这个调查从根本上是基于这种情况，每天生活在公立高中的学生的日常生活,这种情况下Liceo Diurno de指控学习英语口头交流的过程。
The Problem and Importance——这个问题和重要性
This investigation is fundamentally based on the situation that the students live every day in Public High School's students live everyday, such a case is Liceo Diurno de Esparza within the process of learning English for Oral Communication.
As part of Academic Education, learning English has become of primary importance in a globalized world. The creation and the advance of the massive mass media as well as the means of transportation have contributed for people to be able to communicate more quickly. However, despite the fast advancement of communications, an idiomatic barrier exists, and it is imposed among all the communities in the world and that impedes to communicate more efficiently.
The study of a foreign language was set in order to improve communication among different countries; those countries establish a universal language as an international way of communication. English is that language; it has become a worldwide language due to the great number of countries that use it as a native or foreign language. English has become mandatory in all public educational institutions in our nation.
In the same way, the introduction of transnational companies during the first years of XXI, has brought to the country not only the aperture of more and bigger companies, hence opportunities to Costa Ricans, but also the demand on English speakers in terms of quality and quantity.#p#分页标题#e#
In our country is very important that at least the basis of English are known in order to communicate in simple phrases, in our daily life routines, also because Costa Rica is a paradise for tourists and it demands a fullness in the way we manage this universal language as part of cultural and social diversity.
The intervention of the state in the design of English programs for the public sector was given a little late. According to Cordova, (1994), cited by Miranda (1997):
It was not unitl 1925, when the Costa Rican Government through the Department of Public Education decreed an internal regulation that permitted the teaching of foreign languages such as Latin, French, and English in "Casa de Estudio Santo Tomás". English programs were not a success because of the lack of materials and English Teachers; for that reason, the programs were given by people who spoke that language and they had materials brought from other countries (p.3).
That is to say, the Department of Education did not have as a priority the learning of foreign languages for the students. Despite the effort made by the Department, the quality of teaching was worse. English teaching continued being developed without qualified professionals, methodology, and material.
English teaching and learning changed significantly in 1991, when the National Advisor decided to give a new course to the programs. It was in that year when a specific curriculum for English learning was created in High Schools and it covered "Tercer Ciclo" and "Educación Diversificada" (Senior High). Those programs were based on students needs. As a result advisors established in 1994 a program called "Children of Costa Rica, in a modern and integrated world" and decided English should be a subject inside the curriculum of schools. (Cabrera, 2005 p.3)
Despite all the efforts, English had be taken as common subject inside the national test and covered only the written skill and it did not take into account the oral skills. Cabrera (2005) said that "...English had become a written test that included only reading comprehension, and the professors were limited only to teach how to read, but they excluded the other linguistic abilities." (p.1) After almost 70 years of English teaching in Costa Rica and multiple attempts to improve the English programs, it was only during the Government of José Maria Figueres Olsen in 1996, when they really began to evaluate the quality of the programs, and it was determined that students from public schools needed to be orally proficient in English.
Some years later, the Department of Public Education presented the first program of Conversational English for public schools which is part of the technological Education. The program of Conversational English covered listening and conversational skills to give students the capacity to use any given situation.
Since the year 2001, the Conversational English Program has been implemented in the Public High Schools of Costa Rica that want to enter Conversational English as an optional subject in Technical Education. The Advisors of Technical Education are conscious of the responsibility that the High Schools represent in terms of English learning and the quality of the graduated students for they will face the dynamics of the business sector. Thus our current students should respond to the demands of the world in a near future.#p#分页标题#e#
Yet, and during the last six years, the Department of Education has tried to change English Curriculum to give more emphasis on the oral and listening skills in the quality of English teaching and learning. Despite all the efforts, it is pitiful to know that after five or six years of English lessons, with three weekly lessons in the "Tercer Ciclo" (seventh, eighth and ninth grades), five weekly lessons in the "Ciclo Diversificado" (10th and 11th grades) and the development of a Conversational English Program with six weekly lessons, our graduates are still incapable of speaking English fluently. (Al Día, 2005).
Badilla (2003), in his study "A proposal of improvement of the applicability of the conversational English program of Public Education" expresses that:
'The Costa Rican curriculum has suffered changes to be adapted to globalization and the programs should be analyzed to guarantee their quality"(p.lO).
Today, there are few existent studies related to the Conversational English Program and its applicability in different contexts. In the same way, it is important to mention that human beings suffer changes through life, and these changes possess some specific characteristics in the social and cultural aspects. In addition, all societies or communities present different characteristics from others. Those differences produce on any program the necessity of a contextualization because it is impossible to develop a program in the same way. All those aspects are very important to take into account in a program evaluation or study.
Due to the little existence of research about the social factors and a good teacher as a facilitator and the way the curriculum of the MEP is applied, the research is considered of importance to contribute with the needs of the students' learning.
The main focus in this investigation is placed in determination of the topic in theoretical and social frames, according to the Costa Rican context. The investigation is build, as a main source, which analyzes the main factors that have their influence on the learning process of English for oral communication, with a hypothetical supposing that there are many factors which are motivators and barriers for the process of learning English for oral communication. The research considers the individual social characteristics as factors for participation in the process as well. A special emphasis in the investigation is directed about the students' achievements toward the skills and capabilities which are required for successfully coping with the everyday job tasks and rapid changes in the students' environment and society. Research is also giving the answers about the Teachers' role and investment in the process of learning of the students.
All of the factors if treating in positive manner will give an impetus to the learning process of individuals while have a negative impact on learning process if acting in a negative manner. But for this investigation we are taking into account three specific elements only, social factors, role of the teacher and curriculum designed by the MEP.#p#分页标题#e#
The preceding situation justifies the importance of the present study.
Today's society demands more active and dynamic communication by the used of efficient ways focused on the learning of foreign languages in order to improved the universal the development not only in terms of economics but also culture and society. Therefore, in the last decade many countries have entered different programs for learning a second language.
English learning as a second language requires the developing of a very complex learning process. It has become a need above all in the Costa Rican context because English becomes a language that offers opportunities to find employment. This is one of the greater demands that require the Costa Rican young population.
It is important to emphasize that English is currently very important as an international language, and it is the main-reason to justify its teaching and learning to contribute to the student integral education. The student's deficiencies to speak English are the result of some aspects such as teaching methodologies, teacher's proficiency, short time for the development of the program, the program design, and the student's social factors.
There are many reasons and needs to learn a second language such as English; some of them are the bilingual personnel that the Job market, business and productive sectors demand. To cover those needs. Costa Rican government has established English teaching in private and public institutions.
The authorities of the Department of Education, different businesses and the press have expressed concern because of the poor English fluency that students of secondary schools have after graduating. Uma?a (2005), a journalist of "Al Día" newspaper, States: "English is increasingly necessary to opt for a position of work and it is a great worry in the country because people have very limited preparation to meet the demands of this language." (p.13)
Besides the imposed needs by the companies and Jobs, other factors exist which contribute to different personal development of individuals periods; above all, in the social, intellectual, emotional, and psychological aspects. It is important to emphasize that the purpose of the different English programs is not to teach a foreign tongue, it is to teach people to be able to communicate with it. (Cabrera, 2006).
In our country, Educational System has advanced by the introduction of the Conversational English Courses in High Schools, yet, there is a need for improving.
Learning a second language, in our case English, requires of a process followed by steps that influence drastically the development of the students academically. In the last years, and in an overall way, it is clearly perceived the evidence that the graduating students have suffered the consequences of a poor efficiency level of oral communication in English received during their years in High School.#p#分页标题#e#
Due to these effects, it is imperative to determine and analyze the relationship among the different factors that influence and provoke whether a positive or negative result in the students oral performance.
This case of study focuses on the investigation of the relationship among the main internal elements that influence the process the learning English for Oral communication according to the current profile proposed by the M.E.P. in the 11th graders.
Communication is many ways "transferring information" (Wikipedia.org). Our educational system places more emphasis in other areas of writing and reading. These two skills are important and part of a whole spectrum, however, there must by a greater emphasis and reinforcement on the listening as the input and oral communication as the output.
The students that represent the case of study, are teenagers who have being exposed through out all the years to the Educational System. These students carry 10 years of studying English, and still unable to communicate orally in an efficient way.
In addition to this, the profile proposed by the M.E.P. within the Communicative Framework attempts that all graduating students reach a certain level of oral communication which sufficient enough will give the future labour sector, the tools to find well remunerated jobs in a competitive world in which the use of a foreign language is mandatory as in the case of English. Yet, the intention of fulfilling the expectations need to be analyzed in order to find better methods and techniques in the process of learning English for oral communication.
There is not doubt that the accurate development of the process of learning English through the Conversational English arises as way of given students a new opportunity to develop oral skills that will result into a successful tool for the future. It becomes of primary importance that students fulfill a series of standards imposed by a continuous changing and demanding society in which having a backup of a second language represents a key for progress in all aspects.
While many discussions about learning a second language focus on teaching methodologies, little emphasis is given to the internal factors that influence the process such as the role of the teacher, students social factors, and the appropriate use of the curricula of the system.
Therefore, this research considers that the study of the internal elements that affect the learning process comes to contribute with the improvement of the pedagogical practice.
State the Problem——陈述问题
Based on the premonition that the process of learning oral communication is influenced by a series of factors, it is imperative to identify and determine the main questioning as follow:
Which Basic Internal Elements Influence the Process of Learning English in a Conversational Course for Oral Communication based on the Profile Proposed by the MEP in the 11th graders of the Liceo Diurno de Esparza in Puntarenas?#p#分页标题#e#
The basic internal elements in the process for learning English in a conversational course for oral communication to be considered the main influence for the 11th graders are:
The role of the teacher as a facilitator
The students as the social center of the class
The appropriate use of the communicative approach proposed by the MEP.
The effect of the internal factors in the English Conversational Class at the Liceo Diurno de Esparza.
Investigate how the role of the teacher as a facilitator, the students as the social center of the class and the appropriate use the communicative approach proposed by the MEP, influence the performance of the students during the process of learning English for oral communication.
Analyze the students as the social center of the class through the process of learning English for oral communication.
Demonstrate the role of the teacher as facilitator in the process of teaching specifically listening and speaking.
Relate the appropriate use of the communicate approach as part of students′ achievement of the profile proposed by the MEP.
Determine the internal factors effect on the 11th graders' oral performance in the English Conversational Class at the Liceo Diurno de Esparza.
