本文是会计专业的留学生Essay范例，题目是“Impact of International Accounting Standards on Accounting Quality（国际会计准则对会计质量的影响）”，对IFRS框架的考虑是财务报告质量特征的一个重要问题:有价值的财务报表的主观属性确定了数据类型，这些数据可能对客户根据其财务数据选择报告内容有用(eaid, 2016)。主观属性也适用于经济数据，主要原因是不同方式提供的财务数据。当财务数据是有效的并表达准确的结果时，它是有价值的(Barth et al.， 2006)。
商业信息的价值是基于有争议的假设，即它们是等价的、无争议的、有前途的和合理的。Valentincic等人(2017)将财务报告(FRQ)的质量描述为“在财务报告过程中引入历史数据(eaid, 2016)”。FRQ希望各组织主动扩大其报告信息的范围和性质，以便广告行业的成员能够充分了解情况，并在投机、贷款等方面做出明智的决定。Isidro等人(2019)指出，财务报告的质量表明“关键财务数据在多大程度上反映了主要货币状况”。Mnif Sellami Gafsi,(2019)指出,“数据的性质是高当客户机可以区分两者之间的相似点和不同点奇迹般的货币安排,”指IFRS的方式“教育提出了消除外部性,导致异(巴斯et al ., 2006)。”
Consideration of the IFRS framework is an essential issue in the quality characteristics of financial reporting: the subjective attributes of valuable financial statements identify the types of data that may be useful to customers in choosing report content based on their financial data (Ebaid, 2016). Subjective attributes also apply to economic data for the main reasons and to financial data provided in different ways. Financial data is valuable when it is valid and expresses accurate outcomes (Barth et al., 2006). The value of business information is discounted based on the disputed assumption that they are equivalent, undisputed, promising, and reasonable. Valentincic et al., (2017) describes the quality of financial reporting (FRQ) as "the introduction of historical data into the financial reporting process (Ebaid, 2016). The FRQ expects organizations to voluntarily expand the scope and nature of the information they report so that members of the advertising industry are fully informed and can make informed decisions about speculation, lending, etc. As noted by Isidro et al. (2019), the quality of financial reporting suggests "the extent to which critical financial data reflect primary monetary conditions. Mnif Sellami and Gafsi, (2019) noted that "the nature of the data is high when clients can distinguish the similarities and differences between the two miraculous monetary arrangements," referring to the way IFRS "proposes to eliminate the externalities in education that result from non-equivalence (Barth et al., 2006)."
As there has been a significant movement in international accounting around the world, it is increasingly important to demonstrate that IFRS is being used in accounting. Valentincic et al., (2017); Isidro et al., (2019); Barth et al., (2006). In particular, many related studies have been conducted on the conditions and results of the deliberate application of IFRS.
We hope to refer to these studies by applying subjective research methods to accounting. Our research will be based on approximately 30 articles, which will be distributed in journals in the ProQuest central database. This international database has been selected because it is considered "the largest total database of journals," and because we have had the opportunity to reach a large number of articles with broad and accessible content. To select the split articles, we scanned the words "IFRS" in the modified sections and "accounting quality" in all available j to get the full content. We then refine the pieces on the list to include only those articles distributed at meetings, academic, and exchange journals, written in English or French. We will review journals and articles and, as we aim to decompose the impact of the progress of national accounting standards relating to IFRS on the quality of financial reporting that link specific changes in IFRS to the quality of financial reporting. From the first point of departure, we can draw attention to more distant aspects of our research concerning the emotions associated with the choice of documents. In addition, we recognize the importance of examining the impact of IFRS on the quality of financial reporting in other audited databases. In any case, some of the popular articles may be considered relevant because of the far-reaching assumption that the Reference Protocol should be taken into account.
Purpose of the Study研究目的
A key objective of the IASB is "to use open contracts to create a visible, reasonable, and enforceable individual global contract that requires simple and comparable data across all financial statements."
