本文是金融专业的Essay范例，题目是“Effects of Tariffs onInternational Trade（关税对国际贸易的影响）”，(William r cline 1990)提到，经济增长是涨潮，可以提升所有的船，而比较优势是推动一个国家增长的潜在力量，相对而言，比较优势在贸易政策中并不是一个新概念，它的存在可以追溯到由亚当·斯密1776年和大卫·李嘉图1817年提出的。这种比较优势的经典方面很大程度上是基于决定国际专业化的相对生产力差异(Bela Balassa 1989)。
1. Explain the Comparative Advantage in More Detail.更详细地解释比较优势。
(William r cline 1990) mentioned that Economic growth is the rising tide and can lift all the boats and comparative advantage is the underlying force that drives a countries growth, comparative advantage has relatively not been a new concept in trade policy, its existence can been traced back as it was introduced by (Adam smith 1776 and David Ricardo 1817) . The classical aspect of this of comparative advantage is largely based on relatively productivity differentials that determines international specialization (Bela Balassa 1989)
Comparative advantages in terms of productivity and exports: as mentioned by( Bela Balassa 1989) The concept of comparative advantage among countries can be determined through wage structure and capital labor ratios of various industries can contribute to productivity differentials
In words of Ricardo 1817 comparative advantage can be referred as the opportunity for the world to increase output of everything by specializing in goods and exports that comparative advantage
Other view of the concept of comparative advantage can be illustrated through revealed comparative advantage concept as mentioned by (Bela Balassa 1965) as the relative trade performances of individual countries in particular commodities. This reveals that assumptions of the commodity pattern of trade brings out the inter country differences in relative costs , this will help us in turn making an assumption of comparative advantages of trading countries (Bela Balassa 1989)
比较优势概念的其他观点可以通过(Bela Balassa 1965)所提到的揭示的比较优势概念来说明，作为个别国家在特定商品方面的相对贸易表现。这揭示了商品贸易模式的假设会导致国家间相对成本的差异，这反过来会帮助我们假设贸易国的比较优势(Bela Balassa 1989)
Exogenous comparative advantage is another concept in terms of international trade theory, and is relatively based on analysis of comparative endowment of natural resources among trading countries as mentioned by Ricardo (1817), (Heckscher (19190)
2. Describe how tariffs can restrict international trade?2. 描述关税如何限制国际贸易?
The composition of world trade usually has a trade creation or trade diversion effect, and is the major composition of the world trade matrix. The creation of common country market has a wide effect on trading which is further effect by the tariffs, according to (Bela Balasa 1989) common market countries trade with each other either for reduction in trade tariffs or because of diverted trade.
世界贸易的构成通常具有贸易创造或贸易转移效应，是世界贸易矩阵的主要组成部分。共同国家市场的创建对贸易有广泛的影响，这是进一步的影响关税，根据(Bela Balasa 1989)共同市场国家之间的贸易或减少贸易关税或因为转移贸易。
The concept of Tariffs has three basic to serve as a source of revenue, protect the domestic industries, and the punitive functions
From the perspective of small countries, tariffs can create a negative effect as they do not have an influence on the international prices, whereas the large countries that has an impact on international prices creating a positive effect
As mentioned by the (ministry of economy, trade and industry, Tokyo, in their report mentions of tariffs 2014) mentions of importance of binding, as sudden hike in the tariffs rates can create negative effect on the trade, As mentioned in their report Tokyo tariffs 2014 the Uruguay round the percent of industrial products that are subject to bound rates in Japan, U.S, The EU,is now about 100 percent.
正如日本经济产业省(ministry of economy, trade and industry, Tokyo，在他们的报告中提到了2014年的关税)提到了约束的重要性，因为突然提高关税税率会对贸易产生负面影响，正如他们在报告中提到的，2014年乌拉圭回合中，日本、美国和欧盟工业产品受约束税率的百分比现在约为100%。
The effect of tariff as mentioned by (Bureau et al. 2013) mentions of situation on which if the all the WTO members were to increase the tariffs to the maximum level allowed in accordance with their commitment, the will lead to maximum average level of tariffs from 3.6 percent to 12.9 percent and the world rate would decline by 11.9 percent
From the perspective of off shoring an activity of producing the goods in overseas, off shoring and in sourcing and outsourcing are affected by the tariffs (Federico J Diez 2014)
For example half of the United states imports happens in the multinational firms as told (Federico J Diez 2014) , his articles specify that the intra firm imports of the us are positively dependent on the us tariffs , and that the industries which have a lower tarffis shows relatively less intra firm imports
This graphs highlights that there is positive relation between US tariffs and the share of the US intra firm imports
3. The Possible impact of tariffs imposed by the US.3.美国征收关税的可能影响。
International trade can have a wider effect on the entire state of economy, as they are interdependent in terms of gdp and trade, In the beginning of 2018, the United States began to impose tariffs on all products that lead to global retaliation,of the effect can be seen in both the terms from the perspective effect on the US and on the world as a whole, the has been by far more of negative effect seen on their economy
Vandenbussche 2017 estimates that if the united states imports were increased to 15 percent in all sectors, it would lead to the EU having facing the loss of 240 000 or more, as mentioned the new tariffs rate have increased average US tariffs rate that were increased from 1.5 percent in the first 5 months of 2018 to 2.6 percent by October 2018 ,a 1 percent increase in average tariffs paid equals to 20 billion to 25 billion in additional tariff cost for us importers.
