behaviours a leader must possess. There are many ways a leader can strengthen the relationship with his/her followers. At Juthoor, the leader of the company understands the significance of the relationship between himself and the rest of the team. He adopts the following two behaviours:
 
Asking questions instead of giving answers (For example, asking an employee "How do we proceed on this?" "What do you think we should do next"). This involvement gives a sense of purpose and satisfaction to the employees. This helps employees envision the goal and improve their efforts to achieve and excel in their part of the job.
 
Giving followers the opportunity to lead (For example, asking an employee to lead a meeting or put an employee in charge of a task that the leader is taking part in). This empowerment gives the employee the confidence and helps him take ownership).
 
Juthoor Development Services is a team-based organization. Therefore, the focus of this case study will be around team leadership.
 
The Functional Model
This model focuses on how a company and how the work group is being led rather than whom the leader is. This results in lesser time spent focusing on the person who is in the leadership role and instead put all the attention on the leadership function that is taking place. This model emphasizes on the nature of the work group and the followers of the leader. This is exactly what is taking place in Juthoor Development Services, work is done in teams and the team spirit in the company is high and ensures transparent communication.#p#分页标题#e#
Due to the fact that Juthoor is a service provider for real estate development, the key to success is the collaboration of the team. The business is based on team work. A group of people together is not necessarily a team. A team is a number of people that get together that have high level of interdependence, working towards a common goal. (http://www.teal.org.uk/et/page5.html)
 
A team has a number of advantages for an organization:
 
Maximization of HR: team members are trained, coached by other members. Success or failure is not pointed at individuals, but rather the team as a whole.
 
Greater outputs and results. A team is known to outperform a group of individuals.
 
There is continuous improvement and development.
 
The way a team is lead has a huge impact on the success. The leader in Juthoor is responsible and holds these values:
 
Commitment to the team members as well as the mission that needs to be achieved
 
The desire to support a team, serve and lead
 
Experience, enthusiasm, and energy.
 
The ability to build a team and achieve more as a team
 
Team Leadership
It is known that team work and team spirit are fundamental in enhancing the growth in an organization. The saying goes, "Two heads are better than one". Taking up all the responsibility and working alone will only reach you so far; team work is required and is vital for desired results. Different individuals have different skills and talents, bring them together to work on a specific task or certain goal will prove that they would outperform any individual.
 
According to Belbin (1993), there are two types of leaders; Solo leader and Team leader. The major difference between the two revolves around the behaviour and participation of the two as seen below:
Solo Leader
Team Leader
This type of leader interferes and sticks his/her nose in everything
This type of leader delegates tasks and roles without interfering
Attempts to mold the team members into specific standards
Develops team members and encourages them to grow
Collects acolytes
Seeks talent and does not fear team members with special talents
Team leadership differs from Solo leadership in the following ways:
 
Responsibility is shared among the team members and is not only burdened by the leader
 
Control is left to the group and not just the leader.
 
The leader views the team as a whole and not as individuals.
 
#p#分页标题#e#
Expression of needs are encouraged by the leader
 
In today's business world with the rising complexity and the irregular nature of modern workplaces promote Team leaderships as opposed to Solo leadership. According to Belbin (1993), team leadership is not as natural as solo leadership, however he suggests that team leadership can be learned and developed.
Jose Lora, the CEO of Juthoor takes the approach of Team Leader. It was his idea to start Juthoor Development Services and he understands how important an effective team is in the success of the organization. He ensures communication, reads feelings and emotions, practices emotional intelligence and takes time to understand each team member to know what his/her personal needs are and what motivates him or her. The nature of leadership in Juthoor is revolves around team leadership and transformational leadership. Jose Lora is a true e leader who inspires the work group to put their efforts towards a shared vision of the future. The leadership style in Juthoor is highly visible, and built on communication. Jose Lora doesn't lead from the front, as he gives responsibilities to the team members.
Juthoor is a team-based organization, therefore, is there is any problem or issues, all heads are put together to solve the problem and make a decision. Team meetings are conducted daily between the team members to ensure proper communication, transparency and to tackle issues before they arise.
 
Juthoor's Leadership Framework
The leadership model used by Juthoor has 9 key fundamentals and they are:
 
Builds Shared Vision
 
Team Building and teamwork
 
Strategic thinking and planning
 
Focuses on outcomes
 
Maximizes Potential Opportunities
 
Managing and developing staff
 
Transformational Leadership
 
Motivates & Coaches
 
Delivers Results
 
Many organizations develop their own leadership frameworks because there is no "one size will fit all" framework, although most frameworks in organizations are similar, they are not exactly the same. I believe that it is not the framework that is significant, but rather the process by which it is developed.
 