Similarly, in addition to maintaining IFRS, they should also preserve the conceptual framework for financial reporting by 2010. (IFRS framework) adopted by the IASB as a hypothetical definition of various explicit accounting standards. "The IFRS framework expresses the objective of useful financial reporting (for major customers) by reinforcing certain subjective characteristics of useful financial data (Mnif Sellami and Gafsi, (2019).”
IFRSs that are credible to the IASB's long-term objective means that many high-quality accounting standards are applied most reliably and comprehensively possible by open organizations to ensure that they are satisfactory to global capital markets (Barth et al., 2006). Although there is no consensus on which are the major accounting standards, IFRS is considered world-class because they refer to some of the best accounting evidence in the world and implicitly represent more capital than many national accounting standards (Christensen et al., 2015). The prescriptive nature of IFRS (Ebaid, 2016) also encourages companies to present accounting data that better reflect the monetary content of the structure and, therefore, to move forward in terms of linearity (Ahmed et al., 2013). It is rightly stressed that the choice of IFRS goes hand in hand with high-quality accounting and that the study by Hribar et al. (2014) is an important document in this regard.
国际财务报告准则对IASB的长期目标是可信的，这意味着许多高质量的会计准则被开放组织最可靠、最全面地应用，以确保它们满足全球资本市场(Barth et al.， 2006)。虽然对于哪些是主要会计准则没有共识，但IFRS被认为是世界级的，因为它们引用了一些世界上最好的会计证据，而且隐含地比许多国家会计准则代表更多的资本(Christensen等人，2015)。IFRS的规定性(ebayd, 2016)也鼓励公司提供更好地反映结构货币性内容的会计数据，因此，在线性方面向前推进(Ahmed et al.， 2013)。有必要强调的是，IFRS的选择与高质量会计密切相关，而Hribar等人(2014)的研究在这方面是一个重要的文件。
H1: International Accounting Standards (IASs) play a vital role in assuring the quality of accounting results.
H2: The IASs are more reliable than the other accounting standards.
H3: IASs strengthen the accounting system of organizations.
Given that there are "different financial reporting needs of entities other than stock market speculators." (Chua et al., 2012), experts have developed different measures of accounting quality to meet the specific requirements of the valuable accounting data provided by various stakeholders. For the particular needs of individual banks and lenders, analysts have developed a solvency concept to assess whether the application of IFRS is gradually leading to the preparation of valuable financial statements. This recognition is characterized by "the overall ability of the accounting risk measures to explain the probability of default identified by the ratings of S&P's guarantors." (Ames, 2013; Ebaid, 2016). Even more correct is the manufacturer's attempt to determine whether the results are increasingly sensitive to the benefits, effects, and intrigues identified by the IFRS reporting requirements system. Following the mandatory adoption of IFRS, financial loans in the education sector should increasingly contribute to improving the soundness of accounting data. Following the improvement of accounting information as a result of the choice of IFRS, Iatridis (2010) discussed the impact of mandatory adoption of IFRS in the European Union on corporate liability costs. They explained the link between achieving IFRS compliance and the value of corporate liabilities affected by the risk of insufficient data on the organization. "This is because the data is excessive to ensure the credibility of the organization, and may have to be reliable (Chua et al., 2012).”
