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英国论文格式:影响泰勒的科学管理理论(2)

时间:2018-01-24 15:01来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
 
Historical origins of scientific management 科学管理的历史渊源
The 19th century factory system manifested itself in lack of formal management, unofficial relations among the workers and even with their employers and casual jobs with no formal arrangements where the leader just hired a group of men in the industries and could fire them if he deemed it fit due to their inability to work or for not following his directions. A need arose by the late decade of the 19th century as competitions between different factories went into the rise, emergence of improved technologies in the factories and formations of trade unions that pressurized the factories to improve the working conditions of workers in the factories or risk industrial actions against them. The government had also realized the efforts in the factories and wanted to reap maximum benefits (Taylor, 1911, p.12). This therefore called for improvements in the organization and management of these institutions. This was the period that Taylor established himself with his novel ideas of organizational management and various technical innovations. For instance, he devised a stopwatch that was used for timing the workers during the working hours so as to determine their best possible times.
 
Taylor had a brief career in engineering after which he went into consultancy services for various industries. He vigorously advocated the application of systematic management by the factory managers (Taylor, 1911, p.17). He introduced time studies to measure the worker's performance, piece-rate systems that served to instill obedience in the workers and other production systems that provided the managers with the capability of knowing what was happening on the ground. He diffused his thoughts and coined the term "scientific management" which was somehow metaphorical. He proposed that he had invented principles of management that could be applied universally to replace what was known as the "rule of thumb" methods. His book became a success and was embraced by many during those times. This period of development of scientific management became known as the progressive era in the US (1890-1920). It was a period that had many reforms which were meant to overcome the problems that had been created by the just ended industrial revolution. This era also experienced its problems. Among them was; lack of formal training for the business leaders in ways of running the day to day activities of their institutions and workers performed their duties due to internal fears of imminent job losses as a result an increase in the industrial out put or due to inefficient management systems in the organizations (Taylor, 1911, p.4). This resulted to poor relationships between the workers and their employers which ultimately caused a reduction in the efficiency in the industries. The then president of the US, Roosevelt even went further to call on the factories to increase their efficiency in production so as to be at par or ahe3ad with other competing nations. This ultimately led to emergence of the scientific management movement.(责任编辑:cinq)


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