Executive summary 摘要
巴西是国家经济快速发展的国家，站在手机向智能手机转型的情况下，功能手机具有巨大的消费潜力。然而，苹果公司在巴西的智能手机市场上处于劣势地位。通过介绍苹果公司的情况和巴西移动电话产业的环境，分析苹果公司的目标市场选择和产品定位，并指出苹果公司的主要竞争优势。该报告提出了营销渠道和营销在巴西市场的苹果已经在巴西苹果公司的营销工作提供推荐策略。Brazil which is the country with rapid economic development and stands on the situation of mobile phone transformation to Smartphone from function mobile phone has huge consumption potential of mobile phone. However, Apple Inc stands on inferior position in Brazil Smartphone market. The report analyzes the target market selection and product positioning of Apple Inc and points out the main competitive strengths of Apple Inc through introducing the situation of Apple Inc and the environment of Brazil mobile phone industry. The report put forward the marketing channel and marketing strategy of Apple Ince in Brazil market to provide recommendation to the marketing work of Apple Inc in Brazil.
1.0 Introduction 介绍
近年来巴西经济的快速发展，逐年增加的中产阶级数量逐年增加。巴西已成为世界上最大的经济实体之一，在过去的十年中，有约4000万人口，在过去十年中，约有1亿9390万人口，在中产阶级在过去十年（鲁伊斯等人，2013）。以中产阶级为主要力量的消费已经超过了巴西总人口的一半。目前，巴西是世界上第五大智能手机市场，根据IDC公司的预测，智能手机在巴西的销量将跃升至全球第四大智能手机市场的2017（鲁伊斯等，2013）。然而，在巴西苹果公司的业绩不乐观甚至在巴西智能手机市场有巨大的潜力，苹果公司在巴西的市场份额不足百分之2（当归马里，2014）。本报告打算给一个市场计划，给予宝贵的建议，苹果公司在巴西的营销。报告的结构如下。首先，它会给外部环境和内部环境分析苹果公司在巴西市场。其次，它将分析市场细分，目标市场，苹果公司第三的定位，它将给营销组合。最后，它会做出一个简短的结论。Economy in Brazil has rapid development in recent years with increasing quantity of middle class year by year. Brazil has become one of largest economic entity in the world with 193.9 million populations and there were approximately 40 million populations free from poverty and step in middle class in the past decade (Ruiz et al, 2013). Middle class as the main force of consumption has exceeded half of total populations in Brazil. At present, Brazil is the fifth largest Smartphone market in the world and according to the prediction of IDC Company, the sales volume of Smartphone in Brazil will jump to the fourth largest Smartphone market in the world in 2017 (Ruiz et al, 2013). However, the performance of Apple Inc in Brazil is not optimistic even Smartphone market in Brazil has giant potential that the market share of Apple Inc in Brazil is less than 2 percent (Angelica Mari, 2014). This report intends to give a market plan to give valuable recommendation for Apple Inc about marketing in Brazil. The structure of the report shows as follow. First, it will give external environment and internal environment analysis to Apple Inc in Brazil market. Second, it will analyze market segmentation, target market, and positioning of Apple Inc. Third, it will give the marketing mix. Finally, it will make a short conclusion. #p#分页标题#e#
2.0 External environment analysis—PEST model 外部环境分析模型
PEST model is an important analysis model of enterprise external environment and its content includes analyzing political environment, economic environment, social environment, and technological environment (Hitt et al, 2012).
For the political environment, in recent years, Brazil government has constantly introduced and amended relative laws and regulations which have great influence to enterprise marketing and it also modified and perfect patent system to provide more effective legal protection to protect intellectual property rights (Koga et al, 2013). Those provide more guarantee to Apple Inc to expand Brazil market. However, Brazil also has high tax rate with various tax types that tax burden in Brazil head the list in Latin America. In addition, customs bureaucratic in Brazil is seriousness with frequent corruption phenomenon.
