对留学生而言，essay和report两大最常见的essay形式。在写作上，report主要是将自己的研究或调查以报告的形式展示，讲究是“以数据说话”，文中需要涉及相对多的数据分析与计算。Report写作内容要求通常包括title page, abstract,table of contents, introduction, discussion,conclusions, recommendations, bibliography 等八个部分，有的不包含封面设计和页码栏目仅是六个部分。很多留学生会觉得report写作非常困难，不知道如何下笔。下面是小编精选的优秀report范文，希望能对大家有所帮助。
范文1：The sale of shoes
The product that I chose is shoes. It is no doubt that shoes are one of the most common things in our life. How to introduce new shoe into market? There are several plan needs to complete before introduce the product.
It is necessary to establish a clear and appropriate target market in terms of demographic criteria, psychographic criteria and behavioral criteria. In order to clarify those criteria, create the mission statement is very essential. With the help of make a focused mission statement and integration of the laundry, then set up the framework and foundation of work product introduction.
Everyone needs to buy the shoes that the market for shoes is huge. Because of the different income, the consumer market is also different. According to separate gender and age, the requirement of the shoes is also different. Of course, the most important things are to maintain the quality of shoes. For women, it is necessary to design a beautiful packaging to posit the product into their world. And for men, they pay more attention on the brand and quality. After analysis the data about the consumer, the main age range of the customers for our shoes is focus between 16 - 30 years old. According to the survey, girl buy more shoes than boy and they are easier to attract by the beautiful things. For most of young girls, they have the ability to afford the payment.
In order to establish a clear and appropriate target market in terms of psychographic criteria, it is necessary to identify the mindset, personality traits, values, lifestyles, interests of the goal customer. One of the useful things is building built a certain position in the mind of people. As for the young girl, you need to set some tag about the shoes, such as the design, simplicity and beauty. In order to win the business, personalized design is very useful. It is useful to help the customer to establish the brand emotion. With the help of analysis of the target market, the insights will prove to be invaluable to develop the sales and marketing materials.#p#分页标题#e#
The human mind is irrational, because our perception is really easy to influence. It is very important for the company to make a commitment for their customer about the product. Make a certain commitment, then multiple psychological mechanisms are activated, so that the person will be even more committed than when it was a more reasonable commitment. It is useful to sales the shoes with some “free” strategies, such as buy one for two at beginning.
Even if the shoes that we provide has major advance in what the competitors offer, it is also needed to perform a careful analysis of the competitors. Then learn their location, price and sell their products, see their reaction and respond to market changes. In addition, you will have enough time to prove the advantage of your product, establishing meaningful ways to reward heavy users. Such as promotes the reward in the product or to launch new products in continuity. Based on the ideas and information, pay special attention to the new product to analyze its position is necessary. Consumer decides to buy the shoes depend on their benefits, it is necessary to identify the practical purpose of the shoes. Even if we clearly see that the shoes that we provide is different from what the competitors offer, it also needs to make the customer know it. Remember, many products are "losing" of the market. It is useful to provide a unique benefit of the shoes.
A creative team with complete detailed plan is essential in order to deliver the promised benefit.
There are two different series that focus on different girls. Such as Young Series and Elegant Series. For Elegant Series, people can ask the design group to design the shoes according to the clothe that they want to wear together.
Brand name is appropriate and creative
The band name needs to pay more attention in order to make sure it has a positive connotation in different languages. A perfect brand can help people establish the loyalty. Such as when you decide to buy a motion shoes, the first chose may be the Adidas or New Balance. Since the customer of my shoes is the young girl, the brand name need to easy member and love. Such as Venus. Since Venus is one of the Greek goddesses who represent love and beauty. Using Venus as brand name means the shoes can make the girl become beautiful and fell in love with Mr. Right.
There are two outlets can help us to introduce the shoes. One of the outlets is to sell the shoes on shop as normal. The other way is to sell the shoes through internet. With the help of online shopping and the social network. Most of the people who able to purchase the brand shoes are interested in the Internet. Based on Internet, the number of new marketing channels in the face of consumer level, and can excavate potential customers.
Promotion ideas are appropriate and creative
Promotion ideas can mobilize the buyer enthusiasm of people over a period of time, the interest and use hobbies of customer. Make customers understand the new product as soon as possible. It is also useful to motivate consumers to purchase for the first time, if people feel satisfy about the new product, they may repeatedly use or recommend it to friends.#p#分页标题#e#
Pricing ideas are appropriate
Prices usually are important factors that influence the success or failure of the deal. It is also uncertain factors in the marketing. Enterprise using pricing ideas to boost sales and profits. This requires enterprise considers both the cost compensation and accept ability of consumer about the price.
