本文是会计专业的Essay范例，题目是“Understanding of Management Accounting Systems（了解管理会计系统）”，对财务信息的理解和记录使组织能够计划、形成战略并减少组织中的错误。企业聘请管理会计和财务会计处理财务数据，并将其准确地记录在会计帐簿上。管理会计师在提供有关组织中业务流程的详细财务信息方面发挥着关键作用。管理会计帮助任何组织的高层管理人员做出理性的决定，并实施导致公司成功的战略。在这个报告中，管理会计技术和实践被详细讨论。报告讨论了各种管理会计技术的范围和应用，使会计人员对他们的财务业绩有深刻的见解。
The understanding and recording of financial information allow the organization to plan, form strategies and reduce errors in the organization. The corporations recruit management & financial accountants to handle the financial data and record them accurately in the books of accountants. Management accountants play a key role in providing detail financial information regarding the business processes in the organization. Managerial accounting helps the top management of any organization to take rational decisions and implement such strategies that lead to the success of the corporation. In this report, the management accounting techniques & practices are discussed in detail. The report discusses the scope and application of various management accounting techniques which allow accountants to get deep insights about their financial performance.
Management Accounting & Role of Management Accountant管理会计与管理会计的作用
Management accounting provides detail accounting information so that the organization can better understand their operations and can take a rational decision. In simple words, management accounting provides non-financial and financial information to the managers on the basis of which they take decisions of the organization. IMA (Institute of Management Accountants) explains management accounting as an occupation that assists in devising planning, performance management, and Management decision making. Management accountants explore the business activities that happened in the organization and then estimate the cost of those activities. CIMA (Chartered Institute of Management Accountants) is the biggest management accounting institute.
The management accountants are the individuals who prepare financial statements in the organization according to the managerial accounting standards. Management accountants prepare budgets for the organization, handle the taxes, assist in planning & decision making and help the management to set incentive packages for the employees. The management accounts perform various duties in the organization which includes analyzing internal controls, supervising & monitoring the accounting staff, focusing on tax information and management of the general ledger. The management accountants have a strong relationship with the internal auditors & stakeholders of the corporation (Nørreklit, 2017).
The scope of Management accounting管理会计的范围
The management accounting plays a key role in the formation of strategies and management of the business activities. The financial accountants usually prepare the financial statements for the organization which only provides detail regarding some specific areas. However, management accounting provides detail information about various internal processes. The management accounting provides information on customers, product lines and various geographic regions. Through management accounting information the management can identify the problems and can create a strategy for mitigating or controlling the problems. Management accounting, however, does not provide 100% accurate facts because managerial accounting information is based on estimations (SINGH, 2016).
For the management accountants there is a clear career path and over the period of time management accountants can experience growth in the organization. The management accounting is as much significance as the financial accounting because through management accounting not only the organization can control its operations most efficiently but also can reduce its costs up to a lot of extents. The management accounting helps the organization to get deep insights regarding its internal operations and how various activities are going on in the organization. If the corporation is not going to implement management accounting practices than it might not get much information about various costs & activities (Nørreklit, 2017).
Difference between Management Accounting & Financial Accounting管理会计与财务会计的区别
The management accounting and financial accounting have various differences due to their approach and practices. The financial accounting is usually focused on past information whereas managerial accounting performs an estimation of the future e.g. budgets (Boyns & Edwards, 2013). The financial accounting information is correct and there are very fewer chances of errors however the managerial accounting information might not be completely correct because it is based on estimations. In financial accounting financial statements are prepared for inside & outside of the organization but managerial accounting is mostly focused on the creation of operation reports. The financial accounting has to follow various accounting standards such as IFRS, IAS, and GAAP whereas in managerial accounting there are not many standards to follow. The financial accounting does not pay attention to the system of the organization that it follows for generating the profit conversely managerial accounting pay special attention to the operations of the organization to find ways for increasing the profit of the organization (Needles & Powers, 2010).
