本文是工商管理专业的留学生Essay范例，题目是“Revenue Models for E-Commerce and Impact on the Supply Chain（电子商务的收入模式及其对供应链的影响）”，理解在线环境下商业运作的概念是本文的主要目的。电子商务是传统商业的演变，因为互联网和技术已经改变了商业运作的方式。就像任何其他商业形式一样，电子商务需要创建一个框架，通过使用收入模型和组织策略来支持其可持续性。这些因素有助于对在线业务的收入模式进行更深入的评估。收入模型作为一种策略，应该对供应链产生积极的影响。上述段落概括了本报告的主要目的。
The aspect of understanding the concept of business operations within the online environment serves as the main purpose of this paper. E-commerce is the evolution of traditional businesses since the internet and technology have changed the ways commerce operations take place. Just like any other business form, E-commerce needs to create a framework that supports its sustainability through the use of revenue models and organisational strategies. These factors facilitates a more in-depth evaluation of revenue models within an online business. A revenue model acts as a strategy that should impact a supply chain positively. The above paragraph sums up the primary purpose of this report.
Differences between Online Business and Traditional Business
Several differences exist in the relationship between online and traditional businesses. The first differences are on the overhead costs. Online businesses possess lower operational and start-up cost compared to traditional business models. It eliminates issues related to rent, employees, and utilities. Online business is convenient for customers than traditional business. The experience by online businesses to customers is greater than a traditional business. One of the common advantages of traditional business is that customers have the opportunity to establish a live shopping experience through traditional business than when using online businesses. When it comes to online business, it is hard to relate with a product when purchasing it until one acquires it physically. In addition, traditional businesses allow one to shop and feel the product by touching them during the purchase process. The above factor eliminates issues such as manipulation of customers, distorting quality, and online theft. However, online business has facilitated the development of a platform for potential customers and suppliers to benefit from a mutually agreed trade (Jahanshahi et al., 2011). The road towards the creation of a successful online business may be challenging if one does not obey the various principles associated with its development. Therefore, market research allows one to have an improved online business and grow it to the final status. Any investor with an urge to start an online business should comprehend guidelines and create a plan to build a successful business. The process of carrying out the transactions taken by E-Commerce creates a significant level of competition and benefits over traditional methods. Effective online business implementation influences faster transactions of business. They reduce the cost undertaken to maintain business operations. It additionally acts as a sustainable and convenient way of handling business than selling and buying services and products.
Operations of Online Business网上商务运营
Online business environment comprises many procedures and processes in the business industry. E-commerce serves as a term that means electronic business. As said above, it describes commercial transactions that involve information transfer using the internet. E-commerce comprises of a diverse range of businesses across the market. Electronic transactions have existed for many decades as Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) (Fang et al., 2014). Electronic Data change involves the establishment of dedicated data links between the suppliers and the customers. The transactions provide companies and suppliers with the opportunity to create multiple links. The businesses include retail sites, music auction sites, bond and stocks market sites, and service sites. E-commerce is the fastest growing type of business platform in the global world, due to the exponential growth of globalisation in the 21st century. Opening up of local businesses via the internet makes it possible for international business operations (movement of goods and services to and from countries).
网上商务环境包括许多程序和流程在商业行业。电子商务是指电子商务的一个术语。如上所述，它描述了使用互联网进行信息传递的商业交易。电子商务包括横跨市场的各种各样的业务。电子交易作为电子数据交换(Electronic Data Interchange, EDI)已经存在了几十年(Fang et al.， 2014)。电子数据变更涉及在供应商和客户之间建立专门的数据链接。这些交易为公司和供应商提供了建立多重联系的机会。这些企业包括零售网站、音乐拍卖网站、债券和股票市场网站以及服务网站。电子商务是全球增长最快的商业平台类型，由于全球化在21世纪的指数增长。通过互联网开放本地企业使国际商业运作(商品和服务进出各国)成为可能。
Furthermore, the above brings us to the point that E-commerce serves as a platform that allows the exchange of goods and services electronically. The platform allows the exchange of goods and services to take place without any barrier such as time and distance. The growth of electronic business has occurred rapidly in the last half a decade. The technology world still predicts the growth to double in the next coming decade. In the near future, electronic commerce will have blurred boundaries between electronic and conventional commerce (Maity & Dass, 2014). To elaborate more this means that businesses will leave their physical dimensions on to the internet. Most of the businesses will take place online. There are several types of E-commerce. The most common discussed type of E-commerce includes business to consumer (B2C) in which online business are connected to consumers. Another form includes business to business (B2B) where business engage in selling to other businesses. B2B business serves as a platform which connects thousands of businesses. It brings together customers and suppliers for mutual benefits of transacting their desired business operations. Last but not least, Consumer to consumer (C2C) is the use of platforms to help consumers to sell to other consumers (Laudon & Traver, 2016).