Scope and Limitations——范围和限制
As the major scope of this study, there is the attempt of making a relationship between the internal elements that affect the process for oral communication in the 11th graders. The achievements of this research are:
This is centered on the Liceo Diurno de Esparza; therefore, its results to other high schools or institutions of the country cannot be generalized.
The expectation for this case of study is to find and prove the effect whether negatively or positively that the role of the teacher as facilitator, the student as a center of the class and the communicative approach working together will launch.
The main objective is to compile data that launches important facts about the main elements influencing the process of learning oral communication in the last year of Public High School.
The study may be of interest for all English teachers around the country as a diagnose about the importance of teaching a second language using the Curricula (CLT) imposed by the MEP and under the stipulations of the Public Ministry of Education as well as any
individual interested in having a view on the basic elements that influence the process of leaning oral communication.
In the same way, the study may be a starting point for investigation that in the attempt to look for further information may use this case as the based for their investigation.
Finally, in regards of the limitations that may be presented in the investigation are:#p#分页标题#e#
It is imperative to mention that the Communicative Language Teaching used by Public Education in Costa Rica involves all four skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) as a whole spectrum in an integrated way; however, this study focuses only in Oral communication, in other words, in the speaking including the listening skill as the input.
The little existence of investigations and studies that can serve of guide for the present investigation.
The little existence of theoretical sources about the social factors and its influence on learning English for oral communication.
The lack of confidence that the teacher and students can offer about the development of the program in its institutions.
The validity or truth of the answers that the students offer in the different instruments.
Role of the Teacher as a Facilitator within a humanist and constructivist point of view
Today, teachers have to face the incorporation of new principles taken from educational psychology, such as humanism and constructivism. New beliefs, values and assumptions of the teacher about teaching encouraged the emergence of the view of the teacher as a facilitator rather than a transmitter of knowledge (Brown, 2001, 1991; Cook, 2003, 1991; Grasha 1996; Richards & Lockhart 1994). According to Grasha (1996), a facilitator is a supporter, a guide, and feedback provider; a facilitator is a monitor and observer of students' progress and an aide while learners are building and appropriating their knowledge.
Grasha's (1996) description of a facilitator certainly reflects the influence of the humanistic view of education in which the learner is seen as a whole person, not just as a cognitive being whose thoughts, feelings and emotions should be considered by the teacher who makes learning meaningful and engaging (William & Burden, 1997). In fact, according to these authors, making learning meaningful and engaging requires a facilitator who can:
..create a sense of belonging, make the subject relevant to the learner, involve the whole person, encourage knowledge of self, minimize criticism, encourage creativity, develop knowledge of the process of learning, encourage self-initiation, allow for choice , and encourage self-evaluation. (p.38)
Furthermore, the description of Grasha (1996) of the facilitator also reflects the principles of constructivism which integrates two branches, the cognitive and social (Brown, 2007, p.12) on learners. Several authors (Mitchell &Myles, 1998; Williams & Burden, 1997) describe a constructivist teacher as a mediator who encourages students to discover principles by themselves, engages in collaborative dialog with their students to help them connect their prior knowledge with the new knowledge being acquired and presents information in a format appropriate to the learner's level of understanding.#p#分页标题#e#
The humanistic and constructivist influence on the teaching-learning process of second languages is clear. In fact, in order for Communicative Language Teaching to reach its objectives, it requires of a teacher who perform a wide range of roles. According to Gebhard (1996, p.55), "teaching is multifaceted, and much of the complexity involves how to assume roles that capitalize on our abilities in English while we at the same time take on roles that contribute to creating interaction in the classroom that is meaningful for both teachers and students," as promoted by constructivism. This explains why several authors agree that teachers perform different roles in the teaching-learning process according to the lesson stage (Harmer, 1991; Nunan &Lamb, 1996, Richards & Rodgers, 2001).
Consequently, the teacher will be a controller when the group must be attentive to the topic being discussed at the moment; an adviser (when the teacher corrects or gives feedback to the students); organizer (when the teacher gives instructions or keeps the students working so the lesson goes on smoothly); encourager (when the teacher needs to encourage students to participate); participant (when the teacher participates in the class activities and respects the ideas, thoughts, and opinions given by students); resource (when the teacher provides information and assists students); tutor (when he/she helps to clarify ideas); researcher (when he/she observes and does some research on the teaching-learning procedures in the classroom), and facilitator (when the teacher creates a pleasant atmosphere for language learning). At first, it might seem that these roles are not consistent with the description of the facilitator, it should be remembered that the facilitator would adapt its teaching to suit the learner's needs (Gebhard, 1996; Mitcherll& Myles, 1997).
On the other hand, the humanistic influence on today's teachers is further noticed in what Underhill (as cited in Arnorld, 1999) calls the holistic nature of facilitation. According to this author, every personal feature "feelings, attitudes, thoughts, physical, presence, movements, quality of attention, degree of openness and so on" (p132) of the instructor can influence the learning environment in which the learners are involved in every lesson. This holistic nature of facilitation also enhances the sensitiveness of teachers toward student's reactions to class activities.
In this sense, (O'Hara, 2003, as cite in Brown, 2007), focuses on the process of learning- teaching as a "transformative pedagogy". He states that the goal of education is the facilitation of change and learning, where the teacher lowers to the level of student.
Moreover, Rodgers (as cited in Brown, 2007) supports this idea by stating that the chance is established by the interpersonal relationships among facilitator and learners. According to this author, for the teacher to be facilitators, fist they must be real and genuine, discarding masks of superiority and omniscience; second have genuine trust, acceptance, and a prizing of the other person as a worthy, valuable individual and third need to communicate openly and empathetically with their students and vice versa.#p#分页标题#e#
Teachers are challenged in fulfilling the wide range of roles somehow to be balanced in order to create harmony, positive atmosphere and guidance for the students. Yet, in order to be facilitative teachers, Krishnamurty (2001) points out they have to be
enthusiastic participants in the classroom
..who facilitate personal growth in students, are unique, extraordinary, worthy of the dedication...It [Facilitation] requires a self assurance, a willingness to share self, to care, to begin a journey, then launch the student on a personal quest... when we find the teacher who is facilitator, we find a classroom where personal growth is flourishing. (p.1)
Satir (2001) says that the facilitator promotes effective listening, genuine understanding, respect, and teacher-students-students effective communication in the classroom.
Moreover, an effective facilitator makes as many inquiries as possible in order to detect the strengths and weaknesses of students. Grasha (1996) points out that a facilitator is an instructor who guides the students by asking questions, seeking alternatives, and pushing them to have independent criteria. For him, one of the main goals of a facilitator is to encourage the students' autonomy.
Authors such as (Harmer, 1991; Richards & Rodgers, 2001; Underhill, 1999) discuss different traits that an effective facilitator shares. They state that the facilitator keep a low profile so that students can come up with their own ideas about the learning situation. Teachers must not intervene when the students are having communicative activity but must always be ready to help students as necessary.
The facilitator does not only understand the subject matter and has the ability to use methods and techniques; the effective facilitator also studies and pays attention to the psychological environment and the learning processes in order to let students take responsibility for their own learning.
Importance of Students as the Center of the Social Factor——学生为中心的社会因素的重要性
As part of a society, community, school community and consequently of a classroom, the student has an active performance. It is at the core of every day class, thus, of the teaching-learning process.
For many years, traditional education has viewed teacher as authority figures Oxford (1990.p10), thus, the center of the class. In these classrooms, the students are objects rather than the subjects. In our country, it is very likely to occur that students have magisterial class even thought our educational system is based on the Communicative Language Approach since many years ago already and consequently, on student-centered classroom.
The interaction and exchange of information in language learning of the students is affected by variant social factors. Indeed, students are part of this "social community" in which students are social beings that communicate in many different ways, are as well a social factor that influence the process of teaching-learning at the internal.#p#分页标题#e#
The responsibility for learning and progressing is characteristic of the students:
"Learners must individually discover and transform complex information if they are to make their own, [suggesting] a more active role for students in their own learning than is typical in many classroom" (Slavin, 2003, pp.257-258, as cited in Brow, 2007, p.12)
Students must control the way they manage themselves within the teaching-learning process, the teacher is just a guide and facilitator (Brown, 2007) who gives them the tools, but it is up to them what the results would be. The whole process focuses on the communicative competence of the students who are at the center of the classroom and the real protagonists.
Understanding Fundamental Principles on Learners
For understanding the role of students and their development within the process of language learning, Brown (2001.p.54), reflects three fundamental principles for understanding practices for the student to develop a communicative language process.
Brown demonstrates by three main principles, the conceptions to be considered:
According to Brown (2001.p.55) "cognitive" is related to mental and intellectual functions. In other words, it refers to what is inner the students' mind that influences their development within the teaching-learning process.
This principle relates to the learning of the language subconsciously, in other words, students exposed to language input that later have the opportunity to experience output, will learn the language "without" thinking about it, as in an automatic way.
In order for students to accomplish this principle it is important that they experience (Brown2001):
Subconscious absorption of language through meaningful use
Efficient and rapid movement away from a focus on the forms of language to a focus on the purposes, to which language is put,
Efficient and rapid movement away from a capacity-limited control a few bits and pieces to a relatively unlimited automatic mode of processing language forms, and
Resistance to the temptation to analyze language forms
Yet, the principle of automaticity is stated as follow:
"Efficient second language learning involves a timely movement of the control of a few language forms into the automatic processing of a relatively unlimited number of language forms. Overanalyzing language, thinking too much about its forms, and consciously lingering on rules of language all tent to impede this graduation to automaticity." (Brown, 2001 p.56)
In order for students to built automaticity more efficiently, students should use language in authentic contexts for meaningful purposes. Moreover, students must be aimed at employing functional purposes (Brown, 2001) for gaining more language competence.#p#分页标题#e#
This principle is closely related to the principle of automaticity. Brown enhances the strength of meaningful learning opposed to rote learning- taking isolated bits and pieces of information that are not connected with one's existing cognitive structures(Ausubel 1963, as cited in Brown,2001). On the other hand, meaningful learning (Brown, 2001) incorporates new information into existing structures and memory systems.
The fact that students associate sounds, words, structures and discourse elements with what is relevant and important in their every day life use for knowledge or survival is more likely to (Brown, 2001) lead toward better long-term retention.
Then, this principle emphasis on students to:
Capitalize on the power of meaningful leaning by appealing to students' interests, academic goals and career goals.