管理会计和财务会计因其方法和实践的不同而存在着各种不同。财务会计通常关注过去的信息，而管理会计则对未来进行估计，例如预算(Boyns & Edwards, 2013)。财务会计信息是正确的，有非常少的机会的错误，但管理会计信息可能不完全正确，因为它是基于估计。在财务会计中，财务报表是为组织内部和外部编制的，但管理会计主要是创建经营报告。财务会计必须遵循各种会计准则，如国际财务报告准则，国际会计准则，和公认会计准则，而在管理会计没有很多标准遵循。财务会计不关注组织的系统，它遵循产生利润相反，管理会计特别关注组织的运作，以找到增加组织利润的方法(Needles & Powers, 2010)。
Types of Cost Reporting
Various Costing reports are prepared Job costing is the managerial accounting process which evaluates the revenues according to the job. Job costing reports provide brief information about the profitability of each job (Boyns & Edwards, 2013). The business which uses the job order costing provides job number to each item of revenue & expenses. Batch costing is another technique which the organizations adopt for recording the accounting information. Batch costing is similar to job costing. Each batch in batch costing contains similar goods however each batch is different. The individual cost of items in the batch is evaluated using the following formula:
Cost per unit = Total Production cost of batch/Number of units within the batch
The activity-based costing reports, however, focuses on the overhead activities and their costs. The activity-based costing shows the relationship between produced goods, costs and overhead activities. In ABC costing allocation of some costs is difficult which raises issues for the organization. This method is considered complex than traditional approaches but still some organizations implement ABC costing (Weetman, 2010).
The above table is depicting the income statement formed using the managerial accounting technique known as variable costing. Variable costing is the managerial accounting technique in which fixed manufacturing overhead is not included in the product cost. This technique is the opposite of the absorption costing technique. Variable costing technique is not recommended according to the IFRS and GAAP standards.
The above table is showing the income statement prepared using the absorption costing technique. This is the traditional technique of preparing the income statement. In this technique, the manufacturing overhead cost is included in the product production cost.
The break-even analysis盈亏平衡分析
Break Even Analysis provides information to the organization regarding the number of sales that it should be done to achieve the break even. The breakeven analysis has huge significance for the organization from the profit point of view. Through break-even analysis, the organization will know about the number of goods it should sell to achieve the break even. Break-even means that the organization has generated enough sales which have caused no profit no loss situation. If the organization has a sale more units from the units which required for break-even than it means that the business is generating profit. However, if the business is going to sell fewer units than the break-even units than it means that the business is suffering from loss rather than profit. The break-even analysis helps the corporation to determine the sales which have to be done to achieve profit and meet the expenses of the business efficiently (Davis & Davis, 2011).
盈亏平衡分析为组织提供有关应该实现盈亏平衡的销售数量的信息。盈亏平衡分析从盈利的角度对组织具有重要的意义。通过收支平衡分析，组织将知道它应该卖出多少商品来实现收支平衡。收支平衡是指组织产生了足够的销售，造成了无利润无亏损的情况。如果组织的销售单位超过了收支平衡所需的单位，这意味着企业正在产生利润。然而，如果企业销售的数量少于收支平衡的数量，这就意味着企业正在遭受亏损而不是盈利。盈亏平衡分析可以帮助企业确定哪些销售是必须做的，以实现利润和有效地满足业务的费用(Davis & Davis, 2011)。
The main aim of every organization is to generate profit and that is why organization evaluate their profit to take important decisions of the organizations. The net profit is calculated by identifying the sales and then the expenses are deducted from the amount of revenue. The profit allows the organization to pursue various organizational projects because organizations invest in the various project after checking their profitability. The organizations do not invest in the different project if they are not generating enough profit. The investors also invest in such organizations which are generating a profit because they know that the organization will provide a significant return on their investment (Adler, 2013).
If all the above facts are summarized than it is evident that Management accounting provides detail accounting information so that organization can better understand about their operations and can take a rational decision. In simple words, management accounting provides non-financial and financial information to the managers on the basis of which they take decisions of the organization. The management accounting and financial accounting have various differences due to their approach and practices. The financial accounting is usually focused on past information whereas managerial accounting performs estimation of the future e.g. budgets. The financial accounting information is correct and there are very fewer chances of errors however the managerial accounting information might not be completely correct because it is based on estimations.
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