考虑到“除了股票市场投机者，其他实体有不同的财务报告需求”。(Chua et al.， 2012)，专家们开发了不同的会计质量衡量方法，以满足不同利益相关者提供的有价值的会计数据的具体要求。对于个别银行和贷款人的特殊需要，分析师已经发展了一个偿债能力的概念，以评估国际财务报告准则的应用是否逐渐导致编制有价值的财务报表。这一认识的特点是“会计风险措施的整体能力，以解释违约概率识别的标准普尔的评级担保人。”(艾姆斯,2013;Ebaid, 2016)。更正确的是，制造商试图确定结果是否对国际财务报告准则要求系统所确定的利益、影响和阴谋越来越敏感。在强制采用国际财务报告准则之后，教育部门的金融贷款应日益有助于改善会计数据的可靠性。在选择国际财务报告准则改善会计信息后，Iatridis(2010)讨论了欧盟强制采用国际财务报告准则对企业负债成本的影响。他们解释了实现国际财务报告准则的遵守和公司负债价值之间的联系，这些公司负债的价值受到组织数据不足风险的影响。“这是因为为了确保组织的可信度，数据过多，可能不得不可靠(Chua et al.， 2012)。”
Analysts provide evidence of the benefits of IFRS, but also analyze the critical points of this process, showing the impact of IFRS on profits, accounting estimates or issues other than financial statements. According to Abdul and Haniffa, (2019) and Ebaid, (2016), "it is essential to review the proposed financial statements, taking into account that while the application of IAS may lead to retrospective financial results, direct effect of the implementation of IAS is to change the financial statements. To achieve the expected benefits of the choice of IFRS, which have been found to ensure more significant similarity and simplicity of financial reporting, the application of IFRS should result in improved quality of accounting data.
International Standards and Accounting Quality
Since the IASs have developed extensively, which made full transformation of the IASB into the IASB in 2010. So the recognising the quality of a centralized agreement on IAS, the International Organisation of Securities Commissions proposed in 2000 that global data protection regulators allow donors to apply IAS to their cross-border contributions (Rathore, 2019; Ebaid, 2016). Since 2001, almost all organizations freely registered in Europe and many different countries are required to make financial arrangements under International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). Besides, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) has initiated extensive efforts to bridge the gap between IFRS and United States standards. One of the goals of the IASC and IASB is to create an excellent set of international accounting standards. To achieve this goal, the IASB and the International Narcotics Control Board have adopted standards-based standards and found ways to exclude viable accounting options and require accounting estimates that best reflect the financial position and financial performance of the association (Rathore, 2019).
Book values that better reflect a firm's fundamental economic problems, derived from accounting standards based on the required accounting standards or estimates, can improve the quality of accounting by providing speculators with data that help them make informed business decisions. These two sources of accounting quality improvement are linked because it is the employer who determines the extent to which the hidden financial aspects of the company are taken into account in its accounts. Mnif Sellami and Gafsi, (2019) as well as Ebaid, 2016 are thus structure a robust desire model that shows that accounting rules that limit innovative prudence bring accounting benefits that make the essential financial aspects of a partnership gradually smarter and, in this sense, more standardised. The quality of accounting could also be improved as a result of changes in the current financial reporting structure, with the introduction of IAS by companies, for example, through their gradual and full endorsement. We, therefore, assume that the accounting values resulting from the application of IAS are higher than those resulting from the use of national standards.
Adaptation of IFRS and Accounting Quality国际财务报告准则的适应性与会计质量
The full scope of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) 2006 for registered companies is unique. It currently analyses the impact of IFRS ownership on the quality of financial reporting. The characteristic accounting quality as quality and materiality of earnings and assume that these two elements will go beyond the application of IFRS (Ebaid, 2016). In some details, I do not believe that revenue quality will improve significantly once adopted. Also, I think the relevance of some parts of the financial statements will change after the selection.
Two studies have legitimately examined the impact of the necessary adoption of IFRS on the quality of accounting in Australia. For the first time, Ahmed et al. (2010) examined the effects of IFRS ownership in Australia on accounting records and its relevance, looking at initial implementation through IFRS commitments in the underlying annual IFRS records. Although the researcher concluded that the adoption of IFRS resulted in significant adjustments to accounting figures and ratios. They found that the cumulative results were substantial enough to make IFRS-compliant values meaningful in comparison to Australian GAAP and recommended not to improve the quality of financial reporting under the CRF (Valentincic et al., 2017; Barth et al., 2006). In a second study, which uses board income as an indicator of the quality of financial reporting, (Valentincic et al., 2017); (Păşcan, 2015); (Ames, 2013); (Chua et al., 2012); (Li, 2010); (Iatridis, 2010) examined whether companies treated their profits in a way that allowed them to maintain an even smaller strategic distance from IFRS failures. The study found that the FRC did not significantly improve the quality of financial reporting. While each of the two reviews assessed the quality of financial reporting from a different perspective, both investigations were subject to a similar limitation, namely the use of a single measure to examine the multidimensional concept of quality of financial reporting. Furthermore, both reviews covered only a short period after the introduction of IFRS in Australia and, therefore, may not have had sufficient energy to consider the impact of ownership.