When a new topic or concept is introduced, attempt to anchor it in students' existing knowledge and background to associate with something already known, also referred as schemata activation
On the other hand, students should avoid rote learning:
Too much grammar explanation, abstract principles and theories, drilling and memorization.
Activities whose purposes are not clear
Activities that do not contribute to the accomplish of the goals of the lesson, unit or course
Mechanical techniques, instead, the use of language and meanings.
The Anticipation Reward——期待回报
Skinner (as cited in Brown, 2001p 58) states that:
Human beings are universally driven to act, or "behave" by the anticipation of some sort of reward -tangible or intangible, short term or long term-that will ensue as result of behaviour.
It is understood that people are somehow inspired and moved by a goal or purpose and according to this author; the anticipation of reward is the most powerful factor in directing one's behaviour.
Within the classroom application and more specifically with the students, it is important that they receive for example rewards for having a good performance that indicate their success. At the same, Brown (2001) agrees that it helps students to see... that what students are doing has relevance to their long- term goals in learning English.
Yet, it has to be clear stated that this practices must be regulated in order not to create (Brown,2001) dependence over the rewards...to look only over rewards and the development of own internal...system of rewards by the students' side.
Instead, students have to be aimed to receive according to Brown's constructive classroom implications:
An optimal degree of immediate verbal praise and encouragement.
Reward each other [students] with compliments and supportive action
Short-tem reminders of progress
[Obtain] enthusiasm and excitement... in the classroom.#p#分页标题#e#
Get [students] to see the long-tem rewards in learning English.
Brown once wrote:
"If all learners were intrinsically motivated to perform all classroom tasks, we might not even need teachers."
This statement certainly summarizes one of the most important features that students must carry, the internal motives that drive them to succeeding in learning English. However, and very essential, is the combination of this necessity to classroom tasks that (Brown, 2001) feed into those intrinsic drives. When the learners perform a task that is fun, interesting, appealing, challenging, there is (Brown, 2001) much greater chance for success if they are self-rewarding in the perception of the learner.
Once again, Brown summarizes intrinsic motivation as:
The most powerful reward...those that are intrinsically motivated within the learner. Because the behavior stems from needs, wants, or desires within oneself, the behavior itself is self-rewarding; therefore, no externally administered reward is necessary.
This principle is in the aim at focusing on the role of the learners to finding their own success. It contemplates two major pedagogical implications:
The importance of recognizing and dealing with the wide variety of styles and strategies that learners successfully bring to the learning process and therefore
The need for attention to each separate individual in the classroom.
Students have to look for the "methods" to employ in order to internalize and perform the language. However, the use of techniques and strategies to be used by the students for sending and receiving language may vary significantly from another's.
Brown (2001) has stated that students need as much individual attention (as possible). Nevertheless, there may be cases when the quantity of students in large classroom may cause lack to time for them to get attention from the teacher; therefore, students need to be provided with essential techniques for accomplishing the goals and also more face-to-face communicative activities.
This principle focuses on regards of students (Brown, 2001p.61) emotional involvement which includes feelings about self, about relationships in a community of learners, and about the emotional ties between language and culture. These principles derived from the affective filter hypothesis that states that a mental block, caused by affective factors...that prevents input from reaching the language acquisition device (Krashen,1985)
Summarized in a well-recognized claim:
As human beings learn to use a second language, they also develop a new mode of thinking, feeling, and acting-a second identity. The new "language ego," intertwined with the second language, can easily create within the learner a sense of fragility, a defensiveness, and a rising of inhibitions. (Brown, 2001,p.62)#p#分页标题#e#
As human beings, students have many facets within the English learning classroom. When students are exposed to a second language emerges a new "personality" or as Browns' (2001) "second self" in which they have to face emotional, sometimes embarrassing situations that affect their "ego"; therefore, they need to be treated with affective care, patience, and supportive attitude by the teacher.
For Rojas (2010), language ego may represent the failure for English learning if not carry out appropriately in the classroom. Their mistakes are necessary and normal, but they need to feel accepted, understood as new learners of English.
Described (Brown, 2001) as:
[the] learners' ability that they indeed are fully capable of accomplishing a task is at least partially a factor in their eventual success in attaining the task.
In every student's belief of its ability to accomplish a goal relays the importance of self-assessment despite the degree of the language ego it may be having. What moves the students is that internal force and determination for taking over the fears and fragility. However, students need to hear Brown (2001p.63) a teacher affirm[ing] a belief in the students' ability. It is important for students to receive this type of encourage and reward in order to maximize their degree of confidence within the classroom performances.
This process, Rojas (2010) says may take more time for some students than for others. There is a great spectrum of personalities that must be known by the teacher, and yet the teacher must transmit to the students that confidentiality they need to cope with every day class.
This principle is interrelated with language ego and self-confidence. Risk-taking represents what drives students to attempt to use language productively and receptively (Brown, 2001, p63). Students have to struggle first with the introduction of a new language, thus, a "second personality". Once they recognize their vulnerability toward the new language, they recognize their capability to accomplish their tasks, then they feel ready to take the necessary risks for accomplishing language use.
Brown (2001) asserts that students do not receive the necessary encourage for risk-taking; instead, they receive encourage for correctness, right answers which may (Rojas,2010) cause fears on making mistakes and minimize students' participation. Encouraging risk- taking Brown (2001) reflects as to increase long-term retention and intrinsic motivation. Indeed, this author states that:
Successful language learners, in their realistic appraisal of themselves as vulnerable beings yet capable of accomplishing tasks, must be willing to become "gamblers" in the game of language, to attempt to produce and to interpret language that is a bit beyond their absolute certainty.#p#分页标题#e#
Yet, there are certain rules for understanding what students need to use risk-taking and reflected within the classroom:
Students need an atmosphere that encourages them to try out language.
[students] need challenges in the techniques, not to easy not too hard.
Receive positive affirmation for praising them for trying.
This principle focuses on the complex interconnection between language and culture in which culture Brown (2001, p 64) asserts is a complex system of customs, values, and ways of thinking, feeling and acting. This conception is supported by Acuna (2009) who stated that students need to see in the classroom cultural contexts for them to be fully involved within the second language.
Indeed, there are implications of culture that students need to live and understand when learning the second language:
There are cross-cultural differences; however, no culture is better than another.
Experience the connection between language and culture through different techniques and materials.
There are cultural connotations especially sociolinguistic aspects that students need to be taught.
In order to accomplish the students' production, the affective filters described as emotional barriers to teach (Parrish, 2004) must be lower for students not feel affected by emotional factors by learners being engaged and relaxed, supported in different levels and given a natural setting for their optimum development.
This category of principle focuses on the use of language itself and how the learners deal with the complexity of the linguistic systems.
The native language effect——母语效应
This principle reflects the importance of native language interference on the process of learning for students. There is not doubt that native language, in this case, Spanish has an effect when students attempt to communicate because students usually believe that the target language behaves like the native language.
Brown (2001, p66) stresses the importance of the native system in the linguistic attempts of the second language learner:
The native language of learners exerts a strong influence on the acquisition of the target language system. While that native system will exercise both facilitating and interfering effects on the production and comprehension of the new language, the interfering effects are likely to be most salient.
Most of the time students' errors based on their native language system are salient and evident. They need appropriate feedback to focus in the interference in order to minimize future errors.
Closely related to the native language effect, interlanguage deals with the middle point between the first language and second language in which the students struggle for making correct utterances in the process of learning English. The progress of students depend Brown (2001) asserts on the correct feedback on the linguistic output by providing positive affective feedback and at the same time cognitive feedback about whether or not the actual language is clear and ambiguous (Brown, 2001,p.166) is crucial to the developmental process. Through the process of learning English, students need to by given with in an appropriated corrective model for errors and mistakes which the teacher as a facilitator must use and negotiate with the students in the class. However, it overcorrection should be avoided (Brown, 2001) What is important to understand is that any type of feedback is constructive, for it allows the student to better understand his o her own level, and where he or she is need of improvement. Establishing effective support is crucial to the class Brown (2001) declares.#p#分页标题#e#
This is the most important linguistic principle of learning and teaching Brown (2001) states:
Given that communicative competence is the goal of a language classroom, instruction needs to point toward all its components: organizational, pragmatic, strategic, and psychomotor. Communicative goals are best achieved by giving due attention to language use and no just usage, to fluency and not just accuracy, to authentic language and contexts, and to students' eventual need to apply classroom learning to previously unrehearsed contexts in the real world.
Origins of Communicative Language Teaching——交际语言教学的起源
There are different opinions about the origin of the Communicative Approach used today to teach English in many different parts of the world. Even though experts do not agree on the specific decade (Richards and Roberts, 1991 pg 64) when the approach became more popular, they agree on the reasons why its principles were accepted by the educators in such a rapid way. Tutor (1996 p.p 1-9) states that Communicative Language Teaching was born as a necessity to help students develop the capacity to use the language they were learning for communication purposes, both at a personal and professional level. According to this author, the instances were noticed during the 60′s based on two different circumstances which were related somehow. The fist of these circumstances showed the dissatisfaction towards Audiolingualism, the method used at that time for EFL teaching, which did not emphasize the process of communication and interaction among learners. The second circumstance was the need to develop more flexible courses which were focused on the real needs of the students.
Moreover, the American sociolinguistic D. Hymes, advocated in favor of CLT in the 70′s as opposing Chomsky's (Richards and Rodgers, 1991, pg 64) structural linguistic theory in which. D. Hymes proposed that knowing a language involves more than knowing a set of grammatical, lexical, and phonological rules (Hoa, p.3). Instead, to use the language effectively, learners need to develop communicative competence- the ability to use the language they are learning appropriately in a given social encounter. (Hoa, p.3)
Furthermore, Savignon (2001) suggests that Communicative Language Teaching emerged simultaneously in Europe and United States as a result of a variety of circumstances. In Europe there was an increase in the number of immigrants and workers which led to the development of a program for this kind of students based on the functional uses of language.
These courses emphasized the use of language in real situations in accordance to the needs of the students. At the same time, Savignon says, the term "communicative" was being used in the United States to refer to the ability of the foreign language students to interact with other speakers. In other words, talking about "communicative teaching" implied encouraging students to ask information, to ask for clarification and other linguistic and non linguistic resources necessary to negotiate the meaning of the message.#p#分页标题#e#
The Communicative Approach——交际法
The importance of English in the world today and the demand to teach learners a working command places the Communicative Approach (also referred to as Communicative Language Teaching) as the way Hoa (2005,p.3) states, to satisfy various communicative needs in the (students) lives.
