With regards to talking about the criminal justice system and adolescents, there have been numerous cases that have had a huge effect on the juvenile justice system. The cases emerge from managing certain perspectives that originates from dealing with adolescents entering the framework. Since adolescents are altogether different from grown-ups, they need to manage them a specific way and a case by case premise. Adolescents are not regarded equivalent to grown-ups since adolescents are not created as grown-ups. The adolescents don’t generally have the foggiest idea what is directly from wrong and in some cases they don’t have the direction or great impacts around them to lead them the correct way. Therefore, this paper will discuss the effect of the juvenile sentencing policy on involved stakeholders, the role of the courts in creating or enforcing the policy, and recommendations to change the policy.
The effect of Juvenile Sentencing Policy on involved Stakeholders未成年人量刑政策对相关利益相关者的影响
A center capacity of the adolescent equity framework is to anticipate reoffending by young people who have carried out acts that would be viewed as wrongdoings whenever submitted by grown-ups. “Even if the court is an active partner in the broad prevention activities of the community, it will retain the primary responsibility for responding to adolescents who were not prevented from engaging in illegal behavior” (Bonnie, Johnson, Chemers,Schuck, 2013). The court will keep on deciding the sort and power of intercessions for the youths and families that precede it. Viability lies in the framework’s capacity to mediate with the correct immature wrongdoers and utilize the correct sort and measure of intercession. “The court is required to examine the methods for assessing adolescents at different points of contact with the system, and intervening in the adolescent lives, and to promote the core task of preventing reoffending” (Bonnie, Johnson, Chemers,Schuck, 2013).
青少年公平框架的一个核心能力是预测青少年的再犯罪行为，这些行为在成年人提交时将被视为错误行为。“即使法院在广泛的社区预防活动中是一个积极的合作伙伴，它也将保留对那些没有被阻止从事非法行为的青少年作出反应的主要责任”(Bonnie, Johnson, Chemers,Schuck, 2013)。法院将继续决定在此之前对青少年和家庭进行代祷的种类和权力。其可行性在于该框架能够与正确的不成熟的不法分子进行调解，并利用正确的调解种类和措施。“法院需要审查评估青少年在系统不同接触点的方法，并干预青少年的生活，并促进防止再次犯罪的核心任务”(Bonnie, Johnson, Chemers,Schuck, 2013)。
The role of the courts in creating or enforcing the policy法院在制定或执行政策方面的作用
Procedures were led with minimal open or network consciousness of how the adolescent court worked or what befell the youngsters who showed up before it. As opposed to binding the adolescent in prison with grown-ups, the early adolescent courts made a probation framework and separate recovery and treatment offices to furnish minors with supervision, direction, and instruction. “The U.S. Supreme Court determined the Constitution requires that youth charged with delinquency in juvenile court have many of the same due process rights guaranteed to adults accused of crimes, including the right to an attorney and the right to confront witnesses against the juvenile” (Juvenile Law Center, 2019). The Supreme Court stretched out extra sacred rights to youth, including the privilege to have the charges against the adolescent demonstrated past a sensible uncertainty and the privilege against twofold risk. States established components to move youth from adolescent to grown-up criminal court for preliminary and discipline. At times, these new laws burdened youngsters with the most serious sentences—demise and existence without the plausibility of parole. “Many of the new state laws also exposed youth to the dangers and potential abuses attributed to incarceration with adult offenders—much like they had experienced before the creation of the original juvenile court more than a century earlier” (Juvenile Law Center, 2019).
The present juvenile justice system still keeps up recovery as its essential objective and separates itself from the criminal equity framework in significant manners. “With few exceptions, in most states delinquency is defined as the commission of a criminal act by a child who was under the age of 18 at the time; most states also allow youth to remain under the supervision of the juvenile court until age 21” (Juvenile Law Center, 2019). In lieu of jail, adolescent court judges draw from a scope of legitimate choices to meet both the security needs of people in general and the treatment needs of the young, despite the fact that young might be bound in adolescent remedial offices that again and again look like grown-up penitentiaries and prisons, routinely forcing restorative practices, for example, isolation, strip look, and the utilization of concoction or mechanical restrictions. Youth are entitled instructive programming while imprisoned. Instructive and helpful programming might be given in the kid’s locale or the kid might be put out of the home in a private treatment program and requested to go to class on-grounds. In contrast to grown-up criminal procedures, adolescent court hearings are frequently shut to individuals from the general population and records in certain states stay secret, shielding youngsters from disgrace and guarantee outcomes when their records are openly accessible. In any case, adolescent records have progressively turned out to be increasingly available, and in many jurisdictions are not consequently fixed or canceled when the youngster turns into a grown-up.
Recommendations to change the policy建议改变政策
In the province of Tennessee, the adolescent equity conveyed approach suggestions to ensure open security and contain costs by concentrating framework assets on the most noteworthy hazard youth. Tennessee additionally prescribed averting further adolescent equity framework inclusion of lower level youth through early reaction; and supporting powerful practices however proceeded with oversight and reinvestment in a more grounded continuum of proof based administrations statewide. “The Coalition for Juvenile Justice (CJJ) – comprising more than 12,000 juvenile justice practitioners, law enforcement officials, youth development experts, community service providers, youth, families, and legislators in all U.S. states, territories and the District of Columbia – has prepared these policy recommendations to support prevention, early intervention, family empowerment, and developmentally-appropriate approaches to reclaim and rebuild the lives of youth who come into contact with the juvenile justice system” (CJJ, 2019). The suggestion is to reestablish appointments for the adolescent equity programs, guarantee proper usage and oversight of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act, dispose of the legitimate court request, reauthorize the runaway and destitute youth act, and expand on demonstrated methodologies to build school commitment and accomplishment for all young and avoid the conflation of school discipline approach and adolescent equity framework sanctions, otherwise called the “school-to-jail pipeline;”. Another change to the strategy is to guarantee that dealt youth are treated as survivors as opposed to being condemned, and make projects to protect the children and networks.
As this finishes up the adolescent condemning and arrangement talk, we have discovered that rebuffing adolescents isn’t generally the best alternatives. The objective of adolescent equity framework depends on recovery. For example, adolescents ought not to be condemned to death if under the age 18 and can’t be given the sentences of existence without the chance for further appeal since the person is considers these disciplines merciless and uncommon for adolescents. On the off chance that the framework can restore the adolescents and give the person in question devices they may require, they can have another opportunity at completely changing themselves around.
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