Consumer psychology has obvious difference between men and women. The market as a whole has a specific consumer group. Rational consumers often buy this product from affordable, quality assurance, after-sales service and so on into consideration to do decisions. Impulsive consumers tend to the choose and buy the products that are reduced by the product promotion.
范文2：Australian student self assessment
For this self-assessment, I looked at an analytical piece I wrote for psychology class last year. It was a report on Truman Capote’s book, In Cold Blood. The assignment was to read a piece of writing related to psychology and write about its importance in the field. My thesis was that the court condemned the wrong man to the death sentence by not evaluating the psychological analysis of Perry Smith (who I believe had paranoid schizophrenia, and was not in control of his own actions and should not have been prosecuted for decisions which were not his own).
Strengths: I think my thesis was okay and I was pretty good at using my resources. I had a lot of quotes which did most of my work for me in proving my point. I had some solid arguments and some not so solid ones. I probably could have expanded the good ones and gotten rid of the not so good ones.
Weaknesses: I definitely could have spruced up my analysis of my quotes and arguments. I tend have a hard time digging deeper into the text; I was more intent on proving the judgment of the jury through the quotes than analyzing them. I was a little rushed in the conclusion. I merely restated my thesis. I really should have gone a step further. It didn’t add to the paper.
Through this portfolio and the WR100 class, I wish to learn how to craft better arguments (more punchy intros?), improve my analysis, and most of all, write more efficiently (time-wise and word-wise. I often find that my essays have a lot of words strung together that mean nothing at all). I also think I need to work on my conclusions. I need to work on taking my thesis one step further.
Using Symbolism to Overcome the UnknownMetaphors are used every day to explain in known terms what is not understood. Illnesses are no exception, especially those that have eluded our knowledge of cures. In the age of scientific breakthroughs and belief that all can be cured and understood through science, cultural and symbolic healing are often discounted as fiction and subjected to criticism. Susan Sontag in her essay, “Illness as Metaphor”, expresses this perspective that healing should be exclusively physical, and that diseases should be viewed from a purely scientific standpoint.#p#分页标题#e#
Metaphoric representations of disease form stigmas and stereotypes against the disease and its patients. She claims that these associations are deleterious to the patient because they keep the patient from understanding the true conditions of his illness. However, I believe that in the right context, metaphoric thinking may actually help the patient. Disease instills in us, a fear— a fear of losing control, a fear of mortality, a fear of the unknown—that we can overcome through symbols and metaphors. Symbols allow us to seek our own understanding of a disease, and separate from the lifeless definitions set in textbooks. They help us to connect back with our life, and regain some control from the illness threatening our vitality.
范文3：Pop culture industry, how it works
Initially put up by Adorno, the notion ‘culture industry’ refers to ‘those institutions’ make and deliver cultural products by setting them as ‘commodities’ (Cited in Shuker 2001: 28). This essay, in the light of this, will take the documentary named Searching for the Sugar Man, directed by Malik Bendjelloul in 2012, as a main resource of the case study of the singerSixto Rodriguez. By taking a focus on the failure of his record sales in his native country (the U.S.A) and his unexpected success in South Africa, I will illustrate how contemporary popular music operates as a ‘culture industry’. And this huge contrast will then be stated as a reveal of the inner characters of ‘culture industry’, meeting the critiques level against contemporary popular music first asserted by Theodor W. Adorno(2006: 73). These features, listed in this essay, include the standardization of music products, passive listening of the consumers, and the function of popular music as social cement.
Culture industry, deemed by Adorno, as a field where essential possibilities were forbidden. This is, according to him, because it manipulates the degree of the products ‘ population in process of manufacture and delivery, thought the channel of mass media. (Laughey, 2007: 146).
Under this preset, the notion of ‘standardization’ put up by Adorno (Storey, 2003: 111) is hence understandable. It refers to ‘a concept used to characterize the formulaic products of capitalist-driven mass media and mass culture that appeal to the lowest common denominator in pursuit of maximum profit’ (Laughey2007:204).To make it clear, it means that in societies nowadays, the main aim of culture industry, presented in form of cultural products, is to extort the capital within its consumers, rather than to meet the real need of them. In a word, the destination f standardization of culture industry is to make the most money among consumers by dulling them, which makes the course of making profits far easier.#p#分页标题#e#
Bearing this in mind, below I will analyse the fundamental factors contribute to Rodriguez’s failure. America at that time (in the 1970s) was dominated by rock music, the outstanding characters of which are presented through its resistant lyrics and more importantly, its violent performance, for example, raving, crying, and sometimes even the destroying of instruments. In this light, it is therefore not hard to identify the reason why Sixto Rodriguez’ songs were not so popular at that time in his own country. Firstly, his songs are features as blues and soul, which was not consistent with the mainstream music genre at the time in his country. Moreover, as it is mentioned in the documentary (Searching for the Sugar Man), Rodriguez has the background of higher education in philosophy, which enables him to acquire a critical view and profound understanding of the world where he lives in. And these deep thoughts are shown in the lyrics he wrote in his songs. For example, in his song named Jane S. Piddy, he wrote: ‘now you sit there thinking feeling insecure. The mocking court gesture (jester) claims there is no proven cure. Go back to your chamber, your eyes upon the wall’.