Online Business and Revenue Models在线业务和收入模式
Online business is very unique in their development and operations. To add more, it is up to the business owner to think of a possible way to impose efficient strategies and revenue models. Online business owners should know the needs and potential of their businesses to influence and increase financial growth. One of the models used in running an online business includes the product sales model. It involves the process of selling a product and people purchasing it online. It only takes the presentation of a physical product or service and presenting it to the customers through online business platforms (Hamilton & Webster, 2015). For instance, an example of that would be a website such as Alibaba (Alibaba.com) connecting suppliers and manufacturers to customers. It is the role of the suppliers and the manufacturers to add products using their websites and write a short description about the product features, delivery time, and ways to order. The customers that visit the website have different varieties of desired products and can make comparisons in terms of price and quality. The websites have images regarding millions of products. Customers acquire the opportunity to customize their profiles to meet their needs. A customer may only put five tabs in their profile as compared to another who may only want three. A customer may either pick to have notifications regarding new products if they subscribe to their supplier or manufacturer updates. The model enables suppliers and manufacturers to track their sales and know their potential revenues they can make from future sales through the money wallet embedded that connects them to their customers.
网上商务在其发展和运营上是非常独特的。更重要的是，企业主需要想出一种可行的方法来实施有效的策略和收入模式。在线企业主应该知道他们的业务的需求和潜力，以影响和增加财务增长。运营在线业务的一种模式包括产品销售模式。它包括销售产品和人们在线购买的过程。它只需要展示一个实体产品或服务，并通过在线商务平台将其呈现给客户(Hamilton & Webster, 2015)。例如，阿里巴巴(Alibaba.com)这样的网站将供应商和制造商与客户联系起来。供应商和制造商的角色是通过他们的网站添加产品，并写一个关于产品特性、交货时间和订购方式的简短描述。访问网站的客户有不同种类的想要的产品，可以在价格和质量方面进行比较。网站上有数百万产品的图片。客户有机会定制他们的个人资料，以满足他们的需求。一个客户可能只在其个人资料中放置五个标签，而另一个客户可能只需要三个标签。如果客户订阅了其供应商或制造商的更新，则可以选择有关于新产品的通知。这种模式使供应商和制造商能够跟踪他们的销售情况，并通过将他们与客户连接起来的嵌入式钱包了解他们未来的销售收入。
The second business model includes affiliate marketing. Affiliate marketing raises revenue through advertising products and selling through a site (Morganti et al., 2014). An online business may sell products of another company through their website. An example includes setting up an affiliate account and placing a direct link to a product on the Amazon website. The affiliation will make a person doing that to earn a percentage from the made sales. Many companies dealing with sales have a strategy that allows them to build huge customer basis by using affiliates from different countries. The affiliates are able to earn commissions that sustain their operations. Affiliated marketing may also involve selling products on behalf of a company. An affiliate acts as a middleman between a customer and a company. However, the company holds the power to acquire the largest percentage of product sales. An affiliate may quote own price but with a realistic status. Affiliate marketing involves the affiliate setting their own platforms and connecting them to the websites of the companies they represent. This enables them to communicate with customers and companies at the same time in terms of delivering the products to them.
Online advertising is among the most popular revenue models. It involves online business owners receiving requests from considerable companies to purchase space from them to market products and services. Companies may request website owners to design photos and written messages of products and services which are posted on the websites. Pay-per-view and pay-per-click serve as the two primary forms of online advertising. They determine the number of times advertisers will have to pay for their advertisements (Bryman & Bell, 2015). Companies may pay online business owners for the number of clicks made on a link by visitors. An online business with more traffic leads to more clicks. The above factor means that the business may have a high internet ranking to generate more revenue derived from advertisements. Online advertisement may also be involved using Google ads as a way to create more viewers. Online businesses earn from Google ads if they lead them to their websites.