Case Study Discussion and Recommendations
Management needs to obtain and use their compassion and social expertise to improve their personal transformational leadership. Thus, the challenge for any modern organization, including Juthoor development services is to build and develop the emotional intelligence of the management. Suitable involvements may be required to improve and build on their competencies and that would entail education and intensive role-related training.#p#分页标题#e#
 
Managers' ought to be encouraged to improve and develop their skills by constant self-education and learning. Companies must offer encouraging supports for staff learning and improving management and supervisors vital emotional competencies, motivation and team building techniques required for their roles. Companies should recruit individuals that hold a vision and have a pleasant personality that is also known as charisma. There should also be suitable shifts in the company's organizational structure and to encourage flat structure and less complicated hierarchy. Changes in organizational culture are also required to reward staff for learning and self development.
 
The changes in organizational culture and structure should encourage managers will encourage attain emotional intelligence competencies required for employee motivation. It is well known that, the most complex part of leading a team is motivation of work group members. In practical and theory, motivation plays a vital role in a organizations management. Motivation is an essential part of effective performance.
 
Throughout my experience in working at Juthoor, I believe the factors Affecting Leadership Effectiveness in an organization are the following:
The leader's personal characteristics including personality, skills, and outlook.
 
The leaders experience with dealing with teams and work groups
 
The features of the team, their attitude and expectations.
 
The relationship between the leader and the work group
 
The type of company
 
The organization culture & structure
 
The type of tasks that need to be accomplished
 
The external business environment
 
My Leadership Development Plan
This part of the report is central around my leadership style and my leadership development needs. This section addresses a number of questions like, "Do I have the right combination of skills to lead an organization?", "What skills need to be developed to lead effectively?" How can I develop and establish myself? How can I influence others?"
Throughout my career, I have spent a lot of time observing myself and the nature of leadership in the organizations I worked for. At the beginning of my journey, the main challenge for me was trying to understand the difference between managers and leaders. Once that was figured out, I shifted my entire focus to understanding, observing, and learning from the leaders I worked for. One of my professional goals is to become a leader one day, and to be able to influence and motivate a team to achieve and succeed. Therefore, I spent an incredible amount of time studying and observing the leaders in my life.#p#分页标题#e#
I have studied the leadership theories including characteristics, styles, and modern leadership theories of transformational leadership, etc. and based on the findings of the literature review conducted in the second section of this report, I assessed my leadership skills and checked my ability to execute and implement effective leadership in my job and contribute to the leadership functions of the organization. Out of all the different types of leadership styles, can say that I take the approach of situational leadership style. I don't view a leadership position as an authority position, I view it as the ability to touch other people's lives and help them grow. I actually feel that I best relate to situational leadership style because I am extremely flexible when situations arise and occur. Situational leadership is the approach of changing your style to best suit the circumstances. However, earlier I used to not be an expert at this because I always resisted change and felt like I lost focus when things didn't happen the way I expected them to. But as I changed jobs and got more experience, I understood that change is required and I must learn how to handle and adapt to situations instead of getting angry over things not working out the way I wanted them to.
 
There are a number of ways I have practiced my leadership in my job, for example, when I am heading a group I make sure to emphasize the importance of working together. Although I am the leader of the group, I do not show it to other. I work just as hard as they work and try to give as much constructive feedback as I can. My approach is all centered on listening to the team members, understanding their point of view, asking them what their recommendations are and I try to encourage participation. I would say that I am always very fun to be around. When a task needs to be accomplished, I don't give out orders, I give each member the choice about what part they want to handle. Once we complete a task or reach a specific goal, I usually show my appreciation for their work through celebrating together, either inviting them for lunch or dinner.
 
I have assessed my skills and used a number of tools and techniques to evaluate myself. One of the tools I used was the Anchors Model for effective leadership which was introduced by the County of Henrico's Human Resources (HR) Department (source: www.henricotoday.com/hr/edt/sucsnmgmt.pdf). The Henrico Country Competencies include: communication, result driven, serving customers/clients, leading and influencing, technological literacy, personal accountability, managing and transferring knowledge). This is the model that I have used. The table illustrates a brief development plan and the areas where improvement is needed. The details are below in the table.
 
