本文是金融专业的Essay代写范例，题目是“Basic Income as a Developmental Aid（作为发展援助的基本收入）”，人类的寿命既会受到环境的影响，也会受到基因的影响，从受孕到出生，这种影响会一直持续下去。每一种刺激都会对大脑的发育产生影响，可能是积极的，也可能是消极的。早期的经历，如怀孕期间的压力，安抚哭闹的婴儿，忽视蹒跚学步的孩子，以及更多的例子对未来都有影响。由于个人、婚姻以及最重要的经济问题，父母忽视了这一阶段的生活。他们没有意识到自己在不知不觉中造成的危害。
The lifespan of humans can be both affected by the environment and their genetics from their time of conception and birth and it continues throughout. Every stimulus has an effect on the developing brain, it can be both, positive or negative. Early experiences such as stress during pregnancy, soothing a crying infant, neglecting a toddler and many more examples have implications in the future. Parents overlook this stage of life due to personal, marital, and most importantly financial issues that are exhausting their lives. They fail to recognize the harms they are causing unknowingly.
The goal of the Ontario Basic Income Pilot project was to take a new approach in the increasing poverty in the province. The increasing poverty not only affects us economically but it effects our future generation developmentally. The pilot was run in three locations and were divided in two groups. The first group consisted of 4,000 individuals receiving basic income while the second group that consisted of 2,000 individuals, did not receive basic income from the government.
The main objective of the Ontario Basic Income Pilot was to test how basic income might benefit low income households with food security, stress, anxiety, mental health, healthcare usage, housing stability, education, training, employment and labour market participation.
Even though basic income can be very expensive for governments, all individuals deserve a right to a basic income because then only parents can focus on children’s social and cognitive development due to less financial stress, and help their children reach optimum development.
Stress and Children压力和孩子
Stress, is the way our body reacts to danger or threat. It is best represented by ‘fight or flight’ reaction also known as stress response. As adults, we face multiple stressful situations in our daily lives such as financial insecurity, marital conflict, depression, to name a few. Adults are responsible for being reliable and supportive towards children because children are dependent on them.
However, due to financial stress, job insecurity, marital conflict, and, domestic violence, these are examples of how stress becomes part of many children’s life in low income families. The effects of stress occur even before birth. Chronic stress during pregnancy leads to improper fetal development, heightened physiological reactions, lower birth weight and lower metabolism (Thompson & Haskin, 2014). Severe chronic stress shows dysregulation in functions of cortisol, a stress hormone. A continuous high cortisol level results in high blood pressure, high heart rate and inflammation causing an undesirable immune system (Thompson & Haskin, 2014). Cortisol has dispersed effects on the brain which alters the nervous system’s reactivity and the immune system simultaneously.
Consequently, repeated chronic stress affects gene expression which results in physiological effects (Thompson & Haskin, 2014). Lastly, the mentioned stresses can result in children experiencing poor impulse control, difficulty in planning, paying attention in school, and lack of controlling their emotions.
因此，重复的慢性应激会影响基因表达，从而导致生理效应(Thompson & Haskin, 2014)。最后，上述的压力会导致孩子的冲动控制能力差，难以计划，在学校集中注意力，缺乏对情绪的控制。
Abused childhood on Economic Outcomes虐待儿童对经济的影响
Abuse and maltreatment during early stages of life development has a lifelong effect. Maltreatment can be in the form of malnourished meals, shortening meals, running out of food stamps, being behind rent and utility bills, losing social benefits, and immediately family members losing a job. Abused children become depressed during adolescence, which eventually leads to substance abuse and ultimately lacking in educational attainment. In some other cases, youth enter parenthood quite early and fall into financial strain during pregnancy and parenthood. According to studies in New York, children that suffered neglect and abuse in their childhood, are more likely to experience lower socioeconomic status in their adulthood (Henry, 2018). Social policies and family-friendly work polices can immensely help surpass appalling outcomes. In conclusion, all types of abuse are associated with the economic status of the parent (Henry, 2018).
在生命发展的早期阶段受到虐待和虐待会产生终生的影响。虐待的形式可能是食物营养不良、缩短食物供应、食品券用光、拖欠房租和水电费、失去社会福利，以及家庭成员立即失去工作。受虐待的儿童在青春期变得抑郁，最终导致药物滥用和缺乏教育。在其他一些情况下，青年很早就开始为人父母，并在怀孕和为人父母期间陷入财政紧张。根据纽约的研究，在童年时期遭受忽视和虐待的儿童，更有可能在成年后经历较低的社会经济地位(Henry, 2018)。社会政策和有利于家庭的工作政策可以极大地帮助消除可怕的后果。总之，所有类型的虐待都与父母的经济状况有关(Henry, 2018)。
Thus, we can agree that a secure basic income from the government can result in prevention of child maltreatment as there will be no financial strain to meet the child’s needs and can also break the cycle of poverty and improve socioeconomic status of an individual or families.
