The Sydney Opera House has been knowing as the architectural masterpiece in the worldwide of the twentieth century and also an iconic landmark nationally and globally (DEE, 2016; Unesco, 2006). However, the construction project process behind the masterpiece building is a long story. The purpose of this essay is to investigate the triple constraints in the project management evaluation. The Sydney Opera House project management process will be examined as an example by using traditional triple constraints which include cost, time and scope. The distinction between project success and project management success will also be discussed. Further, other variables that may impact project management success will also be analyzed.
Project sucess and triple constraint项目成功和三重约束
Triple constraints refer to the list of primary requirements in the project management process which includes project scope, time and costs management. These three factors are also used to measure project management success(Brewer and Dittman 2010, p. 14 as cited in Cuellar, M. ,2010). Project scope is discussed as the main component which can drive the time and cost of the project management(Aminzadeh, M., Mojaveri, H. S., & Shafeiha, S. ,2013).
A welled defined project scope investigation will break the whole project into smaller pieces which can be easily managed(Aminzadeh, M., Mojaveri, H. S., & Shafeiha, S. ,2013).The project scope analysis will allow further investigation regarding the time frames and project budget changes during the project development process (Aminzadeh, M., Mojaveri, H. S., & Shafeiha, S. ,2013). According to the research literature, most of the project scope was not well identified at the beginning of the IT projects and the most arguable reason is that the business domain was not well acknowledged(Aminzadeh, M., Mojaveri, H. S., & Shafeiha, S. ,2013). Other researchers argue that clients should take part of the responsibility for the poorly defined project scope as they may not provide cleary describe functionality in the project initiation stage (Aminzadeh, M., Mojaveri, H. S., & Shafeiha, S. ,2013).
一个明确定义的项目范围调查将把整个项目分解成易于管理的小块(Aminzadeh, M.， Mojaveri, H. S.， & Shafeiha, S.， 2013)。项目范围分析将允许进一步调查项目开发过程中的时间框架和项目预算变化(Aminzadeh, M.， Mojaveri, H. S.， & Shafeiha, S.， 2013)。根据研究文献，大多数项目范围在IT项目开始时没有很好地确定，最有争议的原因是业务领域没有得到很好的认可(Aminzadeh, M.， Mojaveri, H. S.， & Shafeiha, S.， 2013)。其他研究人员认为，客户应该为定义不佳的项目范围承担部分责任，因为他们可能无法在项目启动阶段提供清晰的功能描述(Aminzadeh, M.， Mojaveri, H. S.， & Shafeiha, S.， 2013)。
Capturing Scope 捕捉范围
The scope is an important part of the product implementation strategy and the project management efficiency can be increased if the project scope was reached( Mirza, M. N., Pourzolfaghar, Z., & Shahnazari, M. ,2013). There are a few steps for identifying the project scope( Mirza, M. N., Pourzolfaghar, Z., & Shahnazari, M. ,2013).
Identify Requirement 确定需求
The project requirement should not change over time once it was determined and it will be hard to produce a product with moving target and changing goal( Mirza, M. N., Pourzolfaghar, Z., & Shahnazari, M. ,2013). Therefore, it is important to focus on real needs and investment. The main reason which leads to the project failures includes incomplete requirements, moving target requirements and unclear project objects( Mirza, M. N., Pourzolfaghar, Z., & Shahnazari, M. ,2013).. Moreover, the welled documented project scope is also important to make project success ( Mirza, M. N., Pourzolfaghar, Z., & Shahnazari, M. ,2013). Sydney opera house project management can be identified as failed on scope management as the project plan and project scope have never been finalized in the initial stage of the project. The design of Utzon was at a very schematic and rudimentary level, which meant uncertainty of scope and quality of the whole project. Not only did the project launch with no finalized plans to follow, but the client also changed the floor plan from two theaters to four shortly after construction began. Compounding the chaos that followed was the lack of a project manager.
一旦确定了项目需求，就不应该随着时间的推移而改变，并且很难生产出目标移动和目标变化的产品(Mirza, M. N.， Pourzolfaghar, Z.， & Shahnazari, M.，2013)。因此，关注实际需求和投资是很重要的。导致项目失败的主要原因包括需求不完整、目标需求移动和项目对象不明确(Mirza, M. N.， Pourzolfaghar, Z.， & Shahnazari, M.，2013)..此外，充分记录的项目范围对项目的成功也很重要(Mirza, M. N.， Pourzolfaghar, Z.， & Shahnazari, M.，2013)。悉尼歌剧院项目管理在项目初期没有确定项目计划和项目范围，在项目范围管理上是失败的。伍重的设计处于非常初级的原理图水平，这意味着整个项目的范围和质量都不确定。项目不仅在没有最终计划的情况下启动，而且在施工开始后不久，客户还将平面图从两个剧院更改为四个。项目经理的缺乏加剧了随后的混乱。
Identify Stakeholder 识别利益相关者
When writing project requirements, Stakeholders should be on the priority to focus. Users and customers should be considered as the essential part of the stakeholders so it is important to know the real needs of the stakeholders and satisfied them. The key stakeholders should be involved in the project scope defined process and their needs should be considered during the whole project development process( Mirza, M. N., Pourzolfaghar, Z., & Shahnazari, M. ,2013).
Robert W. Poole, Jr. & Peter Samuel  carried out through analysis of Boston’s Big Dig Megaproject along with other transportation projects. They observed that the major source of cost increases in mega-projects is project creep, adding unanticipated elements and unforeseen complexity( Mirza, M. N., Pourzolfaghar, Z., & Shahnazari, M. ,2013).