For the economic environment, the iphone is always positioned in high-end with high price and this lead Apple Inc focuses on small proportion consumer group in Brazil market. The high price is the main barriers for iphone to be popular in Brazil. However, as the rapid development of Brazil economy and the increasing of people’s disposable personal income, the weakness of high price will reduce its influence to the competitiveness of iphone. At present, the economic strength of Brazil stands in the first place of Latin America. According to the report of World Bank Group, the GDP in Brazil was worth 2245.67 billion US dollars in 2013 which represents 3.62 percent of the world economy and the GDP per capita was 5823.04 US dollars which equaled to 46 percent of the world's average (Trade economics, 2014). In addition, as the rapid increasing of middle class in Brazil, the great potential of Brazil Smartphone market is helpful for the development of Apple Inc.
For the social environment, as the rapid development of economy and science and technology, Internet and mobile Internet has rapid popularizing. The value of Brazilians has changed that Smartphone has become one indispensable tool in daily working and living life. The increasing living standard also promotes Brazilians to pursue brand value when they make decision to purchase commodity (Ruiz et al, 2013). In addition, more and more consumers in Brazil pay high attention to recreation and surfing the Internet and those are the strong point of Apple’s product.
For the technological environment, Apple Inc has advanced technology in the world and Apple Inc always walks in the front end of technological innovation area and maintains updated every year. In recent years, Brazil government pays high attention to promote R&D of science and technology that Brazil government increases its science and technology input through laws and regulations, for example, reducing or exempting tax of industrial product, credit arrangement, and giving financial support (Koga et al, 2013). Thus, Apple Inc which famous high technology and innovation should also insist technological innovation to maintain competitiveness even the technology level of Brazil is not as good as Apple Inc. #p#分页标题#e#
With the reference of above analysis, Apple Inc has much strength in Brazil market and the external environment is beneficial to the development of Apple Inc.
3.0 Internal environment analysis—SWOT model内部环境的SWOT分析模型
SWOT is to confirm strength, weakness, opportunity, and threat of enterprise to combine corporate strategy with corporate internal resource and external environment organically (Hitt et al, 2012).
For the strengths, first, the product of Apple Inc has unique system configuration. Compared with other Smartphone who use Android, the product of Apple Inc always insists to use IOS system which is more stables, fast, and with stronger entertainment system compare with other products and the differentiation also is an attraction to attract consumers. Second, Apple Inc has high brand awareness and reputation. The product of Apple Inc is famous for high quality and high-end. Apple Inc pays high attention to product quality and control product quality strict from product design to production. Third, Apple Inc attaches importance to R&D. Apple Inc established strong R&D institution and the product innovation of Apple Inc often leads revolutionary change of the market. Fourth, Apple Inc has strong innovation ability that Apple Inc is ranking first for six years of the enterprise with most innovative ability around the world in 2011 which was appraised and elected by Forbes (Arruda-Filho et al, 2010).
For the weakness, first, the efficiency of project management and production manufacturing is low. The low efficiency of manufacturing and high designing and management cost may make Apple Inc lose competitiveness in IT industry (Zylla-Woellner, 2013). Second, the supply chain management of Apple Inc is not perfect enough. The supply ability of some key component is insufficient and the explosive power of supply chain to face mutational market demand. For example, Apple Inc has appeared the phenomenon that it cannot satisfy the order demand in market as supplier cannot produce some key component such as customized IC.
For the opportunities, first, consumer electronic marketplace has giant market. Consumer Electronics Association has forecasted that the income of global consumer electronics will has continue and stable growth and global consumer electronics market is a enormous market (Zylla-Woellner, 2013). Second, the rapid growth domestic demand in Brazil provides good opportunity for the increasing of Apple’s distributing business. Brazil as the fifth largest population country in the world with more than 50 percent middle class and this promotes the transition in Brazil from function mobile phone to Smartphone. According to the forecast of IDC, from 2013 to 2017, the sales volume of Smartphone in Brazil will increase 125 percent and global average level is just 65 percent (Zylla-Woellner, 2013).
For the threats, first, android system becomes the powerful competitor of Apple Ince. With the reference of Figure 1, the market share of Android has the tendency to surpass IOS. #p#分页标题#e#
Figure1: Global market share of Smartphone electronic system
(Source: Zylla-Woellner, 2013)
Second, Apple Inc faces numerous famous competitors such as Samsung and Sony, and it also faces the competition of emerging enterprise such as Huawei and ZTE with low price and high quality.
