The gender pay gap is the difference between men’s and women’s pay, based on the average difference in gross hourly earnings of all employees. On average, women in the EU earn around 16 % less per hour than men .What is the effect of the gender pay gap over a lifetime? The impact of the gender pay gap means that women earn less over their lifetimes; this results in lower pensions and a risk of poverty in old age. In 2012, 21.7 % of women aged 65 and over were at risk of poverty, compared to 16.3 % of men. Using hourly pay as a basis for calculating the gender pay gap can also mask specific differences in pay that go unrecorded, for example, bonus payments, performance-related pay or seasonal payments.
图：gender pay gap
1.2 Gender equality in wages工资性别平等
Gender roles and traditions Gender roles and traditions shape women’s and men’s roles in society from a very early age. Traditions and gender roles may influence, for example, the choice of educational path taken by a young man or woman. These decisions are affected by traditional values and assumptions about working patterns. Research shows that women in senior positions in typically ‘feminine’ careers are paid substantially less than women working at the top in typically ‘masculine’ careers .Balancing work and family responsibilities Women work shorter hours and often part-time in order to combine their family responsibilities with paid work.
图：gender pay gap by job level
Opportunities for women to progress in their jobs and receive higher pay are also affected by their family responsibilities. The gender pay gap widens when women have children and when they work part-time. Women spend more time than men carrying out domestic and care work, and few men take parental leave or work part-time. While men work longer hours than women in the workplace, if women’s paid and unpaid working hours are combined they are significantly longer than men’s.
图：gender pay gap
1.3 Introduction and enforcement of laws
Gender equality plans in companies and audits to reduce the gender pay gap Gender equality plans and audits enable companies to measure their progress in implementing gender equality and equal pay. In some cases there is a legislative requirement to carry out the plans, while in others it is voluntary.
In Sweden, the 2009 Discrimination Act 17 requires employers and employees to endeavour to equalise and prevent differences in pay and other terms of employment between women and men who perform work which is to be regarded as equal or of equal value. They are also supposed to promote equal pay growth opportunities for women and men. Finally, the Act requires employers to carry out a pay survey every three years in order to detect, remedy, and prevent unjustified differences between women and men’s pay, terms and conditions of employment, and draw up an equal pay action plan (if employing 25 or more workers).
In Austria, the National Action Plan for Gender Equality in the Labour Marketincludes a compulsory requirement for companies to publish equal pay reports. Companies have to draw up staff income reports every two years. The reports must show the number of men and women classified under each category as well as the average or median income, adjusted for working time, for women and men in the respective category. The goal is to create income transparency and take measures to reduce gender pay gaps. The equal pay reports are compulsory for companies with more than 1 000 employees from 2011 for the year 2010, for companies with more than 500 employees since 2012, for companies with more than 250 employees in 2013 and with more than 150 employees in 2014.