Photography is an important part of film art. From three aspects of composition, color and light, this paper makes a systematic and in-depth discussion on the art of film photography. It has important reference value for the improvement of aesthetic taste and the grasp of aesthetic features of cinematography.
Photography is not only an important part of the film art, but also plays a decisive role in the film art. The artistic pursuit, artistic conception and artistic creation of the director, as well as the excellent performance of the actors, are embodied in all aspects of the art through photography. It can be said that without photography, there would be no film art. In a sense, it can even be said that the "shadow" of film is the art of photography. Therefore, to grasp the aesthetic features and artistic elements of film photography art has both important theoretical and practical value for the entire film art creation.
Specifically, the characteristics and key points of film photography mainly include the following three aspects.
It is well known that film art is the art of lens, or the art of picture, and the key point of lens and picture is composition.
The so-called "composition", originally an important language of painting art, refers to the layout and arrangement of various parts and factors of the object image to be displayed on the plane according to certain aesthetic principles and requirements of theme, theme and style, making it a complete artistic picture and image. In other words, composition is the structure of the picture. As the art of picture, the art of film pays equal attention to composition, but its composition is dynamic and changing. Composition plays an important role in movies. In his book "the elements of film", American film theorist boocker pointed out that "no director would treat composition carelessly. The composition of the whole film often depends on the film director's eye for composition. The composition of photography is the concrete embodiment of the director's composition. The main points of film photography composition are as follows:
The composition elements of the film are divided into three parts: subject, companion and environment. The companion is an object which forms a certain relationship with the subject and appears as the background of the subject. The environment is the scenery surrounding the main body and accompanying body, including the foreground and the background.#p#分页标题#e#
The category of composition is also called "scene", including panorama, distant view, middle view, close view, close-up, etc.
Photographic method of composition. Including photographic focal length, photographic methods, photographic Angle.
The composition of cinematography is divided into two styles: closed and open. Closed composition emphasizes the stylized design of the picture. The arrangement of the main body, accompanying body and environment is relatively rigorous, which achieves balanced, symmetrical and stable visual effect. The screen seems to be the frame of the painting in which all the artistic information is contained. For example, film master bergman's film composition has the art style of closed composition. And the open composition does not pay attention to the position management of the picture, the composition is relatively simple and natural.
Film picture composition is divided into two major schools: one is painting school, also known as "composition school", as the name implies, which refers to the composition principle of painting art and pursues the genre of picture modeling, integrity, visual sense and painting sense. For example, films such as yellow earth and black cannon event belong to the painting school composition. The other is the fantasy school, which emphasizes the authenticity, nature and life of the picture, and advocates capturing objects in motion and modeling in real shooting, with a distinct sense of scene witnessing. For example, films such as "the man who stole a bicycle", "no less than one", "autumn chrysanthemum in court" and so on, all belong to the documentary composition.
Color is one of the highlights of the film as well as an important artistic element of film photography. Marx once pointed out: "the sense of color is the most popular form of general beauty." In the film battleship potemkin, written and directed by eisenstein of the former Soviet union, red flags were added to the black-and-white film, becoming a striking artistic highlight and setting a precedent for color films. The appearance of color film makes color become an important art element of film and also an important art language of film photography. The main points of film photography color are as follows:
Colour fundamental key is the general tendency that shows colour in the picture and style, it is visual modelling, it is emotional atmosphere again, it is tonal, emotional appeal, have a kind of metaphor even, symbolic, tendentious connotation and implication. For example, the yellow tone in yellow land and the red tone in red sorghum all have profound and touching connotations and implications.
Color is often used as an integral part of the picture composition. For example, in the film little flower, its color tone is bright and warm, but the memory picture in it USES dark and cold tone, giving people the feeling of "old photo", forming a sharp contrast.#p#分页标题#e#
Light is also an important artistic element of cinematography.
The lighting of cinematography is varied. According to the light level, there are direct light, side light, top light, bottom light, etc. According to the light quality, there are concentrated light, astigmatism, soft light, hard light, etc. According to the light direction, there are front light, backlight, backlight, etc. According to the light adjustment, there are low - key light, high - key light; By photometric point, there are strong light, weak light, etc. There is some truth in the saying that "light is the sun of a film".