According to White (1988), at the beginning, it was necessary to understand written English in order for people to be able to work in factories. These people acted like machines they were focused on what they were doing. Actually, they did not have the skill to communicate orally in English. Little by little those who hired these employees realized that it was important for their workers to hold oral conversations in order to accomplish jobs in a satisfactory way. Thus the need for understanding and producing oral English as did different methodologies to teach this language. Today that English is the world most widely studied foreign language (Richards and Rogers, 1991 pg 1), the CLT has become the most common method used for teaching around the world. In Costa Rica it is included in our Public Educational System as in the case of the conversational courses of the MEP (Costa Rican Public Educational Ministry) in which
..the oral aspect of the language is the object of study. The other three basic linguistic abilities: listening and reading comprehension, and written production are also important but most of classroom time should be devoted to the development of the speaking skill (MEP, 2001, p. 17)
Principles of Communicative Approach——交际法的原则
The process of teaching-learning a second language based on the Communicative Approach, takes the conception of language as communication and the objective of teaching. As Canale and Swain (1980, as cited in Brown, 2007 p.219) state, the communicative competence comprises not only grammatical competence (knowledge of lexical items and of rules of morphology, syntax, sentence grammar, semantics and phonology), but also sociolinguistic competence ( rules of language use, role relationships, communicative purpose of interaction), discourse competence( capacity to understand a message and relate it to a context), strategic competence(use of strategies for successful communication) (Hoa, p. 4).
In addition to this conception, Hymes ( as cited in Brown, 2007, p219)) referred to Communicative Competence as that aspect of our competence that enable us to convey and interpret messages and to negotiate meanings interpersonally within specific contexts as opposed to Chomsky who has the notion that competence was too limited and an intrapersonal construction( Brown, 2007). Savignon supports Hymes' conception by (1983, p9, as cited in Brown, 2007), noticing that "communicative competence is relative, not absolute, and depends on the cooperation of all the participants involved."
This Approach looks to integrate the "real life" themes, concepts, functions, situations, and intentions following a natural learning process always looking for the development of communicative competence. This previous assertion is clearly reflected in the principles of the communicative approach (Richards & Rodgers, 2001 pg 161):#p#分页标题#e#
Language is a system for the expression of meaning
The primary function of language is interaction and communication
The language structure reflects its functional and communicative uses.
The primary units of language are not merely grammatical and structural characteristics, but functional communicative meaning categories.
Furthermore, Finocchiaro and Brumfit (1983) declared within the main features of CLT (Richards and Rodgers, 1991 pp. 67-68) that:
Meaning is paramount
Contextualization is basic premise.
Language learning is learning to communicate.
The target linguistic system will be learned best through the process of struggling to communicate.
Communicative competence is the desired goal
Language is created by the individual often through trial and error.
Fluency and acceptable language is the primary goal: accuracy is judge not in the abstract but in context.
Intrinsic motivation will spring form an interest in what is being communicated by the language
Objectives of CLT
The following are the most important levels of objectives to be applied in any teaching situation within a Communicative Approach:
An integrative and content level: language as a means of expression.
A linguistic and instrumental level: language as a semiotic system and object of learning
An effective level of interpersonal relationships and conduct: language as a means of expressing values and judgments about oneself and others.
A level of individual learning needs: remedial learning based on error analysis.
A general educational level of extra-linguistic goals: language learning within the school curriculum.
Learner Role within the Communicative Language Approach
The emphasis in a Communicative Language Teaching on the process of communication
lead to different roles for learners.
Breen and Candlin describe it:
"..the role of the learner as negotiator - between the self, the learning process and the object of learning- emerges from and interacts with the role of joint negotiator within
the group and within the classroom procedures and activities which the group undertakes. The implication for the learner is that he should contribute as much as he gains, and thereby learn in an interdependent way". (Richards & Rodgers, 1991 pp.77)
The student is the center of the teaching-learning process; therefore, it depends on the students′ availability for acquiring the knowledge in a meaningful way by means of interaction and communication with other classmates and teacher.
The students interact with their classmates by means of activities, strategies and techniques as well. The process of teaching-learning is not unilateral (students-professor) but among the students and between students and teacher.
Teacher Role within a Communicative Approach——老师的角色在一个交际的方法#p#分页标题#e#
The professor is a key and important part of the puzzle in any of the learning levels of a second language. Within the Communicative Language Approach, the professor is a guide for driving the process, interacting with the students and looking for students to participate and find their own independence. The teacher carries out the lesson, looks for student to deduce, analyze, interpret and ultimately internalize the information.
It is important that a teacher employ words for students to be able to understand and produce having an exchange of ideas that reflect the acquisition of knowledge. Moreover, the teacher must manage to create an environment in harmony for students not to lose their interests. The teacher follows a series of different roles within the Communicative Language Approach in order to encourage students to communicate, thus motivate them for learning.
Bree and Candlin (1980) describe teacher roles in the following terms:
"The teacher has two main roles: the first role is to facilitate the communication process between all participants in the classroom, and between these participants and the various activities and texts. The second role is to act as an independent participant within the learning-teaching group. The latter role is closely related to the objectives of the first role and arises from it. These roles imply a set of secondary roles for the teacher; an organizer of resources and as a resource himself, second as a guide within the classroom procedures and activities... A third role for the teacher is that of researcher and learner, with much to contribute in terms of appropriate knowledge and abilities, actual and observed experience of the nature of learning and organizational capacities."
As stated before, the teacher plays important tasks within the approach. The teacher must help students to develop self confident in order for them to communicate and promote activities to get involve with each other.
The teacher assumes the responsibility for determining and responding to learner language needs (Richards and Rodger, 1991, pp78). This activity can take place in an informal way and personally through conversations where the teacher can analyze perspective of the students.
In the same way, the teacher is counselor (Richards and Rodger, 1991, pp78). The teacher can give the students any type of advice regarding language needs and strengths in order for them to improve and communicate effectively.
It is also the responsibility of the teacher to look for classroom organization and activities to maximize the process of communication of the students. It must take into account different strategies, techniques, age and interests of the students as group and individually.
Student and Teacher relationship within the Communicative Approach——学生和教师在交际方式的关系
According to Galloway (1993), the quality of the relationship between student and teacher is fundamental in the learning of a second language. The teacher must consider and respect the opinions of the students just as much as the students should show this same respect to their teacher. To create the most ideal situation, in compliance with the communicative approach, the teacher should assume the role of the facilitator and the students of the central agent. Thus, the student generates the universal concepts and the teacher institutes the correct environment for conversation to occur, and it is then the responsibility of the students to take advantage of such an opportunity to use an elaborate upon the subject at hand. Galloway (1993) refers to the role of the teacher and the student in a communicative language teaching:#p#分页标题#e#
"Teachers in communicative classrooms will find themselves talking less and listening more- becoming active facilitators of their students' learning. The teacher sets up the exercise, but because the students' performance is the goal, the teacher must step back and observe, sometimes acting as referee or monitor. A classroom during a communicative activity is far from quiet, however. The students do most of the speaking, and frequently the scene of a classroom during a communicative exercise is active, with the students leaving their seats to complete a task. Because of the increased responsibility to participate, students may find they gain confidence in using the target language in general. Students are more responsible managers of their own learning." (Galloway, 1993, p.3)
To perform this role effectively, the teachers must first have a general understanding of the individual interests and purposes of the students they are working with. For example, a group of rural students probably wouldn't have much to say about the city life or vice versa. The differences among students and what most interests or bores them must always be taken into account. The teacher's role is to detect the stronger interests of the students and to help to foster their confidence in the subjects.
The teacher must make the students aware of what they are doing and why they are doing it. If they understand the basic advantages to a communicative class, their effort and willingness to respond will be greater. The benefits of a communicative class
environment are enormous, but what actually enriches the students most is the ability to get communicative competence. Savignon (1983) believes that
"Communicative competence is a dynamic rather tan a static concept. It depends on the negotiation of meaning between two or more persons who share to some degree the same symbolic system. In this sense, then, communicative competence can be said to be an interpersonal rather tan an intrapersonal trait." (Savignon, 1983, p.8)
The challenge, then, is to create the appropriate balance between the teacher with each of the students and the teacher with the whole class. In our environment thought it is commonly not find these treats despite the basis teachers must have when studying to become educator.
Importance of an Ideal Teacher Profile——理想教师形象的重要性
Teacher must reflect and perform many roles within the process of teaching-learning. Yet, it is important that as a teacher, the role as an effective facilitator as Cantor (1992) describes:
"... an effective teacher must care about their subject, posses basic competence in their subject, want to share their knowledge, posses knowledge, knowledge of the learner, the subject and appropriate instructional techniques".
On teachers, a great responsibility lays in their backs as the guidance. When the teacher's goal is accomplished, the integrated learning process of the students is achieved as well. David Cross (2003, p41) states, that the quality of teaching has the greatest effect upon the quality of education. Yet, this goal is not easy, it seems difficult to reach, but not impossible. The preparation of language teacher demands more than instructional materials, supplies, administration, class size (Cross, 2003).#p#分页标题#e#
An ideal teacher profile is to be needed in order to accomplish the teaching-learning process focusing always on the learners' needs. Actually, Cross (2003) enumerates as the major areas to be considered by teacher's preparation to accomplish an effective role as facilitator as:
The general level of education
Teachers should be intellectually prepared and well educated people (Cross, 2003) before entering to education, teacher must carry a stipulated status (degree or diploma) attained in a school, college or university to guarantee the quality of education. Yet, the level of English in a teacher must fulfill the needs of the language in order to be taught effectively.
Moreover, a teacher must have an ability to plan and execute lessons, to use resources such as textbook selectively, produce necessary supplementary materials, and be aware of cognitive psychology of students and class management skills. These should be the main ingredients for competence that a teacher must follow.
And yet, the attitudes of the teacher toward the teaching-learning process influence over the development of the lesson are essentials. The teacher beliefs about education, their relationships with students, use of sense of humour, motivation and willingness within the classroom use in a positive atmosphere will meet the target (Cross 2003).
The Lesson planning for an effective facilitator——规划一个有效的主持人
In any classroom's development of the process of teaching-learning, it takes place a prior task which becomes an imperative tool for the teacher. The preparation of a lesson plan does not only include sequential steps, but a beyond goal, that is a main accomplishment. Molina (2008) points out the main objective of the teaching-learning process are to consider the fundamental capacities for the personal and social development of learners.
