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英国论文代写:西欧国家性别工资差异现象研究

时间:2020-09-24 11:01来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
1.1 Background背景

性别工资差距是男女工资的差异,是基于所有员工的平均小时工资的平均差异。 平均来说,欧盟女性比男性1小时少赚16%左右。性别工资差距在一生中的作用是什么?性别工资差距的影响意味着女性在她们的一生中挣得更少,这会导致较低的养老金和老年人的贫困风险。2012,21.7%岁以上的妇女中有65处于贫困风险,而男性占16.3%。使用每小时的工资为基础计算的性别工资差距也可以掩盖具体工资的差异,没有记录,例如,奖金,绩效工资或季节性付款。这就很容易造成男女工资不平等。
The gender pay gap is the difference between men’s and women’s pay, based on the average difference in gross hourly earnings of all employees. On average, women in the EU earn around 16 % less per hour than men .What is the effect of the gender pay gap over a lifetime? The impact of the gender pay gap means that women earn less over their lifetimes; this results in lower pensions and a risk of poverty in old age. In 2012, 21.7 % of women aged 65 and over were at risk of poverty, compared to 16.3 % of men.  Using hourly pay as a basis for calculating the gender pay gap can also mask specific differences in pay that go unrecorded, for example, bonus payments, performance-related pay or seasonal payments.  

Background背景
图:gender pay gap

1.2 Gender equality in wages工资性别平等

性别角色与传统性别角色和传统从一个很早的年龄塑造妇女和男人在社会中的角色。传统和性别角色可能会影响,例如,一个年轻的男人或女人采取的教育路径的选择。这些决定受传统的价值观和工作模式的假设。研究表明,女性在高级职位的典型“女性”的职业报酬大大低于女性工作在顶部的典型“男性”的职业生涯。平衡工作和家庭责任妇女工作更短的时间和经常兼职为了把他们的家庭责任和有偿工作。
Gender roles and traditions Gender roles and traditions shape women’s and men’s roles in society from a very early age. Traditions and gender roles may influence, for example, the choice of educational path taken by a young man or woman. These decisions are affected by traditional values and assumptions about working patterns. Research shows that women in senior positions in typically ‘feminine’ careers are paid substantially less than women working at the top in typically ‘masculine’ careers .Balancing work and family responsibilities Women work shorter hours and often part-time in order to combine their family responsibilities with paid work.

工资性别平等(责任编辑:周海霞)


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