在线广告是最受欢迎的收入模式之一。它涉及到在线企业主收到大量公司的请求，要求他们从他们那里购买空间来推销产品和服务。公司可能会要求网站所有者设计产品和服务的照片和书面信息，并将其发布在网站上。按点击率付费和按点击率付费是在线广告的两种主要形式。他们决定了广告客户将不得不为他们的广告支付的次数(Bryman & Bell, 2015)。公司可能会根据访问者对某个链接的点击次数向在线企业主支付费用。一个拥有更多流量的在线业务会带来更多的点击。上述因素意味着，企业可能有一个高的互联网排名，以产生更多的收入，从广告。在线广告也可以使用谷歌广告作为一种创造更多观众的方式。在线业务赚取谷歌广告，如果他们引导他们到他们的网站。
The last online business model may comprise of transaction fees model. In the business model, companies pay to access services. An example includes a business owner selling a product on e-Bay. The above situation sees such a business owner having a fixed price for posting the product for sale. If customers purchase a product from the site, a business owner may have to pay a small purchase fee. The main reason is that such a site as e-Bay undertakes marketing related activities for the products which need compensation.
Role of E-Commerce in Organisational Strategy电子商贸在组织策略中的角色
One of the most important challenges of being successful for an online business involves developing possible ways to compete with other E-commerce platforms worldwide. A common challenge in dealing with the other challenges includes the aspect of evaluating E-commerce from a technical perspective. Most online business owners forget that they need to look at their business from a marketing and strategic perspective. Online business creates many technical advantages than traditional businesses. The strategy involves establishing a clear business path for customers and suppliers to meet and engage in business transactions (Awa, Ojiabo, & Emecheta, 2015). Since online businesses lack face-to-face interactions, they need to run smoothly and daily. The above situation calls for the presentation of relevant information about products and services by suppliers to their customers.
要想在网上取得成功，最重要的挑战之一是开发与全球其他电子商务平台竞争的可能方法。在处理其他挑战时，一个常见的挑战包括从技术角度评估电子商务。大多数网络企业主忘记了他们需要从营销和战略的角度来看待他们的业务。与传统商业相比，在线商业创造了许多技术优势。该战略包括为客户和供应商建立一个清晰的商业路径，以满足和参与商业交易(Awa, ojiao， & Emecheta, 2015)。由于网上交易缺乏面对面的互动，他们需要日常平稳运行。上述情况要求供应商向客户提供有关产品和服务的相关信息。
Information about products and services should focus on the manufacturer, manufacture expire date, delivery, and weight per units. Online businesses and their suppliers should also establish links that would motivate efficient transferring and delivery of goods and services (Kwadwo et al., 2016). Suppliers need to establish long lasting relationships with their customers to motivate continuous business developments on their websites and mobile business applications and maintain customer loyalty. Suppliers should also evaluate transactions made on their online platforms. Easy and fast transactions maintain lasting relationships with the customers. Suppliers and online business owners should provide buyers with the best experience for them to continue to visit their websites and purchase their products.
One of the most common strategies for online businesses is the use of online security expertise to detect fraud over the internet. They have employed experts with the knowledge to ensure that they have enough firewalls and anti virus frameworks to eliminate warms and suspicious viruses. Online businesses know that they operate on environments with many hackers and criminals who focus on breaching and attacking their sites (Maity & Dass, 2014). To avoid expensive costs of fraud being on the rise, the businesses have ensured that they build frameworks that are relevant to the new hacking scenarios in the international community.
在线商务最常见的策略之一是使用在线安全专家来检测互联网上的欺诈行为。他们聘请了有知识的专家，以确保他们有足够的防火墙和反病毒框架，以消除温暖和可疑病毒。在线企业知道他们所处的环境中有许多黑客和罪犯，他们专注于入侵和攻击他们的网站(Maity & Dass, 2014)。为了避免昂贵的欺诈成本上升，企业已经确保他们建立了与国际社会新的黑客场景相关的框架。
Omni-channel strategy involves online businesses using a multichannel strategy to provide their customers with smoother shopping experience. The flexibility of online businesses has enabled customers to order and review products using either their phones, desktop, or telephone (Fang et al., 2014). It influences business development from all levels as customers have the opportunity to have their products at their will. An example of Omni-channel strategy would be Starbucks, customers receive reward points via an app or card every time they purchase an order. Nevertheless, customers can check the menu, send gifts, order beforehand and top up their cards at any time whether through website, mobile and coffeeshop.
