在19世纪初，德国就开始城市化的过程中，由于二次世界大战，德国城市经历了繁荣与衰退。 1950年二战结束后的，可作为重建阶段的施工期，主要目的是重建德国，有三种重建方法：一种是按照基本恢复战前图案和外观;另一个是完全放弃原有的格局，因为这个城市被摧毁，他们愿意遵守新的建筑理念来建设;第三是中间路线，根据新的想法部分恢复战前的格局，其他部分，但建设。如今，德国有这个城市的一个非常鲜明的特点，原因有很多，但多层次，严格的规划制度是德国特色形成的基本因素。德国规划系统由空间规划和城市，交通，土地利用等专业规划构成。根据规划，在德国规划体系分为联邦政府计划，州政府规划，区规划和地方规划。德国城市规划的决策，反复宣传前要充分调查，并最终批准了议会，其中有法律效力。城市规划行为的任何擅自改变是不可能的，即使它是一个必要的调整规划，不到一年的时间可能无法履行调整程序。德国城市规划分别对原有风格城市的恢复，因此德国城市有历史，自然，美丽的特点。许多著名的城市有延续很长的历史，他们主要在于其城市精湛的施工，丰富的历史和文化。德国城市不仅是建筑艺术的天堂，它也是社会和历史的一个缩影。值得一提的是，德国的城市发展在不同的英国，法国和其他欧洲国家，它是在小型和中型城市的独特，小城镇分散。在各种协调的城市，分布更加合理，劳动分工城市更自然，其优点充分利用。城市和乡村的联动是非常明显的，一个是城市广场，城市中心建筑密集区的符号仍然是比较繁华，承担着全市集中的辐射功能。二是新城区和工业区进行规划和城市建设的压力，合理分配，为经济发展创造一个空间的城市。City planning is the basis for the construction and management of city, based on the rational utilization and effective allocation, ensure the city space land resources, it is one of the important means to realize the city's economic and social development goals. At the beginning of nineteenth Century, Germany began the process of urbanization, because of the two World War, German city experienced prosperity and decline. In 1950’s after World War II can be used as a construction period of reconstruction phase, the main purpose is to rebuild Germany, there are three kinds of reconstruction methods: One is in accordance with the basic restore prewar pattern and appearance; another is to abandon the original pattern completely, because the city was destroyed, they are willing to follow the new building concept to construction; the third is the middle path, partially restore prewar pattern, the other part but construction according to new ideas. Today, Germany has a very distinctive features of the city, the reasons are many, but the multi-level and rigorous planning system is the basic factor for the formation of German characteristics. Planning system in Germany are constituted by comprehensive spatial planning and city, traffic, land use and other professional planning. According to the plan, the planning system in Germany is divided into the federal government planning, state government planning, area planning and local planning. The German city planning are fully investigated before making decisions, repeated publicity, and ultimately by the parliament approved, which have the force of law. Any unauthorized change of city planning behavior is not possible, even if it is a necessary adjustment planning, less than one year may not fulfill the adjustment procedures. The German city planning were on the restoration of the original style city, so the German city has historic, natural and beautiful characteristics. Many famous city has a long history of continuation, they mainly lies in its city exquisite construction, rich history and culture. The German city is not only the architectural art’s heaven, it is also a microcosm of society and history. It is worth mentioning that, German city development was in different Britain, France and other European countries, it is unique in small and medium-sized city, small towns scattered. The various kinds of city coordinated , the distribution was more reasonable, and the city division of labor was more natural, the advantages made full use. The linkage of city and country is very obvious, One is the city square, symbol of the city center building concentrated area is still relatively prosperous, bear the concentrated radiation function of the whole city. Two is the new urban and industrial area were planning and construction, reasonable distribute of pressure on the city, and for economic growth creating a space city.#p#分页标题#e#
The goal of this paper try to solve the following problems:
1. Concrete embodiment of good German city.
2. Development of city planning in Germany
3. The operation mechanism about German city
4. Reference to other countries
High quality city planning define the direction of city transformation: Planning and design competition ensure the quality of city planning, reconstruction scheme of historical block taking into account not only maintain the appearance of historic buildings, but also the modern functional adaptation. The new building should be coordinated with the historical atmosphere, but also reflects the local characteristics and the spirit of the times. Regional correlation is also very important, division of public space is part of the planning of the core. Good planning consider both public and private interests. Planning should not only consider the various aspects of the problem, but also to ensure the operation of its own. Gerd Albers (2000) discussed the German city planning social goals, social goals in the space of development in the conversion of city planning implementation, legal means, planning principles and methods, and included the city development, renewal, city function and form, city planning major areas.
In 2003, Burkhard Hofmeister (2003) introduced Germany in the aspects of city form development stages. In the same year, “Symbol und Buhne der Stadt-Die historische Mitte im Wandel stadtbaulicher Leitbilder” (2003) introduced a lot of examples of the German city center changes. "Statue Report on Building Culture in Germany, Initial situation and Recommendat" (2003) introduced the German city development, city construction, planning, heritage protection and city construction and cultural aspects of the content.
The German city fully respect the history in the process of updating, there is no loss historical style of the city, but improved after the update. City renewal goals defined the direction of city development, namely preservate historic features of historical city and restore vitality. Through the implementation of a number of stages of history, the urban appearance has restoration. Claus-Peter Echter (2004) introduced the existing situation about the German heritage protection problems and future prospects. In this article, the author for Germany in heritage protection compared to other European countries adverse questioned, he thinks is better than its actual situation in Germany show. Dr. Hannelore Romich (2004) introduced the activity to protect German cultural heritage overview, including participating institutions, funding sources, database and so on.
"Urban Renaissance -- Berlin: Towards an Integrated Strategy for Social Cohesion and Economic Development" was about the research of unified Berlin city renewal, it built on the basis of previous research on city update, experience of the focus on social integration of city renewal, especially concerned about unemployment, the underdeveloped area young people and immigrants to the development of Berlin.#p#分页标题#e#
In 2003, “Alexanderplatz Berlin——Mitte Begrenzt-offener freiraumplanenscher Ideen-und Realisierungswettbewerb” described in detail the design competition for the assumptions of Alexander square of Berlin city renewal.
Research scope and research methods
The scope of this dissertation is large and medium-sized city in Germany, the time range of this research is mainly in the city before and after the Second World War to today's change, which is also related to the historical background of the city’s formation.
This study mainly uses comparative method and case methods. Through comparison of several large and medium-sized city planning in Germany, as well as the longitudinal comparison of their respective historical and present planning. In this paper, through the case study of many German city, expounds its historical area renewal process, methods and measures of the operational level, and the effectiveness of the reform. Data analysis and drawing analysis methods are used as auxiliary research method in this paper.
The formal research report will be completed in July 31, 2014. In order to achieve this goal, I will be in accordance with the schedule given to complete. I already have a series of online search results, most of the time I will spend in the literature and found the key results, these results will be presented to the audience.
10th, June--22nd June
Search informations and photos
23rd, June--29th June
30th, June--6th July
7th July--24th July
25th July--31th July
“Alexanderplatz Berlin——Mitte Begrenzt-offener freiraumplanenscher Ideen-und Realisierungswettbewerb”, 2003
Burkhard Hofmeister, “The study of Urban Form in Germany”, 2003.
Claus-Peter Echter, Preservation in Germany and the Study on Cultural Assets in Europe”, 2004
Dr. Hannelore Romich, “The situation in Germany: Overview on Activities in Cultural Heritage, with Special Respect to New Materials”, 2004
Gerd Albers, “The theory and practice of city planning”, 2000.
“Statue Report on Building Culture in Germany, Initial situation and Recommendat", 2003#p#分页标题#e#
“Symbol und Buhne der Stadt-Die historische Mitte im Wandel stadtbaulicher Leitbilder”, 2003
“Urban Renaissance——Berlin： Towards an Integrated Strategy for Social Cohesion and Economic Development”