There has been a negative effect of tariff seen on the exports levels as, as the global retaliation from the US tariffs acts of 2018 on the 232 aluminium tariff rates, china, Mexico, turkey and EU as well had marked tariffs, this can be seen on the graphs mentioned
China had 1billon extra tariffs imposed on us exports in 2018 as mentioned in the report by (trade partnership worldwide 2018 )
The conventional framework study of theory of price impacts of tariffs by (Stephen J. Redding, and David E. Weinstein 2019 )in their research report mentions that the import value have declined as the tariffs were being imposed , which after the imposition of tariffs fell to 25 to 30
As mentioned by Stephen J Redding and avid Weinstein 2019 in the report, that the tariffs that the tariifs being levied on the imports were costing the us consumers and companies or the firms of various sizes that imports the goods from others as foreign goods an additional 3.2 billion dollars per month in added tax cost and another 1.4 billion per month deadweight welfare
4. Summarize the Issues Which Have Led to WTO Ruling总结导致WTO裁决的问题
The WTO formally authorised the united states to impose tariffs of up to 7.5 billion of imports on the EU in the long running case that started due to the differences between the both the Boeing and air bus from the benefits that have been receiving from illegal subsidies , However we access the WTO DSB report by the arbitrator following reason can be taken into consideration , as The first of June 2011, the dispute settlement body of the WTO , has taken into consideration the point given out by the appellate body for the case of the subsides , this report has been given out by the original report panel as modified by the appellate body”
As seen in the report the appellate body of the WTO DSB found that they were certain subsides provided by the European union that gave added advantage to the air bus that has caused the displacement and significant loss sales as mentioned the against the rules subsidies
“As mentioned in the report of the arbitrator on sec WT/DS316/ARB 2019 the report clearly mentions the imposition of tariffs can be majorly due to their non removal of subsides in the report by the WTO as found stated “The compliance panel found that the European Union and certain member States had "failed to comply with the DSB recommendations and rulings and, in particular, the obligation under Article 7.8 of the SCM Agreement 'to take appropriate steps to remove the adverse effects or … withdraw the subsidy”.
If were to look at reports o (DW 2019 )another reason that can been seen is the WTO ruling found that the EU had supported the Air bus with loan at subsidies zed loans for making of new aircraft and the loan was repayable in on delivery amount to illegal assistance. The other reason that can be attributed to the cause of the Wto ruling is the losses that US had to face due to illegal subsidies given out to the European air production company
5. Selected Product and Comment on the Reaction to Tariffs Imposition精选产品及对加征关税的反应评论
As mentioned in the financial times report by (Jim Brunsden 2019) according to the report US is the largest market for Scotch whisky with and 1 billon turnover, the export of the scotch whisky to the UK had been zero for the past 20 years, the effect of the trade can be specifically seen in the companies to mention of Mary Queen of Scots Enterprises (Kinross) Limited have to say that this will have effect as they are into whiskeys and beer with the tariffs they will lose a lot of business
正如(Jim Brunsden 2019)在《金融时报》的报道中提到的，根据报告，美国是苏格兰威士忌的最大市场，有10亿美元的营业额，苏格兰威士忌对英国的出口在过去20年里为零，贸易的影响可以具体地看到在公司提到苏格兰玛丽女王企业(金罗斯)有限公司不得不说，这将有影响，因为他们是威士忌和啤酒关税，他们将失去很多生意
As mentioned in the report by smith 2019in the courier newspaper, the single malt Scotch whisky represents more than half of the total value of UK products on the US Government tariff list which is amounting to over $460 million, which can have great effect on the market share.
In a report by the financial times 2019 the sales for whiskies to the us last year went to 1 billion, which is subject to tariffs , the tariffs will have a direct effect on the sales
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