For making a project successful, keeping good communication with the stakeholder is important. The dissatisfaction will impact the project negatively. Larsen and Grey(2011) state that project managers can use the communication plan as a tool to manage information distribution appropriately and make communication effective. In the project management process of Sydney Opera House, there is no communication plan was set up or policy which helps the project manager to communicate with the stakeholders properly. According to Sykes, the communication between Utzon and the engineering firm OVE Arup& Partners are frustrated as Utzon was not willing to share his idea with his design as he has higher expectations on the solution. The design itself was facing problems and the lakeness of the communication make the project going slowly. Ulzon also refused to have a phone in his office which makes the communication harder. Utzon was accused of poor cooperation by the engineers and Utzon believes that the engineer team lack of consultation.
为了使项目成功，与项目干系人保持良好的沟通是很重要的。不满意将对项目产生负面影响。Larsen和Grey(2011)指出，项目经理可以将沟通计划作为一种工具，适当地管理信息分发，使沟通有效。在悉尼歌剧院的项目管理过程中，没有建立沟通计划或政策，这有助于项目经理与干系人进行正确的沟通。据赛克斯说，伍重和工程公司OVE Arup& Partners之间的沟通是失败的，因为伍重不愿意分享他的设计想法，因为他对解决方案有更高的期望。设计本身也面临着问题，缺乏沟通使得项目进展缓慢。乌尔重还拒绝在他的办公室里安装电话，这使得沟通更加困难。伍重被工程师指责不配合，伍重认为工程师团队缺乏咨询。
Sydney Opera house project management was failed in stakeholder management because of the poor communication between Utzon and the engineering team. The main reason behind this is that Ulzon didn’t identify the engineer as an important stakeholder in the project and he barely take their advice seriously and make an effort to communicate with them.
Identify Project Drivers 识别项目的司机
Project results can be determined by outside factors which include regulation, laws, standard and other restrictions. The existing system, equipment, the software was usually set as the major driver by many companies, and security and safety were usually be considered as secondary concerns. All drivers are important for a project and the project manager should identify, track and analyze all of the drivers( Mirza, M. N., Pourzolfaghar, Z., & Shahnazari, M. ,2013). The regulation and standard changes can be another reason for the scope of management failure in the Sydney Opera house case. The new local government was elected in 1965 and the constructing authority changed as well. Ulzon already agrees to demand with the previous government and this agreement was abandoned when the new government takes control. Ulzon failed to identify the drivers of the new government and The new minister accuse Ulzon of “providing confident assurances and then failing to meet the expectations” (Woolley, 2010, p. 15). (paper1)
Examining the Scope Statement 检查范围声明
The scope statement can be explained as the tool to justify the project deliverables in high levels and project objective quantities (Mirza, M. N., Pourzolfaghar, Z., & Shahnazari, M. ,2013). According to the study of the Construction Industry Institute (CII), a welled defined scope will lead the project to success as it will help to save the budget by improving project predictability ( Mirza, M. N., Pourzolfaghar, Z., & Shahnazari, M. ,2013). However, it is impossible to exam the scope statement for Ulzon as the project scope keeps changing and even the project authority changed.
Time and budget 时间及预算
There is no set time frame in the Sydney opera house project which leads to the cost overruns. Time and costs were both important in the project management process and these two factors are related to each other. The project budget needs to be adjusted when the time was delayed to meet the quality requirement of a project. Sydney opera house project was not completed phase two in 1966 which is four years after the proposed completion date. Three Australian engineers take over the project after Utzon left and they complete phase two in 1967. When the project was finally completed in 1973, the project cost $102 million, almost fifteen times the plan budget.
Project Success and Project Management Sucess项目成功和项目管理成功
One way to evaluate project management success is to define if the project objectives were achieved. Therefore, project management will be defined as successful if the project was finished on time and within budget. The project will be identified as success traditionally if it meets the requirements of the high-level management and the clients on cost, time, and scope performance (Larson and Gray 2011, p. 106 as cited in Cuellar, M. ,2010). Sydney Opera House can be defined as failed by using the traditional definition of project management success as the project failed on the finish on time, within budget and the scope requirements.
The definition of project success is more complicated than project management success. Baccarini(1999) states that Project success and project management success evaluation are two distinctive definitions. The project management process is more focused on the project management process itself and the triple constraints play an important role in it. On the other hand, Project success is more focused on the final deliveries or the accomplished works. Sydney Opera House was argued as a project-level success project but failed at the project management level completely( Nixon, Harrington, and Parker,2012). The project management level failed was because the project didn’t finish on the initial completion date and highly exceeded on cost. However, the questioning of the roles projects to time, quality, budget to define a project is increasing. Baccarini(1991) argues that project quality should be evaluated in a bigger picture of the project management process. Baccarini(1991) suggests that more factors should be considered when evaluating a project and the traditional triangle should be extended. Therefore, the Sydney Opera house project management should be evaluated by involving more affecting factors. In the product and project perspective, the project is successful at the product level. Sydney Opera House was known as the national landmark building and the building influenced the world both architecturally and culturally. The building has become the most popular cultural institution and attracts two million visitors.
3.0 Reflection and conclusion3.0反思与结论
Sydney Opera House is a typical case that failed on project management level and success on the project level. However, the traditional way to define project management success was questioned in today’s time management context. In her discourse “Avoiding the Successful Failure”, Bourne (2007) believes that there are other factors which can impact the project management other than triple constraintts.
The new technology makes time, cost and scope management more easily and makes the project management under control easily. The negative impact from the triple constrains can be prevented and reduced by the project management software. The project manager can easily track the project schedule and indicate the project performance. Most of the issues occrued on Sydney Opera House project management may no longer be an issue today. However, other factors can impact the project potentially like poor communication with the stakeholders, not a well-defined scope and unclear requirements.
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