It is the learner the main source of information for the teacher to get oriented. Over the teacher falls the responsibility to create meaningful, complete, well-oriented guides for teaching effective communicative lessons.
In fact, Molina (2008, p32-33) exemplifies as the main principles for a teacher to consider when creating a lesson plan the following:
The learner is considered the builder of knowledge.
The teaching-learning process is organized according to the proficiency level of the learner.
The stimulus of the teaching-learning process is meaningful (schemata activation)
It (lesson plan) looks for the active participation of learner. (from constructivist perspective)
It must be considered the stages the learner goes through in process of critical thinking.
Teacher must focus of the learners' needs. The teacher must view the process of learning as continuous and progressive, in other words, for planning a class the teacher has to take into consideration that learners are dynamic individuals in constant evolution. Thus, the teacher must reflect that knowledge into the development of the class.#p#分页标题#e#
Yet, Cross (2003) supports this idea. He believes in the use of specific areas to be enhanced within a curricula outline. This is considered the starting point for any effective facilitator to develop the process of teaching-learning and to be latter reflected within the lesson plan in the classroom. The main components are exposed as:
Teacher is aimed to think of the creation of a lesson plan starting by introducing and practicing communicative structures in order for students to have meaningful experiences. It must always be aware of the use of the body language, and the conduction of activities such as role plays for students to practice the target language.
The teacher must develop original learning and teaching materials and the design of tests related to materials to evaluate pedagogy directing them to a desired outcome. Yet, it is necessary the management of skills by establishing and monitoring pair and group work, giving classroom commands, keeping records and student profiles, involving the whole class, timing a lesson, maintaining attention and discipline for keeping a close control of the evolution of the student's progress.
Moreover, it is imperative for the teacher to have a clear knowledge of the objectives, curriculum design, shape of balanced lesson types, principles of student evaluation as well as recognize systematic errors and obtain feedback from them, correction strategies in order for students to improve.
The theoretical components are taken parallel to the practical elements. This allows the identification of different teaching styles, learning strategies. In the same way, the teacher can check language development and the level of monitoring at different lesson stages.
The PPP Approach to Communicative Language Teaching——PPP的交际语言教学方法
According to Richard (2006), "PPP" (or the "3Ps") stands for Presentation, Practice and Production. This is a common approach to communicative language teaching that works through the progression of three sequential stages.
Presentation represents the introduction to a lesson, and necessarily requires the creation of a realistic (or realistic-feeling) "situation" requiring the target language to be learned, the activation of previous knowledge by the students is aimed "schemata" This can be achieved through using pictures, dialogs, imagination or actual "classroom situations". The teacher checks to see that the students understand the nature of the situation, then builds the "concept" underlying the language to be learned using small chunks of language that the students already know. Having understood the concept, students are then given the language "model" and engage in choral drills to learn statement, answer and question forms for the target language. This is a very teacher-orientated stage where error correction is important.#p#分页标题#e#
Practice usually begins with what is termed "mechanical practice" - open and closed pair work. Students gradually move into more "communicative practice" involving procedures like information gap activities, dialog creation and controlled role plays. Practice is seen as the frequency device to create familiarity and confidence with the new language, and a measuring stick for accuracy. The teacher still directs and corrects at this stage, but the classroom is beginning to become more learner-centered.
Production is seen as the culmination of the language learning process, whereby the learners have started to become independent users of the language rather than students of the language. The teacher's role here is to somehow facilitate a realistic situation or activity where the students instinctively feel the need to actively apply the language they have been practicing. The teacher does not correct or become involved unless students directly appeal to him/her to do so.
The PPP approach is relatively straight forward, and structured enough to be easily understood by both students and new or emerging teachers. It is a good place to start in terms of applying good communicative language teaching in the classroom.
Motivation in the Oral Communication Class——动机在口头交流类
For Brown (2007), motivation can be divided into two kinds: intrinsic and extrinsic. The intrinsic motivated behaviours are the ones all teacher should stimulate because they come within the students' inner. These behaviours are responsible for a meaningful and life long lasting learning. As opposed to extrinsic motivation that is fuelled by the anticipation of a reward from outside and beyond the self (Brown, 2007, p.76), intrinsic motivation Edward Deci (1975) defines
"Intrinsically motivated activities are ones for which there is no apparent reward except the activity itself. People seem to engage in the activities for their own sake and not because they lead to an extrinsic reward... Intrinsically motivated behaviors are aimed at bringing about certain internally rewarding consequences, namely, feelings of competence and self-determination."
Brown (2001) maintains that intrinsic motivation plays a strong role in the students' effective language learning process, even when this motivation is not the only responsible factor in high student self-esteem; it needs to be busted up so that learners find in an intrinsic oriented classroom the transformation to a more positive, affirming environment. Brown (2007) refers to this idea when he writes
"Intrinsic motivation is of course not the only determiner of success for a language learner. Sometimes, no matter ho much you want to accomplish something or how hard you try, you may not succeed for a host of other reasons. But if the learners in your classroom are given an opportunity to "do" language for their own personal reasons of achieving competence and autonomy, those learners will have a better chance of success than if they dependent on external rewards for their motivation."#p#分页标题#e#
Brown (2001) emphasizes the idea that the learning of communicating effectively in English can be done when the students interact with the environment through the use of meaningful language; it is for this reason that learners motivate themselves as they recognize the need to react in the second language. Whenever it is possible, the teacher should implement activities that help to create a real communication context. In order to check whether the techniques used in class are actually intrinsically motivating.
Importance of the use of strategies for creating a meaningful lesson——使用策略的重要性,为创建有意义的一课
According to D?rnyei (2001) an effective facilitator must have instructional clarity in order for the class to blossom. If a classroom lacks of interesting techniques and activities, students are more likely to lose interest and attention in the subject matter. The teacher must create and maintain motivated students and self motivated teacher.
Teacher must find methodological strategies for providing useful information, thus, improving understanding through clarity during the teaching-learning process.
This conception is supported by Wlodkowsky (as cited in D?rnyei, 2001, p.26) who offers an inventory of the components for keeping students and teacher motivated throughout an instructional clarity checklist.
[The teacher have to] explain things simply
Give explanations [students] understand
Teach at a pace that is not fast and not too slow.
Stay with topic until [students] understand.
Try to find out when [students] don't understand and then repeat things.
Teach things step-by-step.
Describe the work to be done and how to do it.
Ask if[ students] know what to do and how to do it.
Repeat things when [ students] don't understand
Explain something and then use an example to illustrate it.
Explain something ad then [students] can ask questions.
Prepare students for what will be next.
Give specific details when teaching or training
Repeat things that are hard to understand.
Use examples and explain them until [students] understand
Explain something and then stop so [students] can think about it.
Stress difficult points
Show examples of how to do course work and assignments.
Give enough time for practice
Ask questions to find out [students] understand
Go over difficult assignments until [student] understand how to do them.
Brown (2001) asserts that language techniques are designed to engage learners in the pragmatic, authentic, functional use of language for meaningful purposes.
In addition to these ideas, Nunan (1998) indicates the responsibility that the teacher takes for granted and the technique that the teacher acquires will be used as a mean to construct a caring and friendly environment, in which language and knowledge acquisition are significant to the student.#p#分页标题#e#
Also Pupillo argues that there are different facilitation strategies or techniques within the learning process that enhance its effectiveness. Some of these strategies indicate that the facilitator
Provides an appropriate atmosphere for the classroom experience.
Helps in setting the individual purposes as well as general objectives of the group.
Truly believes that the students are committed to the achievement of their own goals.
Provides students with as many resources as possible.
Shows interest in getting alone and share with the group without imposing its own ideas.
Acknowledges and accepts his/her own limitations.
Furthermore, Blum (as cited in Nunan & Lamb, 1996) states the following characteristics are part of a facilitator's lessons:
The class in planned in advance; however, it could experience changes according to the students' response.
The teacher expects an active participation on the part of the students in which effective communication is the rule.
Instructions are clear.
Students' progress is monitored closely.
When students do not understand, they are provided with examples based on real-life situations.
Class activities are simple and effective
There is good rapport between teachers and students and among students themselves.
And according to Lewis-Clark (2003), the facilitator should promote the use of learning strategies in a wide range of settings, using different teaching materials for different types of learners which suggest the inclusion of a variety of students' talents. Based on Gardner (1983) the Multiple Intelligent Model that promotes culture-free, classroom activities should be developed according to the eight different types of talents [on students]. Most of teacher cannot create eight learning centers to accommodate the diversity of talents; however, there should be intent to raise awareness about the learner diversity and interests to be included into the lesson plan.
An effective facilitator is to be ready and willing to create chances. The use of significant and variables activities can not only motivate the learner's interest, but more significantly the major goal, to create communicative competence.
The use of input and output within a second language e classroom
As a first language input, parents are to be the mentors for their children and yet, in a second language classroom; the teacher becomes the "parental" figure for the learners who must receive an effective input. This input Brown (2007) asserts, should foster meaningful communicative use of the language in appropriate contexts.
This conceptualization of input if executed correctly by the teacher (listening), will guarantee the comprehension of language (Brown, 2007, p.293) and latter students' internalization of information. An effective facilitator aims at providing communicative competence to its students.#p#分页标题#e#
Consequently, a productive input will result into a successful output (speaking) or production (Brown, 2007p. 293) created by the student even when Krashen in his Input Hypothesis (1986, as cite in Brown,2004 p.297) stipulates that success in a second language must be attribute to input alone. Many other authors (Swain, 2005, 2000, 1995, 1993; Swain &Lampkin, 1995) based on the Output Hypothesis opposed and offered convincing evidence that output is as significant as input. This conception is reinforced by de Bot (1996, as cited in Brown, 2007 p. 298), who argues that "output serves an important role in second language acquisition because it generates the highly specific input the cognitive system needs to build up a coherent set of knowledge."
Yet, it is clearly understood that the both input (listening and reading) and output (speaking and writing) are as Brown (2001, p. 293) states necessary processes, which are in varying degrees of complementary distribution in a second language learner's linguistic journey.
The importance of teaching listening and oral skills within the Communicative Language Approach
As the focus of this study, listening and oral communication are to be the essential for communication within the Communicative Language Approach based on communicative competence. When referring to two of the four skills in which CLT is based, listening and speaking are to be set of primary as the primary skills which are (Brown, 2001, p.267) closely intertwined. In addition, the MEP (2001, p. 18)asserts that speaking and listening are complementary to each other in the act of communication. For that reason, both should be practiced in close relation to each other.