Parenting under Stress and Support在压力和支持下养育孩子
In the early 1990s, Ireland received an increase of asylum seekers primarily from Asia and Africa. To be able to cater new immigrants and their own struggling economy, Ireland introduced the Dispersal and Direct Provision Policy. The policy eliminated the chances for asylum seekers to apply for any social welfare (Ogbu, 2014). The new policy was designed in the means of meeting basic needs such as food and shelter. However, the living standards in such facilities were degrading and inhuman. Large families were cramped in a small room with several children. There was no privacy due to overcrowding. Most shelters had canteens which followed strict dinning times, poor quality of food and inconsiderate of any dietary restrictions. The Direct Provision Policy was criticized as inhumane and pernicious (Ogbu, 2014). The drawback of this policy was the fact that there was no cash transfer for the migrant families. For example, these migrant families were not able to afford school supplies, clothes, taking the bus, thus they were socially isolated by society due visible low socioeconomic status. Furthermore, parents faced great hardship such as inadequate housing, lack of recreational facilities for children, educational barriers, and financial stress all of which were caused by the Direct Provision Policy (Ogbu, 2014).
20世纪90年代初，爱尔兰接受了主要来自亚洲和非洲的寻求庇护者的增加。为了满足新移民和本国经济的需要，爱尔兰出台了“分散和直接供应政策”。该政策消除了寻求庇护者申请任何社会福利的机会(Ogbu, 2014)。新政策是以满足食物和住房等基本需要为目的的。然而，这些设施的生活水平是有辱人格和不人道的。大家庭和几个孩子挤在一个小房间里。由于过度拥挤，没有隐私。大多数庇护所都有食堂，食堂严格遵守用餐时间，食物质量很差，不考虑任何饮食限制。直接供应政策被批评为不人道和有害(Ogbu, 2014)。这项政策的缺点是移徙家庭得不到现金转移。例如，这些农民工家庭买不起学习用品、衣服、坐公交车，社会经济地位明显低下，因此被社会孤立。此外，父母面临着巨大的困难，如住房不足、儿童娱乐设施缺乏、教育障碍和经济压力，所有这些都是由直接提供政策造成的(Ogbu, 2014)。
These hardships led to poor mental health amongst parents and children. These migrant children grew up in the fear of not knowing about their future while experiencing prejudice due to their race, religion and culture. As a result of being discriminated these children grew up with inferiority complex. In this case, the parents’ effort to raise their children the best possible way they could, it just was not possible because every migrant was forced to live under the Direct Provision (Ogbu,2014). The living situations were not humane, but the most affect that had on children’s lives was the financial strain. The fact that they weren’t able to afford minimal costs had greater effects in their social development.
Micro Investment Perspective
The idea of Basic Income as a developmental policy tool, has been discussed around the world since the 1950s. For many years, basic income was considered Social Cash Transfer (SCT) as a tool for the less fortunate. Some of the best known SCT schemes are Brazil’s Bolsa Familia, Mexico’s Oportunidades, India’s National Rural Employment Guarantee and South Africa’s Old Age Pension and Child Support Grants (Eskelinen & Perkio, 2018). These schemes were either conditional cash transfer i.e. a guaranteed monthly income conditioned on child’s school attendance or targeted cash transfers provided to selected groups. Such SCT programs have demonstrated improved health, decreased extreme poverty and increased school attendance rates. However, these policies didn’t reach all individuals especially the very poor as they are focused on targeted groups, villages etc. The policies had discrepancies about eligibility or ineligibility for receiving STCs. In the article, Micro-investment perspective and the potential of the universal basic income, the author looks at Basic Income as a social policy rather than a SCT. It is argued that an unconditional modest monthly income will support families flourish as an addition to their regular income. The article suggested that BI should be universal and despite of any eligibility quotas. The Basic Income Pilot program was organized in Namibia and India, where 62% – 82% (depending on scale) and 30% of the population live below poverty line respectively (Eskelinen & Perkio, 2018). The program ran for two years in both developing countries. The data was compared according to labour, behavioural impacts, psychological impacts and investment in human capital. After two years, both projects showed similar outcomes. There was an increase in own initiative small businesses, increase in work hours and days, as well an increase in cumulative household income. There was also an rise in outside investment to generate more income, an increase in livestock ownership and producer goods. The basic income promoted self-employment and personal growth of an individual. Thus, the policy can be seen from a micro-investment perspective. The unconditional monthly income facilitated villagers to generate money, stabilized financial security and created self-employment opportunities. Most importantly, the biggest effect was the psychological impact of stability and hope in a household. They were much happier and empowered to work for a better life (Eskelinen & Perkio, 2018). In conclusion, Basic Income should not be undermined as “free money”, it should be viewed as a micro-investment for an ultimate goal in human capital, and therefore, government will have a bidirectional investment for their country’s future.