By contrast, the majority of the mass was not as educated as him. Just as Adorno points out (2006: 73), these people were dulled by the capitalist society, hence were deprived their capability of thinking. The daily exploitation of the industrial work economically, in conjunction with the deceptions performed by the current government in a political aspect were both so well acknowledged and internalized among these people. Consequently, it is nature that they were not to be bothered to appreciate the brilliant reflections conveyed by Rodriguez’s songs and more of the truth, they could not understand or be triggered the resonance sharing his thinking. Whereas by contrast, those who were in South Africa, are comparatively more aware of the actual situation for the reason that the development of capitalization is not as advanced and completed as that in America at the time.
The dominance of capitalism in America at that time brings us to another reason explaining why his songs were not popular. According to Adorno (2006:75), music consumers in contemporary culture industry are shaped as passive listeners. To be clear, this means that those who buy music products do not want to be put into a situation where they have to make efforts to think critically, rather, they are seeking a way to escape the real world, which is full of boredom and repression. In this sense, rock music, prevailing in the 1970s in America, meets their demand better in comparison to Sixto Rodriguez’s music with genres of soul and blues. This is because, despite the fact that rock music also has rebellious lyrics as have Rodriguez’s music, rock music is distinguished since it provides listeners as way to physically release their anger (including raving, crying as mentioned above), which hence creates an illusory feeling of escaping from the undesirable actual world they live.#p#分页标题#e#
As Murdock and Golding (cited in Strinati 2004: 125) assert, cultural products inevitably function as an assistant of the ruling class. According to this, as one form of cultural products, music is therefore in the service of the government. As one of the interviewees expressed in the documentary, all the music surrounding at the time (1970s) corresponded with the political system. This expression of lives up to one of Adorno’s theories of culture industry well: for him, music functions as ‘social cement’ (2006:75). This means, specifically speaking of this case, this music was popular due to the reason that it survived from the censorship by the government, since it can maintain the harmony in contemporary society in America. Oppositely, what Rodriguez was trying to reveal in his music was deemed as undesirable by those in charge, and therefore was not promoted and might have been suppressed in a way. The emotions against the contemporary society he was trying to convey can be easily spotted by the lyrics: ‘crooked children, yellow chalk, writing on the concrete walk. Their King died. Drinking from a Judas cup’.In this sense, his music, driving away from the expected function as ‘social cement’, was not surprising too be banned in South Africa by the government there.
Apart from the factors analysed above, there is another reason accounting for his failure in attracting the consumers. This is the notion of ‘political economy’, asserted by Golding and Murdock (cited in Storey 2003: 112). As they stress, apart from constraining our view within cultural studies, we shall at the same time take the “variations in people’s responses to their overall location in the economic system’ into consideration.
Bearing this in mind, the analyses on the political economy factors will be displayed. While in South Africa, the political system at stake led to the result that, the need to fight for political rights exceeded that to seek for entertainment. Subsequently, even thoughRodriguez’s personal image is not so attractive that it can satisfy consumers by offering a chance to This is similar to the notion called ‘screen culture’（Mundy1999）, which emphasizes elements like singers’ appearance, rather than the pure music itself. Here, we can see the extra-musical elements affecting the consumption of music. Also, this phenomenon perfectly fit what Storey (2003: 115) states, ‘consumption is an active,creative and productive process, concerned with pleasure, identity and the production of meaning’. In South Africa, white people found a sense of belonging by listening to his songs, and were enlightened and encouraged to protest the suppression by the government, especially in terms of racial segregation, as stated in the documentary.
In conclusion, by pointing out the reasons beneath consumers’ response to Rodriguez’s music, respectively in his own country (America) and in South Africa,this essay has shown how contemporary popular music operates as a form of culture industry. Firstly.it inevitably entails standardization of the products and since Rodriguez’s music does not belong to the standardized rock genre then his failure is within expectation.Secondly, since the consumers are in general made to be passive listeners by culture industry, then they lose the capability to make their own choice. Lastly, the function of culture industry (in terms of politic) is exposed employing the notion of ‘political economy’ (Golding and Murdock cited in Storey 2003: 112). Meanwhile, it also reflects identity (class and ethnicity specifically in thi#p#分页标题#e#