Thus, it can be affirmed that listening skills carries the language input (MEP. 18) given by an effective facilitator and latter reflected into the output, in other words, meaningful language communication production given by the students' side.
Listening is one of the most important skills that have to be developed in early stages of language learning. Through listening, the students should be prepared to cope with understanding speech in different settings, becoming acquainted with speech containing false starts hesitations, understanding speakers who vary in tempo, speech, clarity of articulation and accent, non-native speakers of the language as well.
The teacher should encourage in the learners the development of the following strategies:
Thinking about the purpose of listening.
Thinking ahead about what learners already know and keep predicting what the speaker will say next.
Focus on what they do, understand and use to help them work out what they don't understand.
There are specific listening activities that should be included in the syllabus, such as:
Distinguishing between sounds, stress and intonation patterns.
Answering quick questions.
Understanding comprehension passages.#p#分页标题#e#
Listening to broadcasts.
Listening to lectures.
Teachers should expose the learner to a considerable amount of meaningful language input through listening to: conversations, descriptions, directions, discussions, drama, films, songs, sports, reports, advertisements and any other form of authentic spoken language.
Clustering: Break down speech into smaller group of words. Learn to listen to three or more words together.
Redundancy: Notice the rephrasing, repetitions, elaborations. Redundancy helps the hearer to process meaning by offering more time and extra information.
Reduce Forms: Correct use of contractions.
Performances Variables: Hesitations, false starts, pauses and corrections are common.
Colloquial Language: Idioms, slang, reduce forms.
Rate of Delivery: learners need to be able to comprehend language delivered at varying rates of speed
Stress, Rhythm and Intonation.
Principles for assessing listening (MEP, 2001, p. 19):
The language used should be delivered at normal speed.
The input should be delivered twice.
The language used should be as authentic a possible.
If using tapes, recordings should be of excellent quality.
Recording equipment has to be in excellent conditions.
The setting should be free of noise.
The development of the skills of speaking is (MEP, 2001, p.17) the ultimate goal for students of Conversational English, and consequently of learning English. It is also a "wish" of every Costa Rican; parent, politician and in our society. However, the development of the skill has to be carried out in conjunction with the development of the other skills. For that reason, both should be practiced in close relation to each other. Through speech, learners acquire the fundamentals of language pertinent to carry out specific interaction where they have to exercise the use of some functions, through the appropriate language structures, cultural appropriateness and acceptable language input. (Rojas, 2008)
To promote the development of this skill, it is necessary that students be aware of the following principles (MEP, p. 18):
Oral speech is acquired through listening and through constant practice.
Speech delivery, rhythm, intonation and pronunciation are learned by listening to appropriate language models (tapes, native speakers, teachers and other English speakers).
Learning to speak English means knowing what to talk about. Introducing knowledge of the world and up-to-date topics are essential.
Learning to speak English means saying the appropriate words for a situation at the right time for a specific purpose.
For the students to speak English it is essential that English is spoken in class and in any other situation when it is required.
Since learning to speak means speaking to others, interactive practice must be set up in pairs, groups and with teachers and visitors.#p#分页标题#e#
The language tasks designed must be authentic and the same ones that native speakers of the language use to communicate with others.
The integration of skills is vital when speaking. e.g. giving an oral explanation of information presented in a chart or diagram.
Principles for assessing speaking (MEP,2001, p.19):
To give the students more than one task to judge the students speaking ability.
To set only tasks and topics that the students should be able to cope with in their own language.
To create a pleasant atmosphere so that students will not feel threatened.
Teachers should avoid talking too much when interviewing students.
To encourage the students to speak.
Teachers should design different instruments such as rating scales and check-lists to recall student's performance.
Teaching conversation is linked to two major approaches that according to Brown (2001. p. 276) are indirect or direct. In the case of indirect conversation does not teach conversation. This means that students get engage into conversation without even noticing about the specific strategies or procedures because they focus on Brown (2001) using language to complete a task, rather than practicing language. On the other hand, the direct approach to conversation gets more involved with planning and using specific processes that Brown (2001) asserts involved in fluent conversation. In addition, this last approach uses conversational rules, conventions, and strategies.
Richards (1990, pp. 79-80, as cited in Brown, 2001, p. 277) offers a list of the main features to be focused which should be of significance for improving the process of learning Enlgish:
The use of conversation for both transactional and interactional purposes
To produce both short and long turns in conversation
The use of strategies for managing turn-taking, opening and closing conversation.
The initiation, respond and maintenance of a broad range of topics.
The use of casual, neutral and formal style.
The use of conversation in different social environments.
The strategies for repairing trouble spots such as breakdown and comprehension problems.
The maintenance of fluency in conversation avoiding excessive pauses, breakdowns and errors on pronunciation.
The use of conversational fillers and small talk.
The use of conversational routines.
Types of Learning Associated with the Communicative Language Learning
Within Communicative Language Teaching exists five main types of learning, exposed as follow:
Cooperative and Collaborative Learning
This concept goes right to the heart of communication itself, stressing the dual roles of "receiver" and "sender" in any communicative situation. Interaction creates the "negotiation between interlocutors" which in turn produces meaning (semantics). The concept of interactive learning, entails that there will be a lot of pair and group work in the classroom, as well as genuine language input from the "real world" for meaningful communication.#p#分页标题#e#
This kind of instruction involves the giving over of some "power" in the language learning process to the learners themselves. It also strives to allow for personal creativity and input from the students, as well as taking into account their learning needs and objectives.
Cooperative and Collaborative Learning——合作学习和探究式学习方式
Cooperative and collaborative and therefore not competitive usually involves the above learner characteristics. Research has shown an advantage for cooperative learning (as opposed to individual learning) on such factors as "promoting intrinsic motivation and heightening self-esteem, creating and caring relationships , and lowering anxiety and prejudice" (Oxford 1997:445). This type of learning stresses the "team" like nature of the classroom and emphasizes cooperation as opposed to competition. Students share information and help, and achieve their learning goals as a group. In collaborative learning the learner engages with more capable others (teachers, advanced peers,etc), who provide assistance and guidance. Collaborative learning models have been developed within social constructivist. (Brown, 2001)
This kind of learning joins language learning to content/subject matter and engages them both concurrently. Language is seen as a tool or medium for acquiring knowledge about other things, instantly proving its usefulness. An important factor in this kind of learning is that the content itself determines what language items need to be mastered, not the other way around. When students study math or science using English as the medium, they are more intrinsically motivated to learn more of the language.
This concept equates the idea of a "learning task" to a language learning technique in itself. This could be a problem solving activity or a project, but the task has a clear objective, appropriate content, a working/application procedure, and a set range of outcomes.
Role of Instructional Materials——教学材料的作用
Within the Communicative Language Approach, the type of materials used must allow the accomplishment of the main communicative objectives established in the study plan; therefore, the students have to communicate in those activities by using the language, promote interaction and exchange of ideas. This must accomplish under a propitious environment among the students.
Some activities within the class are focused on completing tasks by using the language. These activities should involve communication and development of critical thinking in the students, thus materials have a primary role in the promotion of language use.
According to Richards & Rodgers (1991,p. 79-80), there exist three types of materials used that should be part of any Communicative Language Teaching class and referred as text-based materials (textbooks designed to direct and support CLT), task-based materials (communication activities for meaningful purposes), realia (use of "authentic", "real life" materials in the class)#p#分页标题#e#
The uses of these materials are aimed at helping not only the teacher to design and develop the class, but also to provide students with tangible and useful tools through the teaching-learning process.
The use of textbooks designed and given by the Educational System should not represent the only source of information and guide for teachers, if to accomplish communicative competence in the class, there is no limit for looking extra material circumstances linked to the established book. Unfortunately, there are particular where economic situations limit the use of extra materials in our country. What in this case remains is (Rojas, 2010) to give the best possible use of it; even when the textbook does not seem to be the most complete source.
Yet, the employment of task-based materials should be the complement that (Richards & Rodgers) support the Communicative Language Classes. These may include games, role plays, and simulations for enhancing pair communication and student interaction.
These activities should always look for finding solutions for real life contents and not merely a pointless use.
In the same way, the usage of realia for supporting communicative exercises should be an allied to the creativity and improvement of those materials that the teacher can acquire easily and students as well. These might include language-based realia such as magazines, signs, advertisements, newspapers, maps, pictures, symbols and more.
Any imaginable source to be employed in the class that helps, facilitative, makes more interesting and fun the process of teaching-learning will represent a success and one more step for students to acquire communicative competence.
According to the following descriptive investigation different methods and techniques to develop the topic were used. Internal factors such as role of the teacher as a facilitator, importance of the students as the center of the social factor, the appropriate use of the communicative approach promoted by M.E.P., influence in students profile of 11th grade in general and in English specifically.
To gather the corresponding information it might be necessary to apply different instruments like: diagnostic tests, interviews, and questionnaires. In this sense, Sampiere reflects:
The data is obtained by observation, measurement and documentation of measurements. New instruments are generated based on literature review and approved and fit." (Hernández Sampierie, Roberto. Metodología de la investigación. Cuarta Edición. 2006. Pg 12 )
Making reference about the information sources, it will be based on specific knowledge of professionals based on printed documentation.
The perspective of the positivist paradigm where the proposed study addresses part from positivism and its main approaches that is because according to this paradigm is valid to assume that the researcher can access the object that will absolutely know and that, moreover, can do so through a specific method valid for all fields of experience. For the positivist paradigm the reality is unique, can be fragmented for analysis and the parties can be manipulated independently. In this paradigm is part of preselected theories which are extracted by a hypothetic-deductive, hypothesis to be contrasted with the investigation to confirm or disprove.#p#分页标题#e#
Furthermore it is assumed that within the same research process is free of values and that the researcher can assume a neutral position:
"Investigator personal Position - Neutral. The researcher "pushes aside" their own values and beliefs. The position of the researcher is "impartial", seeks to ensure rigorous procedures and "goals" for collecting and analyzing data, as well as prevent their biases and trends affecting the results." (Hernández Sampierie, Roberto. Metodología de la investigación. Cuarta Edición. 2006. Pg 12 )
On the subject-object relationship has to be in the positivist paradigm that assumes an independent relationship between the researcher and the object of knowledge.
It is framed within the positivist paradigm, in that it allows an approach to the perception of the 11th grade′s students, the acquisition of English to achieve better oral production.
