本文是市场营销专业的留学生Essay范例，题目是“Effect of Displaying Online Privacy Information on Purchasing Behaviour（网上隐私信息显示对购买行为的影响）”,因特网正迅速成为世界上最大的公共电子市场。据估计，它将在全球范围内达到5000万人，并且客户以每月10%的速度增长(Wang et al.， 1998)隐私是最重要的消费者权利之一，也是电子商务的重要组成部分。网上卖家需要消费者的个人数据来收集付款和交付产品。从商家的角度来看，这些信息对于保证和确认订单是必要的。从消费者的角度来看，这是消费者的权利，他们提供的信息应该保密。这是客户在电子商务中面临的主要问题，因为在线公司没有对他们的信息保密，并将这些信息披露给其他利益相关者，如政府、银行和货运服务提供商。如果网上商家采取公平的信息政策，可以降低这些信息被误用的风险;通过这种策略，通过将个人数据的收集限制在与交易相关的范围内，可以降低客户信息泄露的风险。网上商家应该在其网站上发布隐私声明，这是消费者的权利，这将有助于消费者了解披露个人信息的风险。但许多客户并不重视这些隐私声明，并在没有研究它们的情况下同意这些声明。由于消费者缺乏信任，消费者保护和隐私法律是电子商务发展的主要障碍。在现行的网络法律体系中，消费者权利的定量化得到了有效的体现。(Hann et al.， 2002)。
The Internet is quickly becoming the world’s largest public electronic marketplace. It is estimated to reach 50 million people worldwide and customers are growing with the rate of 10% per month (Wang et al., 1998) Privacy is one of the most important consumer right and major part of e-commerce. Online sellers require personal data of consumer for collection of payments and delivery of products. From merchant perspective this information is consider necessary for assurance and confirmation of order. From customer perspective this is the right of consumer that the information they provide should be kept confidential. This is the major issue that customers are facing in e-commerce, because online companies do not kept their information secret and disclose this information to other stake holders like, government, banks and to cargo service providers. The risk of misusing this information can be lower if online merchants adopt fair information policy; through this policy the risk of leaking customer’s information can be lower by limiting the collection of personal data to the relevancy of transaction. It is the right of consumer that online merchants should place the privacy statement on their website which will help customer to know the risk of disclosing personal information. But many customers do not give value to these privacy statements and agree with these statements without studying them. For Lack of consumer trust, consumer protection and privacy laws are major barriers in the growth of e-commerce. There are in efficient cyber laws prevailed in the system which denominate the consumer rights. (Hann et al., 2002).
This research will examine whether the efficient display of privacy information plays any role in making purchase decision by consumer. For this purpose previous researcher conducted a survey regarding online privacy and perceived risks associated with online shopping, and they steered an experiment in which participants are asked to take a purchase decision that will affect their private information. So we will structure the experiment as an online shopping experience at existing online merchants, and tested whether signals about the different levels of privacy protection among merchants would affect the participants’ price sensitivity and purchase decisions (Tsai et al., 2007)
本研究将探讨个人隐私信息的有效显示是否对消费者的购买决策起作用。为此，之前的研究人员进行了一项关于在线隐私和与在线购物相关的感知风险的调查，他们指导了一项实验，要求参与者做出影响其私人信息的购买决定。因此，我们将把实验结构为现有在线商家的在线购物体验，并测试商家之间不同程度的隐私保护信号是否会影响参与者的价格敏感性和购买决定(Tsai et al.， 2007)。
Our research questions will be as follows:
Do consumers value privacy statements and privacy seals? If so, do they affect consumer disclosure of personal information?
We will guide the exploratory field experiment to determine these matters. Specifically, we will mix gifts to ensure privacy between the three levels of treatments and how consumers react to each level. It will be three steps:
any information with regard to the adoption of fair information policy will be through the provision of customers
information concerning the privacy of your data will be made available to the client
accumulation of the privacy statement, privacy statement is displayed
This research will provide the pressures that arise between the collection and use of personal information that people during the most consumer transactions, and privacy. In today’s world, increasingly competitive strategies for successful companies rely on large amounts of customer data. Oddly enough, the same information practices that provide value to organizations also raised concerns about the privacy of individuals.
This study assumes that organizations can address these issues and getting the business advantage through customer retention. On personal data given by customers businesses make decision what benefits should be given to customers, and sometimes government require personal data of online customers for making regulatory policies.
Our first objective is to determine that the effect of online privacy on purchase behavior of consumer either it affects positively or negatively?
Our second objective would be to determine the impact of monetary benefits on disclosure.
Our Third objective will be to determine the impact of information incentive on disclosure.
Literature Review 文献综述
Many researchers worked on determining the effect of online privacy on purchase behavior. Their research finding shows that implementation of fair information policy impacts positively on purchase behavior of consumer. It means that if online merchants adopt fair information policy to keep the personal information of consumer confidential then consumer respond positively in purchase behavior.
