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谋杀共同刑事责任|案例研究 Joint Criminal Liability for Murder|Case Study

时间:2018-05-24 09:05来源:www.ukthesis.org 作者:英国论文网 点击联系客服: 客服:Damien
This assignment will attempt to analyse lesser criminal liabilities leading up to stronger criminal liabilities for all parties involved in a possible conviction of murder by focussing on the major themes of contending and procuring, aiding and abetting, accessory liability, unlawful killing, grievous bodily harm (death resulting) and causation.
Joint Criminal Liability between Andy, Matthew & Jimmy
Are both Andy and Matthew equally principal offenders for the purpose of distinguishing criminal liability?
Criminal liability
A person who commits the acts which form whole or part of the actus reus of the crime is known as a ‘principal in the first degree”: Osland v R (1998) [1]
It can be derived from the facts that both Andy and Matthew were present at the scene to carry out a joint criminal enterprise: Tangye (1997) [2] as there was an express agreement: Tangye (1997) [3]made between the two to seize the managers of large supermarkets in their homes and force them to return to their supermarkets and open the safes. On the facts it cannot be established that derivative liability exists between the two or any failure to agree to such actions is present: Osland v R (1998) [4]rather an “acting in concert” which may create the effect of equally placing responsibility on each individual for the acts of the other: R v Lowery and King (No.2) (1972) [5]
Both Andy and Matthew may be charged with Conspiracy under S.321 to commit and offence does this extend to Jimmy?
Andy puts his plans to Mathew who agrees to take part in the robberies, for a percentage of the proceeds under S.321 of the crimes Act 1958 this agreement made between Andy and Matthew resulted in the involvement and commission of the offence hence may lead to a finding of guilt in conspiracy to commit that offence. Does this apply to Jimmy's level of involvement?
Actus Reus
Conspiracy has been defined as an agreement to do an unlawful act or a lawful act by unlawful means”:R V Jones (1832) [6] there is clearly no question of dispute that both Andy and Mathew decided that the best way of making quick money was to execute the agreed criminal act. To establish contravention of s.321 it may be inferred that Jimmy's conduct of providing a “safe house' intentionally perverted the course of Justice or intended to pervert the administration of public justice: James v. Robinson (1963) [7] hence making Jimi a complicit in the commission of a crime.(责任编辑:cinq)

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