The study falls within the quantitative approach, because it uses the collection and analysis of data, elements of the scientific method to answer the research questions and test hypothesis submitted to.
The quantitative approach relies on numerical measurement, counting and usually in the use of elements states to establish patterns of behavior of the population studied.
Fundamentally, the process grew out of an idea, which became the research question, which was derived from the hypothesis and its variables. Therefore, it develops a plan for trying, measured variables, establishing a statistical plan to analyze the variables and conclusions are drawn regarding the hypothesis mentioned above as Sampiere states:
"Is tested the hypothesis by using appropriate research designs. If the results support the hypothesis or are congruent with these, it provides evidence in favor" ( Hernández Sampierie, Roberto. Metodología de la investigación. Cuarta Edición. 2006. Pg 5 )
This study also complies with a quantitative focus to be deductive, as seen from the general to the particular as Hernández (2006, p.12) states in deductive logic is applied from the general to the particular (of the laws and theories of data)"
Type of Investigation——类型的调查
The present investigation is descriptive classified by nature, because it pretends to do more than simply collect data. One because it will seek to describe the factors that influence in the process of teaching English for oral communication in a particular region under very specific characteristics. A sample will be selected and analyzed, the results will be contrasted with the information shown on the 11th graders English profile.
Hernandez (2006,28) reflects that:
"Quantity investigation offers us the possibility to generalize the result in a more widely way, gives us more control over phenomenon, as well as a countable point of view and the magnitudes these carry . Also gives us the possibility to have copies and to have an approach on specific parts of these phenomenons, besides helping us gather all comparisons between similar studies."#p#分页标题#e#
In this research, is through the data collected that it is intended to propose alternative solutions or suggestions to solve the problem at hand. This study will be followed by quantitative research procedures which (Hernandez, 2006, 21) undertakes "scientific methods" and (p.26) consists on techniques that gather quantitative data - information dealing with numbers and anything that is measurable . Once information is gathered, this is interpreted by means of statistics.
From the questions it will be set a hypothesis and it will determine variables, will develop a plan for the research; variables will be measured in a given context, the measurements obtained will be analyzed(often used statistical methods), and introducing a series of conclusions regarding the hypothesis. ( Hernández Sampierie, Roberto. Metodología de la investigación. Cuarta Edición. 2006. Pg 23).
Therefore, in a descriptive study, no attempt is made to change behavior or condition; things are measured as they are.
Note that this descriptive study deeply examines one of the main elements of teaching English as a second language, which is the oral communication part. The purpose is to describe the situations that are presented to students during the process of second language acquisition for the purpose of analysis.
This will be measured or by evaluating various aspects, dimensions or components of the phenomenon to be investigated. Descriptive studies focus on measuring as accurately as possible where
The elements to investigate are specific and targeted since the beginning of a study. In addition, hypothesis are set in advance, this is it, before collecting and analyzing data. "( Hernández Sampierie, Roberto. Metodología de la investigación. Cuarta Edición. 2006. Pg 27)
Type of descriptive research was used because it is the one that best fits the type of research to be conducted and that meets most of the specifications required by this type of research and this will facilitate the development of the research project.
For Hernandez (2006, p.22), the research is a set of systematic, empirical processes that apply to the study of a phenomenon. Indeed, it is said that the type of research is descriptive, because it systematically seeks to explain the fact and the features that this occurs in a given time, taking into account the relationship of the four variables.
According to Creswell, John W, the quantitative approach "seeks to deduce cause and effect relationships to predict patterns of behavior." In addition to it, "the quantitative approach develops theory and uses it to explore the world." As stated before, the purpose of our investigation is to prove the hypothesis of whether or not the students are able to reach the profile proposed by MEP in oral communication influenced by different factors. Then, those basic factors were determined by being of major influence and importance in the everyday life of the students, and which will affect their performance not only in the inside but also on the outside of the classroom. The internal factor is determined by those conditions in which the students as the social center of the class are submerged into high school situations in the classroom. The instructional factor, referred as to the teacher role is determined by the management skills and behavior as a facilitator of the students. The communicative approach as part of students′ achievement will be used to measure the actual students' performance based on the desired profile that has been already established. (Creswell, John W. RESEARCH DESIGN Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches)#p#分页标题#e#
Subjects and Sources of Information
According to Hernandez (2006,236)
To select a sample, the first thing to do is to define the unit of analysis (individuals, organizations, situations, etc...) Questions like what or who will be answered within the collection of data that depends on the variables of the research and the scope of the study.
Subjects in the research process are the people who fit the investigations. The subjects of investigation are the 11th grade′s students, specifically the students who have registered or have chosen the technology "Coversational English" of the Liceo Diurno de Esparza, located in Esparza, Puntarenas.
Most students live in the community of Esparza. They count on integrated families and those who do not; live with their mom and brothers. Usually, mothers are the ones outstanding for the educational process of those students. It can also be said that they belong to a lower-middle socioeconomic class.
Some of the characteristics this method conveys are the following.
The development of instruments and methods for measurement
Experimental control and manipulation of internal elements
Collection of empirical data
Modeling and analysis of data
Evaluation of results
Location of the Community
Esparza Canton belongs to Puntarenas province, the second most important canton. Esparza depends on the ultimate limits, which are the current ones, between the Canyon River and the Jesus Maria River. Division was also present in 5 districts:
Holy Spirit 1
Social-economical Characteristics of the Community
The fundamental economic problem in Esparza is the fact that livestock farming has displaced. Paradoxically, it is a canton devoted to agriculture as a core activity. But the reality is that land is available for agriculture within 12 thousand hectares dedicated to cattle and only 600 hectares dedicated to agriculture. Thus, this highlights the socio-economic problem so great that it has in this sense, compounded with lack of jobs.
History of Esparza Community——指控埃社区的历史
In the territory that now corresponds to the canton of Esparza was an area inhabited by indigenous groups called Chorotega and Huetar. The first corresponded to the province of Orotina Guruti?a ruled by the cacique, one of five that were split the Chorotegas. The other, belonged to United Huetar the West which at the beginning of the conquest were the chief domains Garabito.
The discoverer of the region was Don Gil Gonzalez Davila, in the year 1522.When he made the first overland journey to our homeland, from southeastern to the Indian village of Avancarí (today Abangaritos canton of Puntarenas).
The region was the scene where he performed the first work of conquest and colonization by Don Pedro Ordonez de Villaquirán in 1554, with the reduction and establishment of the indigenous people called Los Chomes, giving rise to the conquest of this territory. Territorial political boundaries evolve from 1787 with the separation of Bagaces until 1848 that the City of the Holy Spirit becomes Esparza District No. 2 of Puntarenas, integrating a portion in the province of Alajuela.#p#分页标题#e#
In 1561 Don Juan de Cavallon authorized by the Audiencia of Guatemala to conquer the province of New Carthage and Costa Rica, founded the port of Landecho in Tivives Cove. Angociana Don Alonso de Gamboa, Acting Governor, moved the town of Aranjuez and in 1574 founded the first seat of the city of the Holy Spirit in the old Coyoche valley between the rivers and Jesus Maria Canyon, near the present village Artieda. In 1577 Governor Don Diego Chirino Artieda enabled the port of Caldera Landecho replacing.
Between 1622 and 1629 established the second and final seat of the city's Holy Spirit Esparza, about five miles northwest of its original place, which was sacked three times by pirates, (1685, 1686 and 1687), being burnt entire population in this latest incursion, except the church and monastery of San Lorenzo, so its inhabitants were forced to flee into refuge in The Canas and Bagaces. Esparza's territory stretched during the XVI and XVII from the Aguacate Mountains to the Rio Salto.
In 1821 he established a school of first letters to boys. In 1862 he opened a private school organized by Do?a Genoveva Gutierrez. In 1870 he was installed the first public school, run by Clotilde Fernández V. Mora, during the second administration of Don Jesús Jiménez Zamora. From 1870 to 1890 the school was mixed and occupied a building on the north side of the church, the school now bears the name of Don Arturo Torres Martinez No. 1 and No. 2. Esparza's Lyceum teachers began operations in 1965, the government of President Francisco Orlich Bolmarich.
In Act No. 63 of 4 November 1825, the town of Esparza was part of Ca?as district of the Western Department, one of two that was divided, at that time, the State's territory. In 1848, Esparza was the second canton in the province of Alajuela, by executive decree No. 8, the November 6, 1851 the canton was separated from the province of Alajuela and added to the jurisdiction of the district of Puntarenas.
In Law No. 59 of March 21st, was available to move the port of Puntarenas, Caldera, Don Braulio Carrillo Colina by decree of February 26th, 1940 Puntarenas rehabilitated port for trade in he State.
Some of the major events that took place are:
The first municipal government installed in 1877 and represented by Messrs. Felipe Herrera, Ignacio Perez, Marcelino Zuniga.
The first street lighting canfín was placed in 1877. The electric light bulb was installed in 1921 in the administration of Don Julio Acosta Garcia.
The pipe was opened in 1912 in the first government of Don Ricardo Jiménez Oreamuno.
On 17 December 1981 inaugurated the facilities of Caldera Port Complex.
On September 3, 1879, by Decree No. 93, it was renamed by Sparta. In Executive Order No. 3752-GC, 6 May 1974, restored the name of the canton second Esparza Puntarenas Province.
The origin of the name comes from the provincial governor Don Diego de Artieda Chirino, who in 1577 in memory of the town Esparza, located on the outskirts of Pamplona Spain, he came from, added to the name of the Town Holy Spirit's words Esparza.#p#分页标题#e#
History of Liceo Diurno de Esparza
For the neighbors of Esparza was a serious problem having their teenage move to the Liceo Diurno de Esparza which was the only option available for young people to explore. Those were different times and therefore, the parents were very concerned because they did not know how their teenagers came along through the circumstances of their home. Therefore, there were so many limitations that few young people having the less opportunity to excel and join the professional market. This was the reason why within the community the need for a community college had awakened.
Once the Figueres administration concludes, Mr. Mario Echandi Jimenez assumes the power. In his administration a group of leaders organized to manage the school. In the beginning, in June 1958 this group of people met with the Progressive Broad and took the first steps.
The group called Committee for the Esparza High School was composed by ten people among educators, supervisors and the principal of Arturo Torres Elementary School. Some members in his first term, requested an audience with the president Mario Echandi, but as the news of the attempt by esparzanos had spread like wildfire, the faculty of the Liceo José Martí opposed the creation of the school in Esparza grounding that they would lowered their fees and they will see the High School in difficulties. According to Msc. Quiróz (2004), the truth was that the president did not respond, but only through a delegate, and they were told the refusal for the reasons stated to open the high school. It should be noted here that the President Echandi was very involved in the community of Puntarenas. That visit took place in his home office on July 18th, 1958.
