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英国论文代写:西欧国家性别工资差异现象研究(2)

时间:2020-09-24 11:01来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien

图:gender pay gap by job level

妇女在工作中取得进步和获得更高薪水的机会也受到家庭责任的影响。当妇女生孩子和打工时,性别差距会扩大。女性从事家务和护理工作的时间比男性多,很少有人选择产假或兼职。虽然男性工作时间比女性在工作场所,如果妇女的报酬和无偿工作时间相结合,他们明显长于男性。
Opportunities for women to progress in their jobs and receive higher pay are also affected by their family responsibilities. The gender pay gap widens when women have children and when they work part-time. Women spend more time than men carrying out domestic and care work, and few men take parental leave or work part-time. While men work longer hours than women in the workplace, if women’s paid and unpaid working hours are combined they are significantly longer than men’s.

妇女工作
图:gender pay gap

1.3 Introduction and enforcement of laws

Gender equality plans in companies and audits to reduce  the gender pay gap Gender equality plans and audits enable companies to measure their progress in implementing gender equality and equal pay. In some cases there is a legislative requirement to carry out the plans, while in others it is voluntary.

In Sweden, the 2009 Discrimination Act 17 requires employers and employees to endeavour to equalise and prevent differences in pay and other terms of employment between women and men who perform work which is to be regarded as equal or of equal value. They are also supposed to promote equal pay growth opportunities for women and men. Finally, the Act requires employers to carry out a pay survey every three years in order to detect, remedy, and prevent unjustified differences between women and men’s pay, terms and conditions of employment, and draw up an equal pay action plan (if employing 25 or more workers).

In Austria, the National Action Plan for Gender Equality in the Labour Marketincludes a compulsory requirement for companies to publish equal pay reports. Companies have to draw up staff income reports every two years. The reports must show the number of men and women classified under each category as well as the average or median income, adjusted for working time, for women and men in the respective category. The goal is to create income transparency and take measures to reduce gender pay gaps. The equal pay reports are compulsory for companies with more than 1 000 employees from 2011 for the year 2010, for companies with more than 500 employees since 2012, for companies with more than 250 employees in 2013 and with more than 150 employees in 2014.

(责任编辑:周海霞)


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