Business Response to Basic Income企业对基本收入的反应
The idea of BI was introduced in the 1970s by D. B Smith a businessman and a chartered accountant however, it was perceived negatively. Business owners were anxious about how the BI would affect their business. They were worried that employees would quit their jobs and live a lifestyle on from BI. There were many disagreements due to the lack of a concrete policy and misunderstandings of BI. BI was meant to be an unconditional monthly income for all to achieve a basic standard of living (Calnitsky, 2018). In 1970, Mincome was introduced in rural areas of Manitoba and Winnipeg. This pilot project was designed to assist the low-income individuals and families achieve a better standard of living on a monthly basis. However, this pilot was abruptly stopped and no final report on the effects of the additional income was produced. The main criticism of Mincome was the supposedly negative effect on local businesses, labour market and unwillingness to work. These claims cannot be proven due to the unfinished experiment and lack of data. If Mincome was to reintroduce today, the policy needs to carve concrete outlines of universality, eligibility and unconditionality. Most importantly, the government would have to find sources and funding for BI before exhausting the idea of higher taxes.
商业智能的概念是由D. B . Smith在20世纪70年代提出的，他是一名商人和一名注册会计师，然而，它被认为是负面的。企业主们对商业智能将如何影响他们的业务感到焦虑。他们担心员工会辞掉工作，靠商业内幕网过上生活。由于缺乏具体的政策和对BI的误解，出现了许多分歧。BI本应成为所有人的无条件月收入，以达到基本生活水平(Calnitsky, 2018)。1970年，Mincome被引入马尼托巴省和温尼伯省的农村地区。这个试点项目的目的是帮助低收入个人和家庭每月达到更好的生活水平。但是，这一试点突然停止，没有就额外收入的影响提出最后报告。对Mincome的主要批评是其对当地企业、劳动力市场和不愿工作的负面影响。由于实验未完成，数据不足，这些说法无法得到证实。如果Mincome要在今天重新引入，该政策需要确立普遍性、合格性和无条件性的具体轮廓。最重要的是，政府必须在耗尽提高税收的想法之前找到BI的来源和资金。
Ontario Basic Income Pilot Project
The Ontario Basic Income Pilot Project was introduced in April of 2017 to approach a new and sustainable way to reduce poverty by former Liberal Premier, Kathleen Wynne in Hamilton. The goal was to provide a basic monthly income regardless of employment status. Unfortunately, the project has been shut down by the newly elected Progressive Conservative government; thus we are not able to conclude any benefits of the project with the incomplete data available.
Nevertheless, we can conclude that the notion of providing a minimum monthly income to those in need and those living below poverty line compared to the rest of the province is not outrageous. The benefits of supporting parents in the most crucial developmental phase of their lives is beneficial to the society as a whole. When we are assisting parents financially we are also creating a safe environment for the children to be born and raised. We are advancing secure attachment between the mother and the child. This support, filters out the leading cause of stress by providing financial stability. When the parents of an unborn child are at peace with monthly income, they are more motivated and willing to work hard and grow their income by their own initiative. These children will be raised in a proper environment because all their developmental needs will be met. We should look at BI as an investment and developmental tool to empowering future generation. These effects will be transgenerational and bidirectional just like the pilot projects in India and Namibia (Eskelinen & Perkio, 2018). A Basic Income would alleviate the negative effects of financial stress and furthermore invest in our cognitive, psychological and physiological development.
然而，我们可以得出这样的结论:与该省其他地区相比，向有需要的人和生活在贫困线以下的人提供最低月收入的概念并不过分。在父母生命中最关键的发展阶段给予支持，对整个社会都有好处。当我们在经济上帮助父母的时候，我们也在为孩子的出生和成长创造一个安全的环境。我们正在推进母亲和孩子之间的安全依恋。这种支持，通过提供金融稳定来过滤压力的主要原因。当未出生孩子的父母每月收入稳定时，他们更有动力，更愿意努力工作，主动增加收入。这些孩子将在一个适当的环境中成长，因为他们所有的发展需要都将得到满足。我们应该把商业智能看作是增强下一代能力的一种投资和发展工具。与印度和纳米比亚的试点项目一样，这些影响将是跨代和双向的(Eskelinen & Perkio, 2018)。“基本收入”可以减轻财务压力的负面影响，并进一步投资于我们的认知、心理和生理发展。
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