The Committee for the College was not intimidated, quite the contrary, they have scheduled a meeting with the Minister of Education of that time, the lawyer Joaquín Vargas Mendez.They made a visit to the minister, the refusal to satisfy the wishes of the Espartanos, was even a dispute between the Minister and Mrs. Maria Luisa Perez, who threatened to evict the Minister's office with the police.
However, not everything was lost. Fortunately for this canton, in the period 1958-1962, Arauz Rodrigo Bonilla was elected chairman for Puntarenas, who by family ties was very much linked to the family Perez Garcia. It was by this way, that new efforts included by Don Rodrigo, they achieved specific budget line to give financial support to the new school. Despite the creation of such institution, it could be created only if they win the approval of the Superior Council of Education, whose chairman was Minister Vargas Mendez. Despite that, the school did not open.
From 1952 to 1956 the country was governed by Don Francisco J. Orlich, who appoints as his Minister of Education at the Graduate Ismael Antonio Vargas Bonilla, with the emergence of the new government, the community also hoped this time the petition will be considered. By 1963 there was a new board formed, which starts the fight again in favor of the creation of Liceo Diurno de Esparza.#p#分页标题#e#
To motivate the community again, this group established a monthly newspaper called "El Espartano." Through this media, people began to manifest themselves and the Committee for the high school took on new urgency.
Frequent were the efforts of this group in Educational Planning Department of the Ministry of Education, but a contest generated opinions that were giving away about the high school. Many were those who felt that Esparza was to be a high school of Agriculture, others favored an Academic High School.
For the Academic high school, the Arturo Torres school were to lend the classrooms in the mornings and nights, even though initially it should work as an evening high school. They also had the permission of the Municipal of transferring the students to the properties where the train station operated.
Finally in June 1965 Minister Luis Vargas Bonilla gave the opportunity to them and give them a hearing. This interview was attended by Don Nicasio García, Nicolás Chinchilla, Don Edwin Vargas and Jorge Sanchez. Long was the discussion about the matter with the Minister, who at last manifested: but it was a difficult decision for the Ministry because it was very hard to create an Agriculture High school. Although there were people in the group who were interested in an Agriculture High School, there were to decide and accept the offer of the Minister who offered over an Academic High School only.
At that time there was much talk about building the school facility on the property of Don Nicolas Chinchilla. The people expressed the joy when finally Esparza received news of the approval of their high school.
Now it was necessary that other players assume the role in the assembly of the new school. Search for classrooms, ratification of land, erection of census registration and ratification of final table of teachers and administrative structure of the beginner institution. Later, a group of teachers headed by Mr. Edwin Vargas, took on command of these tasks.
At first, the High School worked in the classrooms of the Arturo Torres School, but had to find land for the construction of the physical plant. Two farms were visited: the Don Nicolas Chinchilla and another that was behind the property of Don Fernando Rivas. Due to the lack of money, they decided to locate it on the ground that had been provided by the former Progressive Board were today is located.
The committee of teachers did rolls, made pre-enrollment classes, and finally they did all the steps necessary to open the new high school. From their own pockets they invited Bachelor Ismael Antonio Vargas Bonilla; Minister of Education of the time which was sensitive to the aspirations of the people.
Vargas Bonilla Minister expressed his hope that the new schools were attended by primary teachers, arguing that these had the methodology and experience necessary for the tasks. Many of the teachers who had integrated the committee entertained false hopes.#p#分页标题#e#
Finally on February 1965 with a telegram, Professor Alvaro Perez Jimenez was appointed Director of the new institution to which concluded one of the most beautiful struggles waged by the people of Esparza for the good of their culture. Don Alvaro put together his team and with that special quality of guidance and forging a school teacher was proud of the community of Esparza and national prestige, because there is no doubt that the Liceo de Esparza has been a high quality school.
Any study or research is to reference a set of course units or elements. This set is called population. A population can be finite or infinite. According to Hernandez (2006) a population is the total or aggregate and units of study. The population of this research includes students enrolled in the Liceo Diurno de Esparza, 8th circuit, during the academic year of 2010. Currently the total population of the Liceo Diurno Esparza is 1480 students.
Sources of Information——信息来源
The word "source" means "A place from which data is taken" to originate from; to reveal the origin of something; to obtain from a particular supplier. In the field of scientific research, these refer to the document, work or element of information or data used to develop the research.
The source of information is essential for the researcher to make the conscious transformation of prior knowledge of which it starts. These sources allow you to establish contact with the scientific or philosophical experiences of members of contemporary societies and the intellectual legacy of past generations, all of this is gathered with the observation of things, all with the aim of acquiring knowledge.
The sources of information are also classified according to the correspondence with the data that is researched, so we would have primary and secondary sources. The first are those whose content is consistent with what we investigated, the main information provided to what we inquire, the secondary, however, offer only partial information, provide us with related data, but do not focus on what we investigate.
The bibliographies are a valuable tool for the researcher, and a guide for enrolling on the topic, as well as assess the originality of their work. This will result in a better contribution to their discipline. To conduct this research was used primary and secondary sources.
The primary sources, Alexis Chinchilla (2010.p.32) are first-hand data collected for research. For this purpose, we are to conduct classroom observations, it would be used checklists that evaluate the students′ oral production at different times of the process, and eventually apply to short tests to assess students' mastery over to the oral part implemented in the fieldwork.
Secondary sources are those who take and publish data, originally obtained by others. According to Chinchilla (2010:32) among the secondary sources can include books, anthologies, articles in various publications, thesis, etc. Within this study will provide the information required by the analysis of various texts that refer to the different methodologies available for the teaching and learning of English for oral communication, magazines with articles on the evolution of the second language acquisition , textbooks, books of private and public universities and anthologies that relate to the topic under our investigation#p#分页标题#e#
Yet, the sources of information for this investigation will be based on two main subjects, the sample of students selected at random from the entire population of 11th grades of the Liceo Diurno de Esparza and the professor in charge of teaching the conversational courses in the institution.
The first strata of this study will be a group of students selected at random. The group will be formed by 25% of the fifth grades on the English Conversational Courses in the Liceo Diurno de Esparza in Puntarenas. A total of 32 students, of which, 19 are female and 13 males. Their ages are located from 16 to 18. Some of registered out of the age established, some others have repeated some grade. The majority of students are native of the area, some of them travel some kilometers and lived in a surrounded community. All of them have been students at the Liceo Diurno de Esparza from their first year. The level of school abandon has arisen in the last three years (school internal information). However, an attempt to keep students inside the classroom has been taking place by means of different programs inside the school. Students proceed from different and variant social and economical backgrounds, dysfunctional families where single mom raise households and what is consider normal or standardized households.
The second strata of this study will be the professor Rommel Chávez Hernández who has been teaching over 4 years at the Liceo Diurno de Esparza and most recently at the conversational courses imparted to the last two grades of the high school.
According to Hernandez (2006), the sample is a subset of the population selected by any sampling method, on which are performed, observed and collected data. Based on the spatial delimitation, the population under study is specifically the students that registered for the English Conversation as a Technology course in the 2010 school year of Liceo Diurno de Esparza.
It is going to be used non-probability samples for the study group was not chosen at random, however, it was formed from the seventh year of high school and has shown some consistency in the subjects that make it up ever since. For this selection it will be taken into account as a starting point cooperation, availability and motivation for work, by the institution and the students selected.
Tools and Techniques for Gathering Information——收集信息的工具和技术
It will be used different instruments during the field work, in order to gather information necessary to satisfy the objectives and hypothesis.
For that purpose of this study, it will be used checklists that evaluate the students' oral production at different times of the process. According to Hernadez (2006) "The checklist is a double entry matrix in which rows are recorded on the concepts that I will observe and columns with ratings given for this observation" (Hernandez, 2006:)#p#分页标题#e#
The same will apply for the activities that ensure the display and the functional use of language by students. The activities, or employment is going to be observed continuously for the development of lessons using indicators that will be identified by the researchers, according to need and actual situation of the student context, but the characterization of this rubric is backed by observations made at different dates.
The next instrument in order to understand the different factors that affect the success of students, expressed in terms of cognitive principles, affective principles and linguistic principles, it will be analyzed by mean of questionnaires and interview, as well as with referred theory about those factors.
Data concerning this variable will be collected by means of written survey carried out to the professor and the sample selected for this research instrument. The surveys will be divided in two. One will be directed to the students and will be formed by fifth teen semi- open questions regarding themes of family, community, high school, affective filter, motivation. Students will have to choose one of the multiple answers classified as: always, usually, sometimes, rarely or never. Professor's survey will be based on themes regarding students' affective filter, motivation etc, viewed from the educator perspective. Both surveys will be included in annex 1.
Answered related to this instrument will reflect data according to four main rubrics: always, usually, sometimes, rarely or never. The information will be classified in proportion to the quantity of the selected choice. Then, it will be considered of majority, 75% of the total for each question made and so on for each of the fourth teen questions left. This procedure will apply to the professor's survey as well.
Another instrument that will be used will be the observation of both passive and participatory type, by the researcher to the students. This is to analyze the evolution of their oral speech and the correct application of the pronunciation. According to Hernandez "observation" can "see" more things that will be seen with the naked eye" (Hernandez, 2006)
For participant observation, it is important to note that it will be promoting the interaction between objects of study and research, so data collection will be allowed for more attachment to the reality of students.
During the fieldwork the checklists that are going to be used during the moments when observations are going to made passive, in which the researcher will act as an observer with analytical, without intervention on your part in the events being observed.
The observations are going to be made to students of 11th grade, during the English lessons, on a continuous basis in order to assess the process of acquisition during oral production activities.
It is going to be used for analysis the data collected with the checklists, which were technically sophisticated. Besides, after being observed, there will be a track of their progress of students during different stages of the process in an anecdotal record.
The registration information will be made throughout the period which according to Creswell ( 2003,p.155) it will be longitudinal the dated collected over time. Therefore, to be determined the number of observations to be performed, considering for this the lessons taught during the fieldwork period in order to be applied proportionately.
Finally, the application of two short tests to assess mastery of the oral part acquired by students during the field work. This work will function as measuring instruments for students to demonstrate the development of language ability, as well as their progress in achieving the goals proposed.
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