Even if we assume that improvements in accounting quality accompany the application of IAS, there are at least two reasons why this is not justified. Firstly, IAS may be the most appropriate option. For example, if administrative prudence is limited by being associated with accounting decisions, it may be that a company can no longer provide increasingly intelligent accounting estimates of its financial situation and performance. Besides, the natural ability to adapt standards-based rules could give companies more significant opportunities to monitor their revenues, which would affect the quality of financial reporting. This adaptability has been a concern for security market managers for some time, especially in an international environment (Ahmed et al., 2013). Second, whether or not IAS are more stringent standards, the impact of real events on the structure of financial statements that do not comply with the rules themselves may lead to an improvement in the quality of financial statements as a result of IAS. (Chen et al., 2010)(Li, 2010)(Chua et al., 2012) and (Ames 2013) suggests that application may result in limited compliance with standards and then reduce their usefulness.
This study aims to examine the possible outcomes that will conclude the results of the hypothesis in this research. The collection of secondary information has a specific purpose based on the hypothesis of the research. One of the main reasons conducts the thematic analysis. According to Abdul and Haniffy (2019), most analysts agree that collecting information from secondary sources is more efficient than gathering data from primary sources, which will increase the relevancy of data. This type of research and results enhance accuracy and saves the researcher’s time. According to Abdul and Haniffy (2019), it is not difficult to establish criteria for gathering information from secondary sources, as opposed to primary sources. We are currently focusing on researching this issue, using the appropriate methodological approach to collect the relevant data. Also, moral considerations are taken into account when selecting the different studies published.
Data Collection Technique数据采集技术
It is also vital that the researcher selects the appropriate online sources to collect the data needed for the research. The study will collect secondary information from various published journals, which include the Journal of Applied Economics and Business Research, JSTOR, Google Scholar, Journal of accounting, and Journal of international accounting (Chua et al., 2012).
同样重要的是，研究人员选择合适的在线资源来收集研究所需的数据。该研究将从各种已发表的期刊中收集次要信息，包括《应用经济学与商业研究杂志》、《JSTOR》、《谷歌Scholar》、《Journal of accounting》和《Journal of international accounting》(Chua et al.， 2012)。
To evaluate various relevant publications on the impact of international accounting standards on accounting quality, this study will focus on the journals and articles to be published in 2010-2019. The themes used in the thematic analysis are "international accounting standards," "accounting results," "accounting quality," and "accounting standards." Another point to consider when collecting important information is that the journals and articles published. These themes will follow the outcome of the research hypothesis by which the results can be found, and the selection and rejection of the thesis can be concluded in a study.
Some studies analyze the accounting amounts involved and the economic impact of applying IAS and local standards in each country. The vast majority of these studies find striking contrasts. Păşcan (2015) and Ebaid (2016) conclude that different companies applying IAS show no difference in management performance compared to companies using other standards. Abdul and Haniffa (2019) and Barth et al., (2006) find no evidence of a reduction in the cost of capital for individual companies applying IAS. Abdul and Haniffa, (2019) also noted that the carrying values and dependent values of IAS, which are required for first-time adopters of IAS, do not differ in meaning.