Competencies to Develop
Development activates (Action steps)
Evaluation (How I will measure what I have accomplished)#p#分页标题#e#
Support required
Communication
Build strong relationships & networks and maintain them
My ability to communicate effectively and efficiently.
Leader and team support
Results Driven
Understanding the company goals and then focusing on accomplishing them
My ability to achieve all set goals
Reading the business plan and understanding it and leaders support
Leading and Influencing
Assisting other team members and motivating them to work harder
My ability to influence team members and push them to success
Leaders support
Technological Literacy
Ability to deploy technology in the task which will make it easier
My ability to complete than before
Training, education and seminars
Personal Accountability
Time management, Planning and organizing
My ability to manage time and plan accordingly.
Training courses and seminars
Managing and Transferring Knowledge
Sharing ideas and knowledge with work group
 
My ability to create a hub where information and knowledge between myself and team members are exchanged.
Team members support
An outline approach for developing leadership has been suggested by Byrne & Rees (2006). They grouped the process in three broad categories:
 
Beginner/Apprentice- a person who is fairly new to their leadership role and position and who did not yet find the time to reveal particular competencies are put in this category.
 
Competent-individuals- A person who has actually executed activities related to particular competencies are put in this category.
 
Expert- A person who is considered a mentor for others.
 
I believe that I come under the competent individual category, as I have displayed leadership skills effectively and successfully in my job role and in my work place throughout my career. However, to be an effective leader I need to do a lot of reading, research and knowledge sharing.
 
My Leadership Boundaries
Taking into consideration Fullan (2001) propositions about the limitations of leadership, I have assessed myself and come up with the below reflections:
 
Courage: I believe I have the courage to speak up and venture into risky situations. A typical example of my courage would be when I approached my boss to discuss a new strategy he has recently implemented. Majority of the employees were dissatisfied with the new implementations, so I went up to him and spoke on behalf of the entire team what the drawbacks of the new strategy are and suggested a better strategy for the organization and gave him my reasons. Going against my boss is something that could get me in trouble but I took the risk and fortunately, he agreed with what I said. I was happy that I spoke up and lifted the employees' satisfaction levels.#p#分页标题#e#
 
Evaluating Risk: This is an area that I need to develop and improve. My ability to estimate risk and benefits is very low. Exposure to risk will help me develop risk evaluation skills to respond to high risk situations that arise.
 
Decision-Making: I believe my decision making skills have improved drastically in the last year. I changed jobs and my new job requires to me make critical decisions. At first, I used to hesitate but with experience I was able to make the right decisions for the company.
 
Picking the right time to talk: I have learned to select an appropriate time to speak to my superior about work-related issues and matters. I now fully understand emotions and when is the right time to bring up a topic to discuss.
 
Developing contingency plans: This is something that took me a while to understand. I was of the belief that if there is a structured detailed strategy and plan, the outcome should be a positive one. If the outcome is not positive then something must have gone wrong with the initial plan. However, now I fully am aware that things do not always work out as expected and that there is no shame in failure, but what is significant is the lesson learned and the plans how to handle the emerged situation.
 
Summary on my personal leadership
Currently, I can be called a situational leader and I practice a lot of team leadership as well, however, my long term goal is be able to change and transform into a transformational leader because this type of leader is required in this world we live in now. There are a number of skills required for leading effectively and be able to become a transformational leader. Below are four skills that every leader should possess, including myself, and briefly describes how much of the skill I have.
 
Self skills: I believe the first skill I need to develop is self skills; I need to be able to lead myself before I lead others. Self skills will help me position myself in a particular situation. By developing these skills, I will be able to select the most suitable state, attitude and strategy with which to enter and resolve a situation.
 
Relationship skills: These skills have to do with my ability to build relations, communicate, motivate and understand other people.
 
Strategic thinking: these skills revolve around identifying an appropriate state, evaluate the preliminary state and then set up and define the most appropriate route to get to the desired state. A vital part of strategic thinking is deciding which processes will most powerfully and effectively influence and move the current state in the path of the desired state. By developing these skills I will be able to identify goals and objectives and the will power to achieve them.
 
Systemic thinking: It is well known that the capability to think systemically in a sensible and realistic way is almost certainly the most classic symbol of development in a leader. I need to develop this skill to help me think systemically which in return will improve my problem solving skills. Systemic thinking is the base of successful problem solving and the capacity to build functional teams.#p#分页标题#e#
 
Conclusion 结论
We live in a world where companies and organizations are complex. Complexity is due to many factors including a diverse work environment, culture clashes, globalization, and improvement of quality programmes and systems. There is also a constant change in the external business environment and the demand for high flexible organizations is required to survive and succeed. According to a large number of theorist, authors and researchers, the most appropriate leadership practice model is based on the theory of Transformational Leadership to be able to face and handle the ongoing change in the business environment. The characteristics of Transformational leadership are the key to effective and efficient management of change. Hence, making it essential for me to develop a transformational leadership style to build my career and help the organizations I work for succeed. I strongly believe that the organizations that practice proper leadership are the ones that go far in these times.
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