Online businesses have also identified possible strategies of strengthening their relationships with their customers. They reward their customers repetitively and motivate them to remain loyal. An example of a loyalty program may comprise of the point system. In the program, customers have to spend more to get more. If a customer buys a product from a site such as Amazon, it results in acquiring points depending on the number of products they purchase (Jahanshahi, Khaksar, Paghaleh, & Pitamber, 2011). The second loyalty strategy includes the tier system which recognizes loyalty among customers and rewarding those who are the have the highest level of loyalty. The third loyalty strategy includes the value related program. It structures its business on the values of the customers which motivates them to become loyal. An example may include e-Bay defining its values by identifying their likes. E-Bay may create a program with points associated with the values of the customers. The value may be a toy. When one purchases many toys, then the surplus may be donated to charity. This means that customers will participate in the program to raise money for charity.
Impact of E-Commerce on the Supply Chain电子商务对供应链的影响
Supply chain logistics includes the suppliers, manufacturers and distributors involved in the process of bringing the products to consumers (Frazelle, 2002). E-commerce has changed the traditional supply chain models. E-commerce comes with many advantages in its development and implementation. The first advantage revolves around increasing supplies due to the demand created by suppliers in the market. E-commerce offers customers with a virtual platform that they visit using either their phones or personal computers. E-commerce platforms provide customers with a variety of products and services for their use. Their structures and frameworks support the aspect of creating more visits and having large volumes of products and services given to the market within the shortest period possible (Hair et al., 2015). Supply chain has been influencing suppliers to experience the reduced cost of production and also has been attracting many new customers. In addition, supply chain E-commerce has shortened the time required to demand products from the suppliers. For instance, e-Bay uses a Pull supply chain model where customers make a demand within a few clicks on an online platform and have their order delivered to them from the supplier. Due to their flexible status, a customer may order for a product from a market such as China and receive it in the United Kingdom within a week depending on the urgency of delivery. Customers are able to track their orders and have feedback on the products in the reviews section. Online business platforms also continue to provide diverse services to customers through ensuring quality. Therefore, using E-commerce serves as an advantage for any supplier who wants to create value in his business.
供应链物流包括将产品带给消费者的过程中所涉及的供应商、制造商和分销商(Frazelle, 2002)。电子商务改变了传统的供应链模式。电子商务的发展和实施具有许多优势。第一个优势是由于市场上供应商创造的需求而增加供应。电子商务为客户提供了一个虚拟平台，他们可以通过手机或个人电脑访问这个平台。电子商务平台为客户提供多种产品和服务供其使用。他们的结构和框架支持创造更多的访问，并在尽可能短的时间内向市场提供大量的产品和服务(Hair et al.， 2015)。供应链在影响供应商体验生产成本降低的同时，也吸引了许多新客户。此外，供应链电子商务缩短了向供应商索取产品的时间。例如，e-Bay使用拉式供应链模型，客户在在线平台上点击几下鼠标就可以提出需求，然后从供应商那里得到订单。由于它们的灵活状态，客户可以从中国等市场订购产品，并在一周内收到它，这取决于发货的紧急程度。顾客可以跟踪他们的订单，并在评论部分得到关于产品的反馈。在线商务平台也通过确保质量，继续为客户提供多样化的服务。因此，使用电子商务对任何想要在其业务中创造价值的供应商来说都是一种优势。
In summary, E-commerce is a growing phenomenon with diverse benefits in influencing positivity in many businesses across the globe. Suppliers and online business owners should be strategic in their establishment of online businesses. They should consider customer value as the central influencing factor in their business. They should provide the market with quality products and the needed information about their products and services. With the above information in mind, they should formulate favourite revenue models such as advertisement and affiliate marketing as a way to sustain their businesses.
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