In this regard (Tsai et al., 2007) conduct a research to determine the impact of online privacy on purchase behavior. The goal of this study was to determine whether the availability of private information affects purchasing decision of consumer. He used Privacy Finder to display the privacy policies of certain online shopping sites in a fashion that, possibly, reduces the gap of information asymmetry. In his study he found that participants were affected by having this additional information displayed to them. Their experiment shows that that once privacy information is made more visible, people will tend to purchase from merchants that offer more privacy protection and even pay a premium to purchase from such merchants. This was true for both privacy-sensitive and non-privacy-sensitive items.
Another research was conducted by (Brown & Muchira, 2004) in which they steered a relationship between online privacy and purchase decision of consumer Results of a survey study indicate that both errors and invasion of privacy have a significant negative relationship with online purchase behavior. Unapproved use of secondary data seems to have little impact on purchase decision. Data used in this study was collected through questionnaire survey and sampling technique was used convenience sampling. Sampling frame uses in this research was under graduate and post graduate students in East Coast University of Australia and hypothesis was tested using ANOVA. Unauthorized use of data is considered as independent variable while invasion of privacy and errors is treated as dependent variable.
(Brown & Muchira, 2004)进行了另一项研究，他们引导了在线隐私和消费者购买决定之间的关系。一项调查研究的结果表明，错误和隐私侵犯与在线购买行为有显著的负相关关系。未经批准的二手数据的使用似乎对购买决策没有什么影响。本研究采用问卷调查的方式收集数据，采用方便抽样的方法。本研究使用的抽样框架是澳大利亚东海岸大学的本科生和研究生，并使用方差分析对假设进行检验。将未经授权使用数据作为自变量，将侵犯隐私和错误作为因变量。
To study the consumer willingness to provide private information (Phelps et al., 2000) conducted a study finding of research shows that there is a strong relationship between level of concern of customers regarding usage of their private information and their purchase intention. Data was collected through questionnaire surveys and ANOVA was used to test the hypothesis.
为了研究消费者提供私人信息的意愿(Phelps et al.， 2000)进行了一项研究，研究结果表明，消费者对其私人信息使用的关注程度与他们的购买意愿之间存在很强的关系。数据收集通过问卷调查和方差分析来检验假设。
To investigate the difference in purchase intention of peoples who belongs to different demographics and culture (Bellman et al., n.d.) investigated that to build the trust of consumer internet companies should be allocated on the system of data collection in accordance with customer needs. Research shows that most customers have concerns with privacy regulations prevailing in the country. There is a difference in management and law enforcement on a company’s culture.
为了调查属于不同人口统计学和文化背景的人在购买意愿上的差异(Bellman et al.， n.d.)研究建立消费者互联网公司的信任应该根据客户需求在数据收集系统上进行分配。研究表明，大多数客户对中国现行的隐私规定感到担忧。企业文化在管理和执法方面存在差异。
(Jordaan, 2007) found that the ability to collect and sustain personal information does not show that direct marketers are able to maintain true and honest relationship with customers. Direct marketing organizations need to be careful regarding consumers’ collected information and attend to several privacy issues if they want to facilitate relational exchanges between themselves and consumers. A probability (systematic) sampling design was used to draw a representative sample of households with listed telephone numbers in the different provincial Telkom telephone directories. The sample units were randomly selected, after which 800 telephone interviews were conducted with adults from these households.
(Papacharissi & Fernback, 2005) Evaluate the effectiveness of privacy statements and focus on language, format, assurances of privacy, and the complexity of the legal and technical aspects, and the perceived credibility of the statement. Analysis of the content of privacy statements that data privacy is always protected the interests of customers as it is a legal guarantees to the companies concerned. Instead, we found that although the data was widespread and extensive in most major business portals, such as Google, Yahoo and AOL, several smaller trading portals don’t feature them at all, or at least featured much less widespread, and reassure versions. The main gates were much more likely to feature lengthier statements, certified by TRUSTe, perhaps because they had the personnel to dedicate to this important task, and they can afford to provide full privacy disclosure
(Papacharissi & Fernback, 2005)评估隐私声明的有效性，重点关注语言、格式、隐私保证、法律和技术方面的复杂性，以及声明的感知可信度。分析私隐声明的内容，认为资料私隐始终是保护客户的利益，是对有关公司的一项法律保障。相反，我们发现，尽管这些数据在大多数主要的商业门户网站(如谷歌、Yahoo和AOL)中广泛存在，但一些较小的贸易门户网站根本不采用这些数据，或者至少不采用广泛得多的版本。主大门更有可能采用由TRUSTe认证的较长的声明，也许是因为他们有专人负责这项重要任务，而且他们有能力提供完全的隐私披露
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