一些研究分析了在每个国家应用国际会计准则和地方标准所涉及的会计金额和经济影响。这些研究中绝大多数发现了显著的对比。Păşcan(2015)和eaid(2016)得出结论，采用IAS的不同公司与采用其他标准的公司相比，在管理绩效上没有差异。Abdul and Haniffa(2019)和Barth et al.，(2006)发现没有证据表明个别公司应用IAS降低了资本成本。Abdul和Haniffa，(2019)还指出，对于首次采纳国际会计准则的人来说，国际会计准则的账面价值和依赖价值在意义上没有区别。
Interestingly, Ames (2013) showed and also verified by Chua et al. (2012) that the income of IAS subsidiaries is worth more than the income of IAS subsidiaries. Iatridis, (2010) and Hribar et al., (2014) examined the dependent amounts of IAS and Chinese standards. They concluded that the dependent values of IAS are not worth more than the dependent values of Chinese standards for companies that can be claimed by external financial experts. In any event, the investigation concludes that the IAS dependent amounts for companies to be claimed by local speculators are lower than those in the PRC. The explanation for the above cumulative results is that the companies preparing to introduce IAS should gradually amend their IAS-dependent amounts to approach the IAS-dependent values for the companies developing to introduce IAS. (Hribar et al., 2014) noted, for example, that there is little identification with hidden management benefits, which is surprising given that the existence of such benefits is a typical concern of managers when they apply different standards.
Another explanation is that the creation of savings lags behind the IAS framework. Iatridis (2010) noted that this was one of the main reasons for not thinking that IAS-based balance sheet totals are more important. A third explanation is that the feasibility of controls to motivate forces involved in the application of a particular set of accounting standards and the impact of the economic situation of the company vary . The fourth explanation is that studies use different means, obtain information to some extent from different periods, and apply various control factors. Our research differs from that of this country and analyses the paths that lead to it. First, our example includes companies in 21 countries. There are preferences and disadvantages in focusing on specific countries, rather than using models from many countries. Focusing on one country, for example, removes control over the potentially misleading effect of clearly arbitrary country elements in the financial reporting framework. However, it is difficult to extrapolate the assumptions of such studies to individual countries. Secondly, we use different measures that are reliably derived over a period of time. Thirdly, we developed experimental techniques, including the use of coordinated examples and multiple replications, to limit the impact on our assumptions of any element of the financial reporting structure, that is, the motivational forces and economic conditions.
In light of these studies, improving the quality of financial reporting based on high-quality accounting standards and improving equivalence are some of the benefits provided by the proponents of IFRS. In any case, the natural bias of the above review with respect to the informed application of IFRS led to a consideration of whether positive results can be added to the benefit of mandatory entities. Unlike traditional methods of informed use of IFRS, such as those of others (Hribar et al., 2014), more and more countries are following in the footsteps of their predecessors, such as Australia and the European Union, by making retention mandatory for companies in their countries. As a result, these companies are legally required to move to IFRS and have so far had little impact. (Iatridis, 2010) and (Chua et al., 2012) have met with lavish opposition to IAS by companies applying them. In particular, for the 279 companies that refer to the application of IAS in their annual accounts, is examining these accounting policies for consistency with the main IAS accounts.
Accounting standards and their frameworks are key elements that affect the quality of the financial statements. The results of detailed research on the effects of obtaining IFRS on the quality of financial reporting, as well as clear national factors and clear fixed variables, should be decoded. Research on the impact of the choice of IFRS on the quality of financial reporting is essential but not sufficient; the question is not whether IFRS improves the quality of financial reporting. Further research is needed on the results of improving the quality of data presented in financial statements.
The widespread use of IFRS around this time frame, which was endorsed in 2002 by the IAS Regulation, has opened the door to a number of observational studies examining different views on the deliberate or mandatory use of IFRS. In response to the proposed benefits of using IFRS, which were seen as more similar and straightforward in financial reporting, the application of IFRS should lead to improved accounting data. The main objective of our paper is to analyse the impact of the transition from national accounting standards to IFRS on the quality of financial reporting in Europe in order to design this operation. Our research presents the measures used by experts to assess the quality of financial reporting and describes the factors that determine the quality of financial information. All of the hypothesis are accepted as the findings support the accounting standard as a vital tool to maintain the quality of accounting results in an organisation. However the results are more reliable whenever the organisation follow IAS although it can be concluded that whenever organisation follow IAS the accounting system will be strengthen.
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