4.0 STP strategy STP战略
The standard of market segmenting includes geographical factors, demographic factor, mental factor, and behavior factor. In this section, it will use demographic factor and behavior factor to make segmenting (Hitt et al, 2012). First is business type segmenting which focuses on consumers with the age between 30 to 45 years old and have stable income to be able to afford high price Smartphone. The consumer in this segmenting market has high operating frequency of Smartphone, pays high attention to the brand and quality of Smartphone, and requires Smartphone could satisfy their demand of business function. Second is recreation type segmenting that focuses on students and young office worker who pursues fashion and attaches importance to recreation. This group mainly regards equitable price, fashion designing, and diversity function as important. The third is development type which focuses on relative worker of IT industry and this group has large exploring enthusiasm to Smartphone to develop the potential of Smartphone.
It could treat young people who pursue fashion as the main target market in Brazil. In generally, young people have high demands to the function and designing of communication product, for example, multimedia application and network browse. Iphone has fashion designing and touch screen and has integrated download software of iPod player and those has huge attraction to young consumers. In addition, businessman also is the subordinate target market of iPhone in Brazil. Besides those, iPhone with the high price as the high end product focuses on the group with insensitive of price.
For the positioning, iPhone positions it as fashion communication product cohesion with high technology and price.
5.0 Marketing mix—4Ps 营销mix-4ps
For the product, product is the core of brand equity and includes strong and powerful brand association which influences the purchasing decision of consumers. Good product could help enterprise builds frontal brand image (Hitt et al, 2012). Apple Inc will still insist providing different product to consumer. Iphone 6 has ground-breaking appearance and adopts 4.7 inch screen. The A8 processor achieves large performance improvement. It will use the new appearance and innovative product performance to attract consumers. In addition, App store also will develop more application to satisfy the demand of consumer better and the vertical integration and close operation strategy bring about the strict product quality controlling to guarantee the high quality of product. #p#分页标题#e#
For the price, Apple Inc pricings its product in high level through effective evaluation about the premium that target group is willing to pay based on the considering of unique fashion designing of Apple Inc. Price discrimination could be adopted. Price discrimination strategy is to formulate different price of the same product focuses on different customer and different market. It could adopt the price discrimination based on product that each kinds of iphone has different price to suit different consumer group to improve sales volume. Apple Inc could formulate unique price considering the local consumer level and acceptable level.
For the place, Apple Ince could adopt multiple channel marketing strategy that it could establish App store and online store, and it could cooperate with operator and third party retail store. In Brazil, there are 60 percent Smartphone sales through the third party retail store and website. This means Apple Inc could build direct cooperation relation with retail store.
For the promotion, hunger marketing strategy also could be adopted. Hunger marketing is to create false impression of demand exceeds supply through reduce production intentionally to maintain high price and interest rate. For advertising, Apple Inc could choose both traditional advertisement method and digital marketing advertisement (Showing in Figure 2). Apple Inc could adopt differentiation advertising strategy to adopt different media focuses on different segmenting and uses different advertising content to touch different consumers, for example, standing out the fashion and innovation characteristic of the product to attract young consumer and standing out the function of product to attract business type consumers. Digital marketing could be the main part of Apple Inc as the main target market group—young people who pursue fashion are the main audiences of digital marketing.
Figure 2: Advertisement of Apple Inc
In conclusion, the report has made a marketing plan for Apple Inc in Brazil market. It has analyzed the external and internal environment of Apple Inc in Branzil. The STP strategy and marketing mix were provided in the report. Apple Inc has good external environment in Brazil and with strong competitiveness in many aspects that other competitors do not have such as the innovation ability and brand reputation. However, it also has high barriers in some aspects such as low efficiency of project management and production manufacturing and it has to face intensive competition from other competitors. Apple Inc has to formulate correct and appropriate marketing strategy based on considering the situation of Brazil Smartphone market to improve sales volume and market share in Brazil Smartphone market.
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